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2nd century in Lebanon

2nd century in Lebanon
Key event(s):
Photos of 2nd century Lebanese Roman sarcophagi.

This article lists historical events that occurred between 101–200 in modern-day Lebanon or regarding its people.


Cuirassed statue of Roman Emperor Hadrian from Tyre, National Museum of Beirut, Lebanon.

Roman emperor Hadrian (reigned 117–138) is said to have considered a division of the overly large province of Syria in 123–124 AD, but it was not until shortly after c. 194 AD that Septimius Severus (r. 193–211) actually undertook this, dividing the province into Syria Coele in the north and Phoenice in the south.[1] The province was much larger than the area traditionally called Phoenicia: for example, cities like Emesa[a] and Palmyra[b] and the base of the Legio III Gallica[c] in Raphanaea[d] were now subject to governor in Tyre. Veterans of this military unit were settled in Tyre, which also received the rank of colonia.[2]

War of Succession

Marble head of the emperor Septimius Severus, from Tyre, on display at the National Museum of Beirut.

After the death of the 2nd century Roman emperor Commodus, a civil war erupted, in which Berytus, and Sidon supported Pescennius Niger. While the city of Tyre supported Septimius Severus, which led Niger to send Mauri[e] javelin men and archers to sack the city.[3] However, Niger lost the civil war, and Septimius Severus decided to show his gratitude for Tyre's support by making it the capital of Phoenice.

Propraetorial Imperial Legates of Phoenicia

Date Propraetorial Imperial Legate (Governor)
193 – 194 Ti. Manilius Fuscus[4]
198 Q. Venidius Rufus Marius Maximus L. Calvinianus



Probus, Marcus Valerius – De iuris notarum, fragm., 15th-century – BEIC 14822487.



Cover for "Tabulae geographica" (1578), work of Ptolemy. Depicted are both Ptolemy and Marinus of Tyre, very likely in this order.




  • The famous Lebanese jurist Ulpian, Latin: Gnaeus Domitius Annius Ulpianus; one of the great legal authorities, is born in Tyre, possibly c. 170 AD.[14]


  • Roman emperor Commodus dies on 31 December 192,[15] leading to a war of succession, in which each Lebanese city took side of either Septimius Severus or Pescennius Niger.
  • Adrianus of Tyre dies in 192/193 AD.[16][17]
  • In AD 193, Septimius Severus grants Baalbek ius Italicum rights.[18]
  • Niger is defeated and beheaded in 194, ending the war of succession.[19]
  • The Roman province of Phoenice is created c. 194 AD.
  • Ti. Manilius Fuscus is governor of Phoenice, 194 AD.
  • El-Gouth, ancestor of the Saliba family in Bteghrine, and a Lebanese folk hero who was called "El-Saleeby" by an Arabian prince for his wars against Jews and idolaters in defense of the Christian faith, dies in Adraa of Hauran, 197 AD.[20]
  • Q. Venidius Rufus Marius Maximus L. Calvinianus is governor of Phoenice, 198 AD.
  • Tyre becomes the capital of Phoenice, 198 AD.[21]


Hadrian's inscriptions of boundary stones, Lebanon.

The first attempt to conserve the Lebanese cedar was made during the 2nd century by the Roman emperor Hadrian; he created an imperial forest and ordered it marked by inscribed boundary stones, two of which are in the museum of the American University of Beirut.[22] Material finds of this early type of wildlife conservation is provided by 200 inscriptions engraved on rocks all over the northern part of Mount Lebanon.[23]



  1. ^ Modern-day Homs/Hims (حمص), Syria.
  2. ^ Arabic: تَدْمُر (Tadmur)
  3. ^ A military unit of the Imperial Roman army
  4. ^ Arabic: الرفنية, romanized: al-Rafaniyya; colloquial: Rafniye
  5. ^ Latin designation for the Berber population of Mauretania, a region in the ancient Maghreb.


  1. ^ Eißfeldt 1941, p. 368.
  2. ^ Ulpian, Digests 50.15.1.
  3. ^ Herodian, Roman History 3.3.
  4. ^ Hall, pg. 94
  5. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Probus, Marcus Valerius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 408.
  6. ^ "Martyr Eudokia of Heliopolis". Retrieved 2022-10-03.
  7. ^ Jowett, Benjamin (1867), "Adrianus (1)", in Smith, William (ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 1, Boston, pp. 21–22((citation)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  8. ^ Meghraoui, M.; Gomez F.; Sbeinati R.; van der Woerd J.; Mouty M.; Darkal A.N.; Radwan Y.; Layyous I.; Al Najjar H.; Darawcheh R.; Hijazi F.; Al-Ghazzi R & Barazangi M. (2003). "Evidence for 830 years of seismic quiescence from palaeoseismology, archaeoseismology and historical seismicity along the Dead Sea fault in Syria" (PDF). Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 210 (1–2). Elsevier: 35–52. Bibcode:2003E&PSL.210...35M. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00144-4. hdl:1813/5320.
  9. ^ Harley, J. B. (John Brian); Woodward, David (1987). The History of cartography. Humana Press. pp. 178–. ISBN 978-0-226-31633-8. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  10. ^ "Marinus of Tyre" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 722.
  11. ^ a b "Tyre, Al-Bass, Arch of Hadrian - Livius". Retrieved 2022-10-06.
  12. ^ "Philo, Herennius" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 21 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 413.
  13. ^ Campbell, Thomas (1907). "Pope St. Anicetus" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  14. ^ Birks, Peter (1983). "HONORÉ'S ULPIAN". Irish Jurist (1966-). 18 (1): 151–181. ISSN 0021-1273. JSTOR 44027631.
  15. ^ Roman history, Dio Cassius, 73.22
  16. ^ Suda s.v. Αδριανός
  17. ^ Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists, Vit. Adrian.
  18. ^ Ulpian, De Censibus, Bk. I.
  19. ^ Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001, p. 33
  20. ^ N.D. Saleeby, Souk-El-Gharb, Lebanon, 1947 A.D.
  21. ^ Krause, Günter (1985). Begleitheft zur Ausstellung Tyros, Hafenstadt Phöniziens. Duisburg-Ruhrort: Museum der Deutschen Binnenschifffahrt. pp. 1–5, 12–14.
  22. ^ Shackley, pp. 420–421
  23. ^ "The forest inscriptions of Hadrian in Mount Lebanon FOLLOWING HADRIAN". FOLLOWING HADRIAN. 2019-10-15. Retrieved 2022-10-02.
  24. ^ Service de communication, Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée (2006-11-10). "Yanouh et le Nahr Ibrahim". Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée (in French). Retrieved 2010-08-14.
  25. ^ Seyrig, Henri (1929). "La Triade héliopolitaine et les temples de Baalbek". Syria. 10 (4): 314–356. doi:10.3406/syria.1929.3414. ISSN 0039-7946. JSTOR 4236962.
  26. ^ Taylor, George (1967). The Roman temples of Lebanon; a pictorial guide. Internet Archive. [Beirut], [Dar el-Machreq Publishers].
  27. ^ Tyre, Al-Bass, Hippodrome
  28. ^ Cook, Arthur Bernard. Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion Vol. I


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2nd century in Lebanon
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