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Shutrukid dynasty

Shutrukid dynasty
Shutrukid dynasty
c. 1210 BC–c. 1100 BC
Map of the territory of Elam.
Map of the territory of Elam.
Common languagesElamite
History 
• Established
c. 1210 BC
• Disestablished
c. 1100 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Igehalkid dynasty
Humban-Tahrid (Neo-Elamite) dynasty

The Shutrukid dynasty (c. 1210 – 1100 BC) was a dynasty of the Elamite empire, in modern Iran. Under the Shutrukids, Elam reached a height in power.[1]

History

Shutruk-Nakhkhunte was the founder of this dynasty. He took as wife a Babylonian princess, the eldest daughter of Melishihu of Babylon.[2] Shutruk-Nakhkhunte and his three sons, Kutir-Nakhkhunte II, Shilhak-In-Shushinak, and Khutelutush-In-Shushinak were capable of frequent military campaigns into Kassite Babylonia (which was also being ravaged by the empire of Assyria during this period), and at the same time were exhibiting vigorous construction activity—building and restoring luxurious temples in Susa and across their Empire.[1] Shutruk-Nakhkhunte raided Babylonia, carrying home to Susa trophies like the statues of Marduk and Manishtushu, the Manishtushu Obelisk, the Stele of Hammurabi and the stele of Naram-Sin.[1] With these trophies, he attempted to give a new aura to Elam, as the conqueror of Babylonia.[1] Shutruk-Nakhunte added his own inscription on the stele of Naram-Sin:

Inscription of Shutruk-Nahhunte in Elamite on the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin.
Inscription of Shutruk-Nahhunte in Elamite on the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin.

"I am Shutruk-Nahhunte, son of Hallutush-Inshushinak, beloved servant of the god Inshushinak, king of Anshan and Susa, who has enlarged the kingdom, who takes care of the lands of Elam, the lord of the land of Elam. When the god Inshushinak gave me the order, I defeated Sippar. I took the stele of Naram-Sin and carried it off, bringing it to the land of Elam. For Inshushinak, my god, I set it as an offering."

— Elamite inscription of Shutruk-Nahhunte on the victory stele of Naram-Sin.[3]

In 1158 BC, after much of Babylonia had been annexed by Ashur-Dan I of Assyria and Shutruk-Nakhkhunte, the Elamites defeated permanently the Kassites, a dynasty which had ruled Mesopotamia for four centuries.[1][4] They killed the Kassite king of Babylon, Zababa-shuma-iddin, and replaced him with Shutruk-Nakhkhunte's eldest son, Kutir-Nakhkhunte, who held it no more than three years before being ejected by the native Akkadian speaking Babylonians. The Elamites then briefly came into conflict with Assyria, managing to take the Assyrian city of Arrapha (modern Kirkuk) before being ultimately defeated and having a treaty forced upon them by Ashur-Dan I.

Kutir-Nakhkhunte's son Khutelutush-In-Shushinak was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon, who sacked Susa and returned the statue of Marduk, but who was then himself defeated by the Assyrian king Ashur-resh-ishi I. He fled to Anshan, but later returned to Susa, and his brother Shilhana-Hamru-Lagamar may have succeeded him as last king of the Shutrukid dynasty. Following Khutelutush-In-Shushinak, the power of the Elamite empire began to wane, for after the death of this ruler, Elam disappears into obscurity for more than three centuries.

Rulers

Name Image Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Shutrukid dynasty,[5] c. 1200–c. 970 BC
83 Hallutush-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa ?–? c. 1200 BC ? ?
84 Shutruk-Nahhunte I
king of Anshan & Susa ?–? before c. 1158 BC after c. 1158 BC son of Hallutush-Inshushinak; son-in-law of Melishihu of Babylon[2]
85 Kutir-Nahhunte II king of Anshan & Susa ?–? before c. 1155 BC after c. 1155 BC son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
86 Shilhak-Inshushinak I king of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ? son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
87 Hutelutush-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa ?–? before c. 1110 BC after c. 1110 BC son of Kutir-Nahhunte II
88 Shilhina-Hamru-Lakamar king of Anshan & Susa ?–? after 1110 BC ? son of Shilhak-Inshushinak I
89 Humban-Numena II king of Anshan & Susa ?–? early 11th century BC ? ?
90 Shutruk-Nahhunte II king of Anshan & Susa ?–? middle of 11th century BC ? son of Humban-Numena II
91 Shutur-Nahhunte I king of Anshan & Susa ?–? middle of 11th century BC ? son of Humban-Numena II
92 Mar-biti-apla-usur[6] "son" of Elam ?–? before 983 BC after 978 BC ?
? Akshir-Shimut king of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ? ?
? Akshir-Nahhunte king of Anshan & Susa ?–? ? ? ?
? Kara-Indash king of Elam ?–? ? ? ?

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1992. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-87099-651-1.
  2. ^ a b Potts, D. T. (April 2006). "Elamites and Kassites in the Persian Gulf". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. University of Chicago Press: 111–119.
  3. ^ Mieroop, Marc Van De (2015). A History of the Ancient Near East, ca. 3000-323 BC. John Wiley & Sons. p. 199. ISBN 9781118718230.
  4. ^ Álvarez-Mon, Javier (31 March 2020). The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC. Routledge. p. 434. ISBN 978-1-000-03485-1.
  5. ^ Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997; Vallat, "Elam ...", 1998.
  6. ^ He was also king of Babylon.

Sources

  • Quintana Cifuentes, E., "Historia de Elam el vecino mesopotámico", Murcia, 1997. Estudios Orientales. IPOA-Murcia.
  • Quintana Cifuentes, E., "Textos y Fuentes para el estudio del Elam", Murcia, 2000. Estudios Orientales. IPOA-Murcia.
  • Quintana Cifuentes, E., La Lengua Elamita (Irán pre-persa), Madrid, 2010. Gram Ediciones. ISBN 978-84-88519-17-7
  • Khačikjan, Margaret: The Elamite Language, Documenta Asiana IV, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto per gli Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici, 1998 ISBN 88-87345-01-5
  • Persians: Masters of Empire, Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virginia (1995) ISBN 0-8094-9104-4
  • Pittman, Holly (1984). Art of the Bronze Age: southeastern Iran, western Central Asia, and the Indus Valley. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780870993657.
  • D. T. Potts, "Elamites and Kassites in the Persian Gulf",Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 111–119, (April 2006)
  • Potts, Daniel T. (2016) [1999]. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-09469-7.
  • McAlpin, David W., Proto Elamo Dravidian: The Evidence and Its Implications, American Philosophy Society (1981) ISBN 0-87169-713-0
  • Vallat, François. 2010. "The History of Elam". The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS)
  • Álvarez-Mon, Javier; Basello, Gian Pietro; Wicks, Yasmina, eds. (2018). The Elamite World. Routledge Worlds. Oxford: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-99989-3.
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Shutrukid dynasty
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