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York, Ontario

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View of north side of Eglinton Avenue West at Oakwood Avenue; some of the storefronts are replaced with the main entrance to Oakwood station of Line 5 Eglinton
View of north side of Eglinton Avenue West at Oakwood Avenue; some of the storefronts are replaced with the main entrance to Oakwood station of Line 5 Eglinton
E singulis communitas (Latin for "From individuals, a community")
Location of York (red), as compared with the rest of Toronto.
Location of York (red), as compared with the rest of Toronto.
Coordinates: 43°41′24″N 79°28′41″W / 43.690°N 79.478°W / 43.690; -79.478
Incorporated1850 (township)
Changed Region1954 Metropolitan Toronto from York County
Changed status1 January 1967 (borough)
Changed statusJune 1983 (city)
Amalgamated1 January 1998 into Toronto
 • CouncillorsMike Colle, Joe Mihevc, Frances Nunziata, Cesar Palacio
 • MPsCarolyn Bennett, Julie Dzerowicz, Marco Mendicino, Ahmed Hussen
 • MPPsMichael Ford, Robin Martin, Marit Stiles, Jill Andrew
 • Total23.49 km2 (9.07 sq mi)
 • Total145,662
 • Density6,201/km2 (16,060/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Area code(s)416, 647, 437

York is a district and former city within Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is located northwest of Old Toronto, southwest of North York and east of the Humber River.

Originally formed as York Township, it encompassed the southern section of York County. It was split several times, creating East York and North York. In 1953, it became part of the Metropolitan Toronto federation. It absorbed several municipalities, including Lambton Mills and Weston and was eventually known as the City of York. In 1998, it was dissolved along with Metro Toronto and its constituent municipalities, amalgamated to form the current City of Toronto.

Today, the area is integrated into the multicultural mosaic of Toronto. The area is home today to a number of Portuguese, Jamaican and Latin American neighbourhoods. The former city's census districts had a recorded population of 145,662 in 2016.


Teiaiagon, settled by the Iroquois on the eastern bank of the Humber River, where Baby Point is now, was the oldest known settlement on the land that would later become York Township.

York Township was first organized in 1793.[1] Its initial boundaries were the Humber River to the west, in the east by what would become Victoria Park Avenue, and in the north by what would become Steeles Avenue. Etobicoke Township and Scarborough Township were located west and east, respectively, while the townships of Vaughan and Markham bordered on the north, and Lake Ontario on the south, minus the small Town of York. It was incorporated by Canada West in 1850[1] (Canada West later became Ontario in 1867, due to Confederation) within the new County of York.[2]

York Township was home to one of the original Black communities in the Toronto area, which was populated by many African American fugitive slaves.[3] By 1861, the township had the second-largest Black population in the Toronto area, after St. John's Ward, most of whom lived in York Township West (located west of Yonge Street and north of Bloor Street).[3] The legacy of York's original Black community continues today; as of the 2016 Census, 17 percent of York's population is Black, the largest percentage of Toronto's six former municipalities.[4]

Oakwood Village from Oakwood Avenue, north of St. Clair Avenue in 1924. The area was initially developed as a streetcar suburb.

From the period of 1850 onwards, individual villages developed such as Parkdale (1879) and Brockton (1881), which were later annexed into Toronto.[5] The village of Weston was incorporated in 1882.[5] Toronto Junction and East Toronto were incorporated in 1887, both later annexed by Toronto.[5] The village of North Toronto was incorporated in 1889, annexed by Toronto in 1912. Other parts of York were directly annexed by Toronto, such as "The Annex", Riverdale, Rosedale, Seaton and Sunnyside in the 1880s[5] and Bracondale, Deer Park, Wychwood, The Midway and Balmy Beach after 1905.[6]

A time capsule outside the York Civic Centre, a building that formerly housed York's City Council. It depicts the city's logo and coat of arms, with the city's motto in Latin.

This pattern of absorption by Toronto ended as the City no longer wanted to take on the servicing costs of new suburbs. The Humewood–Cedarvale neighbourhood was developed in the 1910s to attract development in the growing township. Oakwood Village was also developed during this time. In the 1920s, the character of the township changed, with its southern reaches abutting the city of Toronto taking on a more urban character, compared with the very rural character of the north. The voters of the northern, rural part of York voted to secede, creating the new Township of North York in 1922.[7] This was followed in 1923 by the incorporation of the village of Forest Hill, while the residents of Mount Dennis and Silverthorn voted to remain in York.[8] The remaining two pockets of unincorporated urban development at the north end of the city, were split by the village of North Toronto, which was by then a part of the City of Toronto. Within years, the Province of Ontario saw that this arrangement of having an exclave was impractical, and further subdivided York, creating in 1924 the township of East York out of the eastern pocket.

The Township of York contracted streetcar and bus services from the Toronto Transportation Commission (later became Toronto Transit Commission in 1954), but remained independent from Toronto. During this time, American novelist and journalist Ernest Hemingway resided in the Humewood–Cedarvale community, writing for the Toronto Star.

In 1954, York, along with other municipalities south of Steeles Avenue were severed from York County, forming the new upper-tier government of Metropolitan Toronto. In 1967, it absorbed the town of Weston, and became the Borough of York, later known as the City of York. (The map shows this area in red). York was dissolved on 1 January 1998 and its functions amalgamated into the new City of Toronto. Its former council and administrative building, York Civic Centre, is located at 2700 Eglinton Avenue West, between Black Creek Drive and Keele Street, used for courts and other functions. The Etobicoke-York Community Council of Toronto administers minor responsibilities within the limits of York and Etobicoke.


There are several distinct neighbourhoods in the former city, including the former municipality of Weston, which retains its own main street, Weston Road, and several street names duplicated in other districts of Toronto, especially downtown Toronto.

North and west of Oakwood Village is the Fairbank community. Silverthorn is west of Fairbank. Silverthorn (and Fairbank) is described as "Toronto's hidden San Francisco" in reference to its "steep streets, staircases, and unusual views of houses built in what must be the hilliest part of the city."[9] This is due to Toronto's topography being shaped by its deep ravines being similar to the hills of San Francisco, especially in Fairbank and Silverthorn.

The Mount Dennis area of Weston was the base for the former campus of Kodak's Canadian operations from 1912 to 2006. While most of the buildings were demolished, the branch head office has been repurposed for Line 5 Eglinton's Eglinton Maintenance and Storage Facility.

Baby Point, between Jane Street and the Humber River, north of Bloor Street, is situated where the former Iroquoian village of Teiaiagon was located. It was formerly part of the Lambton Mills village within York Township.


York Memorial Collegiate Institute is one of several public secondary schools located in York. This school had a major fire in 2019. Students were relocated first to George Harvey Collegiate Institute then to the former Scarlett Heights Entrepreneurial Academy then merged with George Harvey Collegiate Institute under the York Memorial name.

Before York was dissolved, the York Board of Education oversaw public secular schools in the former city. Since 1998, the district has been administered by the four Toronto boards:

CSV and TDSB operate as secular public school boards, the former operating French first-language institution, whereas the latter operates English first-language institutions (although it does offer French immersion). The other two school boards, CSCM and TCDSB, operate as public Roman Catholic separate school boards, the former operating French first-language separate schools, the latter operating English first-language separate schools.

The TDSB school board operates several institutions that offer primary and secondary education. Secondary schools in York that are operated by TDSB include:

TDSB formerly operated another secondary school in York, Vaughan Road Academy. Opened in 1927, the secondary school was York's first but was closed on its 90th anniversary in 2017 due to its lack of student population resulting from students in the local catchment area attending other nearby secondary schools. Vaughan Road Academy is repurposed as a temporary elementary school for students in the Yonge and Davisville area in Midtown Toronto since the 2018–19 school year to accommodate the construction of a new school building.[10][11]

TCDSB operates one secondary school in York, St. Oscar Romero Catholic Secondary School. Neither CSCM nor CSV operate a secondary school in York.

St. Michael's College School is located in the Tichester neighbourhood.


Public library system

The Maria Shchuka branch of the Toronto Public Library was rebuilt in 2003.

Before 1997, the city operated its own library system, the York Public Library. York Public Library was merged with the other library systems of the new City of Toronto to form the new Toronto Public Library (TPL). TPL operates several branches within the district.

York's first public library was the Mount Dennis branch, which operated out of rented premises from 1923.[12] In 1945, the Township of York Public Library Board was established, and proceeded to build three new library buildings that opened in 1951, including the Jane/Dundas library, Main Library (Eglinton Avenue one block east of Dufferin Street), and the Mount Dennis Library.[12][13][14] The Main Library was later renamed after York Public Library head librarian Maria Shchuka and was later rebuilt in 2003. The Oakwood Village branch was York's newest library; opening in 1996.

Public transit

York operated its own bus and streetcar service, until it was absorbed by the Toronto Transit Commission. Today, the area is served by the Toronto Transit Commission's buses, streetcar, and subway system.Of the Toronto subway system, only the Heath Street exit of St. Clair West station on Line 1 Yonge–University is in the former city of York as Eglinton West station is completely within Old Toronto. The Rogers Road streetcar line served the namesake street as well.

Line 5 Eglinton

Mount Dennis station under construction in 2018
Oakwood station under construction in 2022

The TTC once had plans to construct the Eglinton West subway line along Eglinton Avenue. It began construction in 1994. However, it was cancelled in 1995 under Ontario premier Mike Harris and there had been no serious discussion about reviving the line until 2007, when Line 5 Eglinton (then known as the Eglinton Crosstown LRT) was proposed as part of David Miller's Transit City.

When Rob Ford became mayor in 2010, he immediately announced the cancellation of Transit City. However, city council spared a few lines, including the Eglinton Crosstown LRT, from cancellation, despite Ford's objections.

Since 2013, the new LRT has been under construction and the first phase is expected to be opened in 2024.[15]

GO Transit

Weston GO Station is a regional commuter station that provides access to GO Transit and Union Pearson Express services.

The Weston GO Station along the Kitchener line is the only GO Transit train station and Union Pearson Express train station in the district. There are also plans to construct the Caledonia GO Station along the Barrie line, which would connect with Line 5's Caledonia station, along with the Mount Dennis GO Station along the Kitchener line to connect with Line 5's Mount Dennis station.


The community was first organized as a township in 1793, but not incorporated until 1850.[1] The township was initially a township under the County of York until 1954. In 1954, York was formally severed from the county, along with other municipalities situated south of Steeles Avenue to form the upper-tier government of Metropolitan Toronto. In 1967, the township was formally made into a borough of Metropolitan Toronto, and later a city in 1983. In 1997, York, along with the remaining municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were formally amalgamated to form the new City of Toronto. Today, residents now vote for the Mayor of Toronto, as well as councillors of Toronto City Council. Federally and provincially, eligible residents of York are also able to vote for members of the Parliament of Canada and the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.


Prior to York's amalgamation with Toronto, York operated its own municipal council, with a mayor heading York's council. Prior to the municipality's incorporation as a borough, the chief magistrate of the council was referred to as a reeve. The following individuals served as the reeves of the Township of York:

  • Franklin Jackes (1850–1851) – first reeve[16]
  • William James (1852–1860)[17]
  • William Tyrrell (1860–1864)[17] – architect, later first reeve of Weston[18][19]
  • Bartholomew Bull, Jr. (1865–1872)[20]
  • William Tyrell (1873–1878)[21] – second tenure
  • Henry Duncan (1879–1886)[22][23][24]
  • Henry Frankland (1887)[25]
  • A.L. Wilson (1888–1889)[26]
  • Simon Thomas Humberstone (1890–1894)[27]
  • William James Hill (1894–1897)[28] – later MPP for York West
  • Henry Duncan (1898–1902)[29][30][31] – second tenure
  • William Sylvester (1903–1904)[32]
  • George Syme (1905)[33]
  • George Stewart Henry (1906–1910) – later MPP for York East and Premier of Ontario
  • John T. Watson (1911–1912)[34][35]
  • George Syme (1913–1914)[36][37] – second tenure
  • Thomas Griffiths (1915–1918)[38][39]
  • Frederick H. Miller (1919–1922)[40][41][42][43]
  • W.S. Jury (1923)[44]
  • William M. Graham (1924–1927)[45][46]
  • Ernest C. Westbury (1928–1929)[47][48]
  • W.J. Gilbert Dean (1930–1931)[49][50]
  • A.J.B. Gray (1932–1933)[51][52]
  • R.J. Stuart (1934–1935)
  • Wesley Marsh Magwood (1936–1937)
  • F.J. MacRae (1938–1946)
  • Charles J. McMaster (1947–1948)
  • William George Beech (1949–1951) – later MPP for York South
  • Frederick W. Hall (1952–1956) – was reeve when Metropolitan Toronto was created, with York as a member municipality. Subsequently, became chairman of the Metro Licensing Committee. Hall was later tried on charges of municipal corruption for allegedly accepting bribes for building permits during his tenure as reeve.[53][54][55]
  • Christopher Alexander Tonks (1957–1960) – focus of a scandal after he was accused of conflict of interest for voting for a by-law that allowed him to purchase property from the township. Unseated by a court order after a judicial probe but then reinstated on appeal.
  • Frederick Charles Taylor (1961) – Owner of a construction firm, he was elected on a reform agenda after allegations of corruption against York Township council, having first demanded a judicial probe of the township in 1956. Died in office.[56]
  • Walter Saunders (1962) – Previously Councillor for Ward 2, council voted Saunders in as reeve in January 1962, following the death of Reeve Taylor. A travel agent by profession, Saunders had run for reeve in previous general elections but had not been successful.[57] Walter Saunders Memorial Park along the York Beltline Trail between Dufferin Street and Times Road is named after him.
  • John Lister (Jack) Mould (1963–1966) – ran against former reeve Chris Tonks and was elected by 44 votes, after a recount. Mould was York's last reeve and would be its first mayor. Ran for the position of Metropolitan Toronto Chairman in July 1969 but was forced to withdraw from the contest after Member of Parliament Ralph Cowan accused him of tax evasion.[58][59][60][61]


The following individuals served as York's mayor:

The following individual served as the Deputy Mayor of York:

Board of Control

The Board of Control was created in 1966 and abolished in 1988. The following individuals served as on the Board of Control:

York's two Controllers also sat on Metro Council.

Names in boldface indicate Controllers that were or became Mayor of York in other years. Italics indicate those who only sat on the Board of Control as mayor.

X = elected as Controller
A = appointed Controller to fill a vacancy
M = sitting as Reeve or Mayor

Elections to the Board of Control for York (1966-1985)
Controller 1966 1969 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1985
C. Wesley Boddington X
Fergy Brown* X X X X
Gayle Christie M M
John Lister Mould M
Doug Saunders X X X X
Alan Tonks X X M M
James Trimbee X X X
Philip White X M M M M X X X

*Brown served as mayor from 1988 to 1994

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ a b This school is located within Old Toronto proper, but its catchment area includes much of the eastern half of York since the closure of Vaughan Road Academy in 2017.



  1. ^ a b c Boylen 1954, p. 7.
  2. ^ Boylen 1954, p. 9.
  3. ^ a b Reverend Mitchell Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Harriet Tubman Institute. Accessed 28 February 2016.
  4. ^ "Neighbourhood Profiles". 14 November 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Boylen 1954, p. 27.
  6. ^ Boylen 1954, p. 41.
  7. ^ Boylen 1954, p. 49.
  8. ^ Boylen 1954, p. 51.
  9. ^ Micallef, Shawn (26 September 2014). "A walk with Ward 12 candidate Lekan Olawoye". Toronto Star. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  10. ^ "New School". 10 May 2011.
  11. ^ "Davisville Junior Public School / Spectrum Alternative Senior School PROJECT BULLETIN" (Microsoft PowerPoint). Toronto: Toronto District School Board. March 2018.
  12. ^ a b "History". Mount Dennis. Toronto: Toronto Public Library. 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  13. ^ "History". Jane/Dundas. Toronto: Toronto Public Library. 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  14. ^ "History". Maria Shchuka. Toronto: Toronto Public Library. 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  15. ^ Ranger, Michael (16 May 2023). "Eglinton Crosstown won't open until 2024, construction group to take legal action: Metrolinx". CityNews. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  16. ^ Adam, G. Mercer, and Charles Pelham Mulvany. History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario. Manotick, Ont.: Archive CD Canada, 2008. Print.
  17. ^ a b Adam, Graeme Mercer; Mulvany, Charles Pelham; Robinson, Christopher Blackett (1885). "History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario: Containing an Outline of the History of the Dominion of Canada; a History of the City of Toronto and the County of York, with the Townships, Towns, General and Local Statistics; Biographical Sketches".
  18. ^ "Tyrrell, William | Biographical Dictionary of Architects in Canada".
  19. ^ "Tyrrell House Historical Plaque". Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  21. ^ YORK TOWNSHIP COUNCIL: FIRST MEETING COMMUNICATION RECEIVED From Messrs. Bull and Johnson, end PETITIONS MISCELLANEOUS The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]23 Jan 1878: 4.
  22. ^ YORK TOWNSHIP COUNCIL: FIRST MEETING The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]22 Jan 1879: 3.
  23. ^ MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS: Farther Lists at the ... and Councillers of Ontario Municipalities CORRECTION The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]06 Jan 1886: 2.
  24. ^ Full TextHistorical Newspapers BANQUET AND PRESENTATION: A Pleasant Affair In Honor of Mr. Henry Dunoan, Ex-Reeve of York Township A GLOWING TRIBUTE MR. DUNCAN The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]03 Feb 1887: 3.
  25. ^ LOCAL BRIEFS The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]04 Jan 1887: 5.
  26. ^ The York Township Election Local Briefs The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]03 Jan 1888: 2.
  27. ^ Kennedy, Scott (22 October 2016). 200 Years at St. John's York Mills: The Oldest Church in Toronto. Dundurn. ISBN 9781459737600.
  28. ^ LIBERALS AT WESTON: Annual Meeting of West York Reformers--Officers Re-elected--Mr. McMullen's Speech--Banquet in the Evening Those Who Were Present Re-electing Officers Good Work Done Mr. M'Mullen's Speech Effective Comparisons The Banquet The Land We Love Root, Hog or Die North York Liberal Convention The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]18 Jan 1898: 2.
  29. ^ YORK FARMERS COMBINE: Protective Association Formed on Saturday--They Decide to Support Mr. White in His Case The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]20 June 1898: 7.
  30. ^ YORK TOWNSHIP: A Quiet Nomination at Eglinton Town Hall-- Councillors Re-elected by Acclamation The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]27 Dec 1898: 6.
  31. ^ YORK TOWNSHIP RESULTS: REEVE DUNCAN RETURNED BY A SHALL MAJORITY A Keen Contest For the Reeveship--Mr. A. E. Ames Writes a Letter to the Ratepayers--A Close Ran For Councillors The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]07 Jan 1902: 2.
  32. ^ LOCAL OPTION DEFEATED: LIQUOR MEN WIN IN YORK TOWNSHIP Lively Tilt Between Auditor and Clergyman All the Old Council Elected Except Mr. Wallace Maclean The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]05 Jan 1904: 12.
  33. ^ TO IMPROVE CAR SERVICE The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]10 Jan 1905: 12.
  34. ^ YORK COUNCIL INAUGURAL The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]10 Jan 1911: 8.
  35. ^ PHILLIPS, KEITH STILL IN CONTEST: Each Wants to be Clerk of York County NO DEADLOCK THIS TIME New County Council Will Have Thirty-one Members and. Will Decide the Question on First Ballot on January 23 The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]04 Jan 1912: 7.
  36. ^ PARCEL OF CITY PROPERTY STILL IN YORK TOWNSHIP: Discovery of Old Documents Shows That Deeds to Land Almost in Centre of City Were Never Surrendered The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]14 Jan 1913: 9.
  37. ^ THE LATE GEORGE SYME, SEN: Ex-Reeve of York Township Had Long and Useful Life The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]09 Mar 1915: 6.
  38. ^ MARKHAM MAN IS WARDEN OF YORK: MR. JONATHAN NIGH IS UNANIMOUS CHOICE OF COUNCILLORS' The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]27 Jan 1915: 6.
  39. ^ "Emery Village Voice".
  40. ^ COUNTY PROTESTS CITY SEWER PLAN: Refuses Permit for 15-inch Main for Kitchener School The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]20 May 1919: 9.
  41. ^ YORK COUNCIL RETAINS OFFICE: All Candidates Endorsed by A.R.A. Receive Sound Beatings The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1920: 22.
  42. ^ UP GO TAXES IN TOWNSHIP The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]30 Aug 1921: 6.
  43. ^ YORK TOWNSHIP SETTING PACE: Members of Council Rushed Through Mass of Varied Business NEW SPEED RECORD MADE The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]17 Jan 1922: 11.
  44. ^ YORK TOWNSHIP COUNCIL BURIED IN BALLOT GALE; JURY IS ELECTED REEVE: Former Reeve Fred Miller Is Defeated by Majority of 3,086 Votes and Whole Personnel of Council Is Changed-- Oshawa Elects W. J. Trick as Mayor RESULTS OF VOTE IN NEARBY PLACES The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1923: 10.
  45. ^ SUBURBAN VOTERS MAKE THEIR CHOICE OF YEAR'S RULERS: All of York Township's Councillors Are Returned to Office GRAHAM GETS BIG VOTE The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1925: 28.
  46. ^ TOWNSHIP'S VOTERS REPOSE CONFIDENCE IN FORMER COUNCIL: Reeve Graham and All Other York Members Offering Are Returned DIFFERENT IN EAST YORK The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1926: 36.
  47. ^ Neighboring District Voters Elect New Administrations And Approve New By-Laws: Vote, While Weak in Spots, Shows Generally Increasing Interest in Affairs in York, Peel, Halton and Ontario Counties--Many Surprises in Yorks YORK TOWNSHIP ELECTS WESTBURY The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]03 Jan 1928: 50.
  48. ^ SUBURBS RETURN LARGE MAJORITY OF '28 MEMBERS: Public Utilities Commission Approved in York Township SEVERAL CLOSE FIGHTS The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Jan 1929: 2.
  49. ^ TOWNSHIP QUESTIONS MORTGAGE EVICTIONS The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]09 Oct 1931: 12.
  50. ^ FOLK WHO ARE PROMINENT IN THE NEWS OF THE DAY IN TORONTO AND VICINITY The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]03 Jan 1930: 41.
  51. ^ MORE RELIEF ASKED FOR YORK VETERANS The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]31 Oct 1933: 13.
  52. ^ PHYSICIANS IN YORK STUDY RELIEF FEES The Globe (1844–1936); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]13 Oct 1932: 11.
  53. ^ "A MODERN MANUAL OF GRAFT IN CIVIC OFFICE CORRUPTION | Maclean's | March 10 1962". Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  54. ^ "How Uber is ending the dirty dealings behind Toronto's cab business".
  55. ^ "Airport ensnarled in taxi-licence row".
  56. ^ "Fred Taylor, York Twp. Reeve". Toronto Daily Star, pg 29. 15 December 1961. ProQuest 1425992105. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  57. ^ "New York Township Reeve Favors 'Posh' Apartments". Toronto Daily Star, pg 19. 3 January 1962. ProQuest 1425996182. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  58. ^ "Charge by Cowan: Mould denies Council wrote off firm's taxes". The Globe and Mail, September 24, 1969.
  59. ^ "Mould reddens as support lost; Goodhead dejected", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]01 Oct 1969: 5.
  60. ^ "Writ filed by Mould charges libel, slander". The Globe and Mail, September 27, 1969.
  61. ^ "War pilot Jack Mould was York's first mayor": [FIN Edition], Toronto Star; Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 Aug 1990: A19., "Political credentials are sound: Smiling Jack Mould is the man to watch in the contest for Metro chairman", Baker, Alden. The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]04 Aug 1969: 5., "Mould Declared Township Reeve After Recount", The Globe and Mail (1936-Current); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]31 Dec 1962: 5, "Metro chairman campaign shaping up as a 2-man contest", Baker, Alden. The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]02 July 1969: 5. ,"Charge by Cowan: Mould denies Council wrote off firm's taxes", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]24 Sep 1969: 5, "Tax writeoff disclosure sought: Resignation of Mould is demanded by York ratepayers", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]30 Sep 1969: 5 "Writ filed by Mould charges libel, slander", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]27 Sep 1969: 5. "White urges inquiry as more tax write-offs queried by residents", Baker, Alden The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]24 Oct 1969: 4 "Remains in Metro race: Mould denies interest in firm given tax deal", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]25 Sep 1969: 1. "Mould reddens as support lost; Goodhead dejected:, The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]01 Oct 1969: 5. "Mould asked to call meeting to explain disclosure on taxes", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]09 Oct 1969: 5. "Mould subject of report ordered by York Council", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]15 Oct 1969: 5 "White to seek mayor's chair", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]21 Oct 1969: 2. "Won't seek re-election, Mould says", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]22 Oct 1969: 1. "Launched to quash comment: Grys and Mould suits similar, Cowan says", The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]16 Feb 1972: 5. "Believed typical of several 'swing' ridings: Wait-and-see attitude of York South delegates has strategists worried", Zaritsky, John. The Globe and Mail (1936-2016); Toronto, Ont. [Toronto, Ont]10 Feb 1971: 8.

General and cited references

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York, Ontario
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