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1995 Argentine general election

1995 Argentine general election

Presidential election
← 1989 14 May 1995 1999 →
Registered22,178,201
Turnout82.08%
 
Nominee Carlos Saúl Menem José Octavio Bordón Horacio Massaccesi
Party PJ PAIS UCR
Alliance Justicialist Front FREPASO UCR + MID
Running mate Carlos Ruckauf Carlos Álvarez Antonio María Hernández
States carried 23 CABA 0
Popular vote 8,687,511 5,096,104 2,956,137
Percentage 49.94% 29.30% 16.99%

Most voted party by province and department

President before election

Carlos Menem
Justicialist Party

Elected President

Carlos Menem
Justicialist Party

Legislative election
← 1993 14 May 1995 1997 →

130 of 257 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
Turnout82.08%
Party % Seats +/–
Chamber of Deputies
Justicialist Party

49.38% 75 +5
Radical Civic Union

21.94% 27 −14
Solidary Country Front

21.23% 21 +16
Movement for Dignity and Independence

1.84% 0 −4
Democratic Progressive Party

0.94% 1 0
Autonomist - Liberal - Democratic Progressive

0.93% 2 0
Others

3.74% 4 0
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.

The Argentine general election of 1995 was held on 14 May. Voters chose both the President and their legislators and with a turnout of 82.1%.

Background

The Justicialist Party had been founded in 1945 by Juan Perón, largely on the promise of greater self-reliance, increased state ownership in the economy and a shift in national policy to benefit "the other half" of Argentine society. Taking office on Perón's ticket in 1989 amid the worst crisis in a hundred years, President Carlos Menem had begun the systematic sell-off of Argentina's array of State enterprises, which had produced nearly half the nation's goods and services. Following 18 months of very mixed results, in February 1991 Menem reached out to his Foreign Minister, Domingo Cavallo, whose experience as an economist included a brief but largely positive stint as the nation's Central Bank president in 1982. His introduction of a fixed exchange rate via his Convertibility Plan led to sharp drops in interest rates and inflation, though the sudden recovery and Cavallo's fixed exchange rate (converted to 1 peso per dollar in 1992) led to a fivefold jump in imports (far outpacing the flush growth in demand). A wave of layoffs after 1992 created a tense labor climate often worsened by the flamboyant Menem, who also diluted basic labor laws, leading to less overtime pay and increasing unemployment and underemployment. Private-sector lay-offs, dismissed as a natural consequence of recovering productivity (which had not risen in 20 years), added to mounting state enterprise and government layoffs, leading to a rise in unemployment from 7% in 1992 to 12% by 1994 (after GDP had leapt by a third in just four years). In this policy irony lay the Justicialists' greatest weakness ahead of the 1995 election.[1]

The election itself created yet another unexpected turn. Barred from immediate reelection by the 1853 Argentine Constitution, President Menem reached out to his predecessor and head of the embattled centrist Radical Civic Union (UCR), Raúl Alfonsín. Meeting at the presidential residence in Olivos in November 1993 to negotiate an extensive amendment of the Constitution, the two leaders came to an agreement of mutual benefit: Alfonsín obtained the direct election of the mayor of (UCR-leaning) Buenos Aires (depriving the presidency of a right held since 1880 to appoint its mayor) and an expansion in the Argentine Senate from 48 to 72 members (3 per province), which would assure the runner-up (presumably the UCR) the third seat; Menem, in return, secured his right to run for reelection.[1][2]

Both men faced dissension in their parties' ranks after the 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution was unveiled in August. Alfonsín's candidate in the UCR primaries, Río Negro Province Governor Horacio Massaccesi, defeated Federico Storani and Rodolfo Terragno for the nomination over their opposition to the Olivos Pact. Menem, in turn, had lost a number of Congressmen from his party after Carlos Álvarez led a center-left splinter group in revolt over Menem's privatizations and unchecked corruption. His Frente Grande had become influential after merging with fellow ex-Peronist José Octavio Bordón in 1994, ahead of the May 14, 1995, election date. Bordón, a popular Mendoza Province Senator was a centrist who also lent the leftist Álvarez, whose strength was in Buenos Aires, appeal in Argentina's hinterland (which had benefited least from the 1991-94 boom). They combined forces to create the FREPASO, adding Argentina's struggling Socialists.[3]

The new constitutional rules governing elections provided opportunities for parties stuck in 2nd or 3rd place in the polls, as the Frepaso and UCR were, respectively. Bypassing the previous electoral college system, a victory by direct proportional voting could be achieved by either through a run-off election (in case no candidate obtained a clear majority). The Justicialists enjoyed a clear advantage, given polls and their control of both chambers of Congress; but cracks began to develop as 1994 drew to a close. Local prosperity, the guarantor of Menem's presumptive victory, was shaken by the Mexican peso crisis in December. Dependent on foreign investment to maintain its central bank reserves (which fell by US$6 billion in days), its sudden scarcity led to a wave of capital flight out of Buenos Aires' growing banks and to an unforeseen recession. Concurrent revelations of gross corruption surrounding the purchase of IBM computers for the antiquated National Bank of Argentina (the nation's largest), further added to the opposition's hopes that a runoff might still be needed in May.[3]

Between them, the Frepaso enjoyed the advantage. Sporting charismatic leadership, they hoped to displace the UCR (Argentina's oldest existing party) from its role as the Peronists' chief opposition. The UCR had been badly tarnished by President Raúl Alfonsín's chaotic 1983-89 term, though its candidate, Río Negro Province Governor Horacio Massaccesi, had earned international renown in 1991 for storming a local National Bank branch in search of needed funds being retained by the federal government for what seemed to be political reasons.[4] The UCR, moreover, still had its name recognition and organized, if frayed political machinery, controlled by Alfonsín and popular Córdoba Province Governor Eduardo Angeloz. As election day drew near, analysts debated not only the possibility of a runoff, but also which of the two opposition parties would face Menem in such a case.[5]

Ultimately, corruption and the sudden recession were not enough to keep the unflappable Menem from a first-round victory. The big tent Justicialist Party, allied in many districts to local parties, formed an electoral front which obtained almost half of the total vote. The Frepaso garnered nearly 30%, and though their hopes for a runoff were stymied, this was considered a very good result for a party assembled only the previous year. Frepaso, however, came ahead in the presidential race only in two districts: Santa Fe Province and the city of Buenos Aires. The UCR, a major political force in Argentina since the beginning of the 20th century, came in third with only 17% of the vote.[6]

All provinces except Corrientes also elected governors during 1995; several but not all provinces conducted their elections on the same date as the national one. A number of municipalities elected legislative officials (concejales) and in some cases also a mayor. The Justicialists obtained 14 of the 23 governorships and the UCR, 5. Among Argentina's larger cities, only Bahía Blanca and Mar del Plata kept a UCR mayor (though Buenos Aires would elect one in 1996).[7][8]

The legislative elections, where half the seats in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies were contested, saw the Justicialists obtain a large majority (more votes that its two closest opponents combined), losing in only 5 districts out of 24; of the 130 seats in play, the secured 68, the UCR, 28 seats, and Frepaso obtained 20 seats. The UCR lost 15 and, on a district basis, they did not get the majority vote in any district. The Frepaso won in the city of Buenos Aires and picked up 12 seats. Local parties won in two districts (Salta Province and Neuquén Province). The newly expanded Argentine Senate, as Menem and Alfonsín had intended, benefited both parties.[7][8]

Candidates for president

Results

President

Presidential
candidate
Vice Presidential
candidate
Party Votes %
Carlos Menem Carlos Ruckauf Total Menem - Ruckauf 8,687,511 49.94
Justicialist Party (PJ) 6,300,057 36.22
Justicialist Front 691,481 3.98
Union of the Democratic Centre (UCEDE) 456,594 2.62
Popular Justicialist Front (FREJUPO) 382,447 2.20
Front of Hope 215,531 1.24
Justicialist Front for Victory 129,290 0.74
Ethical Recovery Front 103,014 0.59
Front for Change 99,230 0.57
Retirees Front 74,561 0.43
Salta Renewal Party (PARES) 73,202 0.42
Chaco Action (ACHA) 49,821 0.29
Federal Party of Buenos Aires City (PF) 48,287 0.28
Blockist Party (PB) 32,841 0.19
Jujuy People's Movement (MPJ) 22,386 0.13
Movement for Jujuy Political Autonomy 4,935 0.03
Chubut Popular Movement 3,642 0.02
José Octavio Bordón Carlos Álvarez Total Bordón - Álvarez 5,096,104 29.30
Solidary Country Front (FREPASO) 4,934,989 28.37
Broad Front Crusade 57,311 0.33
Broad Front (FG) 54,008 0.31
PAIS Front 28,382 0.16
Left Movement 21,414 0.12
Horacio Massaccesi Antonio María Hernández Total Massaccesi - Hernández 2,956,137 16.99
Radical Civic Union (UCR) 2,773,037 15.94
Alliance for Patagonia 84,172 0.48
Radical Civic Union - Integration and Development Movement 57,082 0.33
Integration and Development Movement (MID) 30,588 0.18
Federal Party of Córdoba (PF) 11,258 0.06
Aldo Rico Julio César Fernández Pezzano Total Rico - Fernández Pezzano 310,069 1.78
Movement for Dignity and Independence (MODIN) 291,306 1.67
Republican Force of Jujuy (FR) 15,602 0.09
Independence Party 3,161 0.02
Fernando Solanas Carlos Imizcoz Southern Alliance 71,625 0.41
Fernando López de Zavalía Pedro Benejam Republican Force of Tucumán (FR) 64,007 0.37
Luis Zamora Silvia Susana Díaz Workers' Socialist Movement (MST) 45,973 0.26
Jorge Altamira Norma Graciela Molle Total Altamira - Molle 32,299 0.19
Workers' Unit Front - Workers' Party 28,329 0.16
Workers' Party (PO) 2,789 0.02
Workers' Unit Front 1,181 0.01
Mario Mazzitelli Alberto Raúl Fonseca Authentic Socialist Party (PSA) 32,174 0.18
Lía Méndez Liliana Beatriz Ambrosio Humanist Party (PH) 31,203 0.18
Alcides Christiansen José Alberto Montes Movement for Socialism - Socialist Workers' Party (MAS - PTS) 27,643 0.16
Humberto Tumini Jorge Emilio Reyna Free Homeland 24,326 0.14
Amílcar Santucho Irma Antognazzi Total Santucho - Antognazzi 13,066 0.08
Anti-Imperialist Popular Democratic Movement (MODEPA) 12,919 0.07
Solidarity 147 0.00
Ricardo Alberto Paz[note 1] Adolfo González Chávez Front for Patriotic Coincidence (FRECOPA) 3,147 0.02
Total 17,395,284 100
Positive votes 17,395,284 95.56
Blank votes 653,443 3.59
Invalid votes 125,112 0.69
Tally sheet differences 30,085 0.16
Total votes 18,203,924 100
Registered voters/turnout 22,178,201 82.08
Sources:[9][10]

Chamber of Deputies

Party Votes % Seats won Total seats
Justicialist Front (PJ) 8,371,132 49.38 75 145
Radical Civic Union (UCR) 3,718,920 21.94 27 68
Solidary Country Front (FREPASO) 3.599.764 21.23 21 26
Movement for Dignity and Independence (MODIN) 311,987 1.84 4
Democratic Progressive Party (PDP) 158,857 0.94 1 2
Autonomist - Liberal - Democratic Progressive 158,269 0.93 2 4
Republican Force (FR) 119,546 0.71 1 2
Democratic Party of Mendoza (PD) 114,581 0.68 1 2
Southern Alliance 83,434 0.49
Neuquén People's Movement (MPN) 60,781 0.36 1 2
Authentic Socialist Party (PSA) 38,909 0.23
Workers' Socialist Movement (MST) 31,062 0.18
Solidarity 21,718 0.13
Workers' Party (PO) 27,295 0.16
Free Homeland 19,685 0.12
Movement for Socialism - Socialist Workers' Party (MAS - PTS) 21,925 0.13
Renewal Party of the Buenos Aires Province 13,414 0.08
Blue and White Movement 12,091 0.07
Solidarity Confederation 12,064 0.07
Labor Party 10,486 0.06
Fueguian People's Movement (MOPOF) 7,683 0.05 1 2
Humanist Party (PH) 7,877 0.05
Centrist Front 4,437 0.03
Independent Call 4,257 0.03
Order and Justice 3,367 0.02
Chubut Action Party (PACH) 3,313 0.02
Intransigent Party (PI) 2,484 0.01
Christian Democratic Party (PDC) 2,255 0.01
Provincial Union 2,171 0.01
Open Policy for Social Integrity - Great Movement of Hope 1,616 0.01
Catamarca Unity Party 1,271 0.01
Jujuy Solidarity 1,258 0.01
Front for Patriotic Awareness (FRECOPA) 1,038 0.01
Popular Union (UP) 872 0.01
Salta Labor Party 752 0.00
Front of Hope (Catamarca) 654 0.00
Corrientes Action 581 0.00
Autonomist Party 562 0.00
Santa Cruz Unity Movement 528 0.00
Solidarity Movement 411 0.00
Modernist Force 404 0.00
Social Democratic Party (PSODE) 112 0.00
Total 16,953,823 100 130 257
Positive votes 16,953,823 93.14
Blank votes 1,087,334 5.97
Invalid votes 122,995 0.68
Tally sheet differences 38,500 0.21
Total votes 18,202,652 100
Registered voters/turnout 22,177,954 82.08
Sources:[11][10]

Results by province

Province PJ UCR FREPASO Others
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Buenos Aires 3,385,366 52.54 20 1,157,597 17.97 6 1,549,750 24.05 9 350,859 5.45
Buenos Aires City 804,419 39.94 4 408,537 20.28 3 704,720 34.99 5 96,455 4.79
Catamarca 58,720 51.36 1 37,695 32.97 14,734 12.89 1 3,190 2.79
Chaco 231,977 59.94 2 122,238 31.59 1 28,308 7.31 4,478 1.16
Chubut 73,001 49.48 2 57,211 38.78 1 12,280 8.32 5,035 3.41
Córdoba 695,125 46.67 4 585,612 39.31 4 184,957 12.42 1 23,879 1.60
Corrientes 123,398 32.28 2 52,485 13.73 40,362 10.56 166,012 43.43 2
Entre Ríos 269,578 47.35 2 211,686 37.18 2 72,242 12.69 15,846 2.78
Formosa 82,498 49.28 2 56,331 33.65 1 23,348 13.95 5,231 3.12
Jujuy 103,916 50.85 2 49,358 24.15 1 26,243 12.84 24,849 12.16
La Pampa 76,446 50.66 2 37,518 24.86 30,634 20.30 6,311 4.18
La Rioja 83,004 76.70 3 21,402 19.78 2,567 2.37 1,247 1.15
Mendoza 340,493 46.14 2 125,672 17.03 1 143,670 19.47 1 128,185 17.37 1
Misiones 178,162 50.26 2 143,519 40.49 2 24,207 6.83 8,611 2.43
Neuquén 48,032 27.39 1 20,940 11.94 39,201 22.35 67,216 38.32 1
Río Negro 94,058 44.05 2 92,047 43.11 1 24,739 11.59 2,695 1.26
Salta 272,224 71.15 4 55,623 14.54 38,116 9.96 16,647 4.35
San Juan 193,194 72.14 3 22,498 8.40 50,554 18.88 1,574 0.59
San Luis 88,884 61.16 2 29,038 19.98 24,700 17.00 2,710 1.86
Santa Cruz 37,514 58.76 2 14,706 23.03 9,613 15.06 2,009 3.15
Santa Fe 679,647 43.60 4 257,880 16.54 2 430,205 27.60 3 191,243 12.27 1
Santiago del Estero 202,323 72.00 3 62,864 22.37 1 13,687 4.87 2,132 0.76
Tierra del Fuego 15,519 45.43 2 7,566 22.15 2,573 7.53 8,505 24.90 1
Tucumán 233,634 41.72 2 88,897 15.88 1 108,354 19.35 1 129,088 23.05 1
Total 8,371,132 49.38 75 3,718,920 21.94 27 3,599,764 21.23 21 1,264,007 7.46 7

Governors

Election of Provincial Governors
Positions to be elected: 22 (the City of Buenos Aires in 1996 and Corrientes in 1997)
Province Elected Party Map
Buenos Aires Eduardo Duhalde R Partido Justicialista
Federal Capital (1996) Fernando de la Rúa Unión Cívica Radical
Catamarca Arnoldo Aníbal Castillo R Unión Cívica Radical-Frente Cívico y Social
Chaco Ángel Rozas Unión Cívica Radical
Chubut Carlos Maestro R Unión Cívica Radical
Córdoba Ramón Mestre Unión Cívica Radical
Entre Ríos Jorge Pedro Busti Partido Justicialista
Formosa Gildo Insfrán Partido Justicialista
Jujuy Guillermo Snopek Partido Justicialista
La Pampa Rubén Marín R Partido Justicialista
La Rioja Ángel Maza Partido Justicialista
Mendoza Arturo Lafalla Partido Justicialista
Misiones Ramón Puerta R Partido Justicialista
Neuquén Felipe Sapag Movimiento Popular Neuquino
Río Negro Pablo Verani Unión Cívica Radical
Salta Juan Carlos Romero Partido Justicialista
San Juan Jorge Escobar R Partido Justicialista
San Luis Adolfo Rodríguez Saá R Partido Justicialista
Santa Cruz Néstor Kirchner R Partido Justicialista
Santa Fe Jorge Obeid Partido Justicialista
Santiago del Estero Carlos Juárez Partido Justicialista
Tierra del Fuego José Arturo Estabillo R Movimiento Popular Fueguino
Tucumán Antonio Domingo Bussi Fuerza Republicana
R: Re-elected

Notes

  1. ^ Juan Carlos Onganía, former dictator between 1966 and 1970, was originally a candidate for president while Ricardo Alberto Paz was a candidate for vice president. Before the election Onganía retired from the race due to health reasons, although his name still appeared on the ballot. Died three weeks after the election.

References

  1. ^ a b Todo Argentina: Menem (in Spanish)
  2. ^ Todo Argentina: 1993 (in Spanish)
  3. ^ a b Todo Argentina: 1994 (in Spanish)
  4. ^ Clarín (in Spanish)
  5. ^ La Nación. May 13, 1995.
  6. ^ Todo Argentina: 1995
  7. ^ a b Andy Tow's Electoral Atlas of Argentina Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b Microsemanario 195 (in Spanish)
  9. ^ "Recorriendo las Elecciones de 1983 a 2013 - Presidenciales". Dirección Nacional Electoral. Archived from the original on 2017-09-28. Retrieved 2017-09-27.
  10. ^ a b "Elecciones Nacionales ESCRUTINIO DEFINITIVO 1995" (PDF). Ministry of the Interior. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Recorriendo las Elecciones de 1983 a 2013 - Diputados Nacionales". Dirección Nacional Electoral. Archived from the original on 17 August 2022.
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1995 Argentine general election
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