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Foundation nail dedicated by Entemena, king of Lagash, to the god of Bad-Tibira, about the peace treaty concluded between Lagash and Uruk. Extract from the inscription: "Those were the days when Entemena, ruler of Lagash, and Lugal-kinishe-dudu, ruler of Uruk, concluded a treaty of fraternity". This text is the oldest diplomatic document known. Found in Telloh, ancient Girsu, ca. 2400 BC. Louvre Museum.[1]
Reignc. 2400  BCE
DynastySecond Dynasty of Uruk
Location of Uruk, in the Near East, modern Iraq.
Vase inscription of Lugal-kigine-dudu (𒈗𒆠𒁺𒉌𒌌𒌌, lugal-ki-gin-ne2-du₇-du₇), reconstruction of the text, and some fragments.[3][4]

Lugal-kinishe-dudu (𒈗𒆠𒉌𒂠𒌌𒌌, lugal-ki-ni-še₃-du₇-du₇)[5] also Lugal-kiginne-dudu (𒈗𒆠𒁺𒉌𒌌𒌌, lugal-ki-gin-ne2-du₇-du₇),[6] was a King and (ensi) of Uruk and Ur who lived towards the end of the 25th century BCE.[7] The Sumerian King List mentions Lugal-kinishe-dudu as the second king of the dynasty after En-shakansha-ana, attributing to him a fanciful reign of 120 years.[7][8]

The inscriptions of this sovereign which have been discovered show that he retained the power inherited from his predecessor, since he proclaimed himself king of Ur and Kish:[9]

"For An, king of all the lands, and for Inanna, mistress of Eanna. Lugalkiginnedudu, the king of Kish. When Inana gave to Lugalkiginnedudu en-ship in addition to kingship, she allowed him to exercise en-ship in Uruk, and she allowed him to exercise kingship in Ur."

— Inscription of Lugal-kinishe-dudu.[10][11]

Numerous fragments are known that bear the name of Lugalkinishedudu, mainly found in Nippur, and now located in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.[12]

The most remarkable document in which he is mentioned is a clay nail found in Girsu and commemorating the alliance which he concluded with Entemena of Lagash, the oldest known reference to a peace treaty between two kings:[7][13]

Cone of Entemena mentioning the alliance with Lugal-kinishe-dudu
Cone of Entemena mentioning the alliance with Lugal-kinishe-dudu

1st line:
Dinanna-ra / Dlugal-e2-muš3-ra / en-mete-na / ensi2 / lagaški-ke4 / e2-muš3 e2 ki-ag2-ga2-ne-ne / mu-ne-du3 / KIBgunû mu-na-du11 / en-mete-na / lu2 e2-muš3 du3-a
2nd line:
D-ra-ni / dšul-utul12-am6 / u4-ba en-mete-na / ensi2 / lagaški / lugal-ki-ne2-eš2-du7-du7 / ensi2 / unuki-bi / nam-šeš e-ak

1st line:
"For Inanna / and Lugal-emuš / Enmetena / ruler / of Lagaš, / the E-muš, their beloved temple, / built / and ordered (these) clay nails for them. / Enmetena, / who built the E-muš,"
2nd line:
"his personal god / is Šul-utul. / At that time, Enmetena, / ruler / of Lagaš, / and Lugal-kineš-dudu, / ruler / of Uruk, / established brotherhood."

— Alliance treaty between Entemana and Lugal-kinishe-dudu.[13]

He was followed by his son, Lugalkisalsi, also read Lugaltarsi.[7]

See also


  1. ^ "Louvre Museum Official Website".
  2. ^ Marchesi, Gianni (January 2015). "Toward a Chronology of Early Dynastic Rulers in Mesopotamia". In W. Sallaberger and I. Schrakamp (Eds.), History & Philology (ARCANE 3; Turnhout), Pp. 139-156.
  3. ^ Clay, Albert Tobias; Hilprecht, H. V. (Hermann Vollrat); Myhrman, David Vilhelm; Poebel, Arno; Ranke, Hermann; Radau, Hugo; Langdon, Stephen (1892). The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania. Series A: Cuneiform texts. Philadelphia : Dept. of Archaeology, University of Pennsylvania. pp. Transcriptions 86–87.
  4. ^ "CDLI-Archival View".
  5. ^ "Sumerian Dictionary".
  7. ^ a b c d Hayes, William (1950). Chronology. Cambridge Ancient History. p. 51.
  8. ^ "In Unug, En-shakansha-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years. Lugal-ure (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: Lugal-kinishe-dudu (?)) ruled for 120 years. Argandea ruled for 7 years. (ms. L1+N1 has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 187 years. Then Unug was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Urim." in "The Sumerian king list: translation".
  9. ^ Centre, Copenhagen Polis (2002). A Comparative Study of Six City-state Cultures: An Investigation. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. p. 34. ISBN 978-87-7876-316-7.
  10. ^ MAEDA, TOHRU (1981). "KING OF KISH" IN PRE-SARGONIC SUMER. Orient: The Reports of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan, Volume 17. p. 7.
  11. ^ "CDLI-Archival View".
  12. ^ CDLI-Found Texts.
  13. ^ a b [1] Deena Ragavan, Cuneiform Texts and Fragments in the Harvard Art Museum / Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Cuneiform Digital Library Journal, vol. 2010:1, ISSN 1540-8779
Regnal titles Preceded byUrzage King of Uruk ca. 25th century BCE Succeeded byLugal-kisal-si
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