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5th century in Lebanon

5th century in Lebanon
Key event(s):
Icon of Maron, whose followers, after his death, founded a religious Christian movement that became known as the Maronite Church,
Chronology:

This article lists historical events that occurred between 401–500 in modern-day Lebanon or regarding its people.

Administration

Map of the Diocese of the East with its provinces, as recorded in the Notitia Dignitatum, c. 400

Constantine's province of Augusta Libanensis was short-lived, but formed the basis of the re-division of Phoenice c. 400 into the Phoenice I or Phoenice Paralia (Greek: Φοινίκη Παραλία, "coastal Phoenice"), and Phoenice II or Phoenice Libanensis (Lebanese Phoenicia);(Φοινίκη Λιβανησία), with Tyre and Emesa as their respective capitals.[1] In the Notitia Dignitatum, written shortly after the division, Phoenice I is governed by a consularis, while Libanensis is governed by a praeses, with both provinces under the Diocese of the East.[2] Only two governors of Phoenice were known from the reign of Theodosius II (408–450) to that of Justin I (518–527).[3]

Events

400s

5th century bull mosaic in the Beiteddine palace.
  • Around the year 400, Rabbula, the future bishop of Edessa, attempts to have himself martyred by interrupting and disrupting the pagans of Baalbek but he was only thrown down the temple stairs along with his companion.[4]
  • A village featuring a luxurious building with Roman thermal baths and two large winepresses is established in the modern region of Zaarour, c. 400.[5]
  • In 404 AD, towards the end of the reign of Arcadius, numerous Isaurian robbers gather in great numbers and ravage cities and villages as far as Phoenicia.[6]
  • John Chrysostom writes to Maron around AD 405 expressing his great love and respect, and asking him to pray for him.[7]

410s

420s

Roman ruins of Berytus, in front of Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral in modern-day Beirut.
The school's exact location is uncertain, but it is thought to have lain just north of Nejmeh Square (pictured), next to the Saint George Greek Orthodox Cathedral.
  • By the 5th century, the law school of Berytus had established its leading position and repute among the Empire's law schools; its teachers were highly regarded and played a chief role in the development of legal learning in the East to the point that they were dubbed “ecumenical masters”.[10][11] From 425, the law school of Constantinople becomes a rival center of law study.[12]

430s

  • Marcellinus, bishop of Arqa, participates at the Council of Ephesus in 431.[13][14][15] in which Cyrus, bishop of Tyre (?–431), is deposed as a supporter of Nestorius.[16] and Berenicianus is ordained as his successor as the bishop of Tyre. (431–?)[16]

440s

From Al Bass, dated 440: "possibly the oldest fresco of the Virgin Mary worldwide." (National Museum, Beirut)
  • In 440, Anatolius (Greek: Ανατόλιος, fl. 421 – 451) a diplomat and general of the Eastern Roman Empire and Consul directs some works at the Heliopolis of Phoenicia.[17]
  • In the summer of 2017 a Greek inscription, five-metres long, naming Irenaeus as bishop of Tyre, was found west of the Sea of Galilee. Since the inscription provides the date of the church's completion as 445, it gives credence to a date as early as 444 CE for his ordination.[18]
  • Epiphanius, bishop of Arqa, takes part in a synod at Antioch in 448.[13][14][15]
  • A council is held in Tyre, February, 449, to discuss and examine the nestorian beliefs of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa. This council had serious consequences at Chalcedon and especially at the Council of the Three Chapters in 553.[19]

450s

  • in 450 AD Berytus obtains from Theodosius II the title of metropolis, with jurisdiction over six sees taken from Tyre.
  • Heraclitus, bishop of Arqa, Porphyrius, a bishop from Batroun,[20] and Thomas, the bishop of Porphyreon (Jieh),[21] participate in the Council of Chalcedon, 451 AD, in which the Maronites reject miaphysitisim and maintain full communion with the then united Orthodox Catholic Church.[22] It's also decided in the council to restore the jurisdiction of the six sees Berytus obtained, back to Tyre, leaving, however, to Berytus its rank of metropolis.[23] Thus, from 451 AD Berytus is an exempt metropolis which depends directly on the Patriarch of Antioch.[24]
View of the Qalaat al-Madiq fortress, 2010

460s

Limestime statue base with ancient Greek inscription mentioning Patricius, a well known jurist who taught in the law school of Berytus. The base was unearthed in 1906 in Beirut. Has disappeared since 1925.[26]
  • In 460 AD, the emperor Leo I issues an edict that orders candidates for the bar of the Eastern praetorian prefecture to produce certificates of proficiency from the law teachers who instruct them at one of the recognized law schools of the Empire. As a result, learning law at the law school of Berytus becomes highly desired.[27][28]

470s

  • John II Codonatus, archbishop of Tyre, becomes patriarch of Antioch (477).[29][30][31][32][33][34]
  • A mosaic from Upper Galilee, then part of Phoenice Paralios (Maritima), is completed on 16 April 478 in the celebration of the visit of Longinus, the archbishop of Tyre and several other ecclesiastical figures on the first Sunday after Easter.[35]

480s

5th century mosaic of the Goddess Ktisis from the Beiteddine Palace.

490s

Ecclesiastical administration

The ecclesiastical administration paralleled the political, but with some differences. When the province was divided c. 400, Damascus, rather than Emesa, became the metropolis of Phoenice II. Both provinces belonged to the Patriarchate of Antioch, with Damascus initially outranking Tyre, whose position was also briefly challenged by the see of Berytus c. 450; after 480/1, however, the Metropolitan of Tyre established himself as the first in precedence (protothronos) of all the Metropolitans subject to Antioch.[37]

Professors

Professors:[41]

Dates

(uncertain dates in italic)

Names

(uncertain names in italic)

400–410, 438 Cyrillus
420–450 Patricius
450–490 Domninus
Demosthenes
Eudoxius
May–June 460 Euxenius
480–500 Amblichus
Before 487/488 –
Leontius
End of the 5th century, early 6th century Sabinus
Anonymous, mentioned in the Scholia Sinaitica

Architecture

References

  1. ^ Eißfeldt 1941, pp. 368–369.
  2. ^ Notitia Dignitatum, in partibus Orientis, I
  3. ^ J.R. Martindale, Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, vol. II: AD 395–527, Cambridge 1980, pp. 1186–1187 (fasti).
  4. ^ Cook (1914), p. 555.
  5. ^ "A Zaarour, une découverte inédite : un village byzantin à 1 400 m d'altitude". L'Orient-Le Jour. 2019-02-12. Retrieved 2022-07-06.
  6. ^ 6.3 – Events at the end of Arcadius' Reign (404-408)
  7. ^ "Who is Saint Maron? | St. Elias Maronite Catholic Church". Retrieved 2022-08-10.
  8. ^ "Who is Saint Maron? | St. Elias Maronite Catholic Church". Retrieved 2021-10-03.
  9. ^ Saint Maroun. Opus Libani. Retrieved 2008-02-15. Archived 2012-08-15 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Jolowicz 1972, p. 453
  11. ^ Pomeroy 2012, pp. 41–42
  12. ^ Riddle 2008, p. 107
  13. ^ a b Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 7, p. 86
  14. ^ a b Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 823-826
  15. ^ a b Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 434
  16. ^ a b Vitalien Laurent, Le corpus des sceaux de l'empire Byzantin, vol. V/2, Paris, 1965, nº 1531.
  17. ^ This episode, told by Procopius in the Persian Wars, I.2.11-15, could be placed in 421, during the previous war against the Sassanids (Michael H. Dodgeon, Samuel N. C. Lieu, Geoffrey Greatrex, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, Part 2, CRC Press, 2002, ISBN 0-203-99454-X, p. 259).
  18. ^ Borschel-Dan, Amanda. "1,600-year-old church mosaic puzzles out key role of women in early Christianity". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 2019-08-26.
  19. ^ Hefele-Leclercq, op. cit., II, 493-98
  20. ^ Lequien, II, 827
  21. ^ Le Quien, Michel (1740). Oriens Christianus, in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus: quo exhibentur ecclesiæ, patriarchæ, cæterique præsules totius Orientis. Tomus secundus, in quo Illyricum Orientale ad Patriarchatum Constantinopolitanum pertinens, Patriarchatus Alexandrinus & Antiochenus, magnæque Chaldæorum & Jacobitarum Diœceses exponuntur (in Latin). Paris: Ex Typographia Regia. cols. 829–832. OCLC 955922747.
  22. ^ Attwater, Donald; The Christian Churches of the East
  23. ^ Mansi, VII, 85–98
  24. ^ Catholic E.:Berytus (1)
  25. ^ Conversion and Continuity. 1990. ISBN 9780888448095 – via books.google.com.
  26. ^ Jones Hall, Linda (2004-06-01). Roman Berytus: Beirut in Late Antiquity. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 9781134440139.
  27. ^ Jolowicz 1972, pp. 454–455
  28. ^ Mousourakis 2003, p. 363
  29. ^ The episcopate of John II Codonatus is placed in either 475–490, 476/477, 476–477, or 477.
  30. ^ Eder & Renger (2007), p. 327.
  31. ^ Hainthaler (2013), p. 297.
  32. ^ Chadwick (2001), p. 718.
  33. ^ Honigmann (1947), p. 138.
  34. ^ Whitby (2000), p. 320.
  35. ^ Di Segni, Leah; Ashkenazi, Jacob. "Newly Discovered inscriptions from three churches in Upper Western Galilee". A. Coniglio and A. Ricco (Eds.), Holy Land: Archaeology on Either Side. Archaeological Essays in Honour of Eugenio Alliata, Ofm (SBF Collectio Maior 57), Edizioni Terra Santa, Milan 2020.
  36. ^ a b The Reign of Anastasius I, 491-518 - Oxford University Research Archive
  37. ^ a b Eißfeldt 1941, p. 369.
  38. ^ Hamilton, F. J.; Brooks, E. W. (1899). The Syriac chronicle known as that of Zachariah of Mitylene. Cornell University Library. London, Methuen & Co.
  39. ^ Chapman, John (1911). "Monophysites and Monophysitism". The Catholic Encyclopedia.
  40. ^ The Reign of Anastasius I, 491-518 - Oxford University Research Archive, p. 88.
  41. ^ Collinet (1925), p. 192.
  42. ^ "دير رقاد والدة الإله حماطورة للروم الأرثوذكس على شير صخري على طريق الكورة- الأرز | الاتحاد الكاثوليكي العالمي للصحافة- لبنان" (in Arabic). Retrieved 2022-08-09.
  43. ^ Sicking, Thom. Les lieux de culte de Beyrouth et sa proche banlieue. OCLC 1224968091.
  44. ^ "CRT – Cultural Religious Tourism". Retrieved 2022-08-09.
  45. ^ Nalbandian, Salpy. "LibGuides: Beirut's Heritage Buildings: Port". aub.edu.lb.libguides.com. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
  46. ^ Vie de Sévère 69
  47. ^ Vie de Sévère 46-48
  48. ^ Vie de Sévère 63
  49. ^ Vie de Sévère 55
  50. ^ "Yenouh, Kartaba, Adonis River, Phoenician temple, Maria, Diana Roman goddess, daughter god Jupiter". www.discoverlebanon.com. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
  51. ^ Lahoud, Adib; Al Dawha al Amchitiya, 1954, Dar El Tibaa wal Nasher, Rue des Cèdres, Saifi, Beyrouth.
  52. ^ "History of the Marionites" (PDF). 2016-01-29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 2022-08-10.
  53. ^ Chhîm

Bibliography

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5th century in Lebanon
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