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Kafr Zabad

Kafr Zabad
كفر زبد
Village
Kafr Zabad is located in Lebanon
Kafr Zabad
Kafr Zabad
Location in Lebanon
Coordinates: 33°45′30″N 35°58′02″E / 33.75833°N 35.96722°E / 33.75833; 35.96722
Country Lebanon
GovernorateBeqaa Governorate
DistrictZahlé
Elevation3,235 ft (986 m)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)+3
Kafr Zabad
كفر زبد
History
CulturesRoman
Site notes
ConditionRuins
Public accessYes

Kafr Zabad (Arabic: كفر زبد) is a village in Lebanon.[2] It is also the site of two ancient Roman antae temples.[3]

History

The village is very old; probably was founded during early Roman centuries. It is located at nearly 986 meters of altitude. It is famous because of its Roman temples.

George F. Taylor classed the temples in a group of Temples of the Beqaa Valley.[4] They are situated 1,000 feet (300 m) above the village on a hill. The temples had almost been completely destroyed when Taylor visited the site. He noted only foundations and some parts of the cella walls and pediment of the upper temple had survived. Remains of architraves, carved stones and door frames littered the hill.[3]

The lower temple had only one section of upright door frame, again with blocks of pediment, architrave and cornice lying scattered about the landscape of the Anti-Lebanon. There is a relief carved into a rock approximately 100 metres (330 ft) east of the temple with the figure of a Roman goddess (probably Venus). The figure is barely recognisable and had been mostly destroyed with only the lower half remaining distinguishable:[3] indeed to the northeast of the lower temple there it is a rock-cut relief of Venus, called "Bint El Malik" or the king's daughter by the local people.

There it is also a Roman sanctuary probably dedicated to the god Mercury; the area also has ancient quarries and shaft tombs from the Roman period.[5]

In 1838, Eli Smith noted Kefr Zebad as a Druse and Christian village in the Baalbek area.[6]

Geography

The town is situated 58 km (36 mi) to the east of the Lebanese capital Beirut. It is possible to drive a car from the village to Beirut in 75 minutes, depending on traffic and speed.

Climate

Kafr Zabad is located in the East of Lebanon. Located in the Beqaa Valley it is normal to have a dry weather. It rarely rains in Kafr Zabad in the summer rather very warm. Winters, however, are rather cold, and are also characterized by heavy snows. The Litani river (which is one of the most polluted rivers in the middle east) flows just around the outskirts of the town.

See also

References

  1. ^ Kfar Zabad, localiban
  2. ^ Ted Kaizer (2008). The Variety of Local Religious Life in the Near East: In the Hellenistic and Roman Periods. BRILL. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-90-04-16735-3. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  3. ^ a b c George Taylor (1967). The Roman temples of Lebanon: a pictorial guide. Dar el-Machreq Publishers. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  4. ^ Roman temples in Lebanon
  5. ^ Roman temples in the Bekaa Valley: Kafr Zabad
  6. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, 2nd appendix, p. 145

Bibliography

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Kafr Zabad
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