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Yehimilk inscription

Yehimilk inscription
Createdc. 955 BC
Discoveredbefore 1931
Byblos, Keserwan-Jbeil, Lebanon
Present locationByblos, Keserwan-Jbeil, Lebanon
Yehimilk Phoenician Inscription in the Byblos Castle Museum

The Yehimilk inscription is a Phoenician inscription (KAI 4 or TSSI III 6) published in 1930,[1][2] currently in the museum of Byblos Castle.

It was published in Maurice Dunand's Fouilles de Byblos (volume I, 1926–1932, numbers 1141, plate XXXI).[3]

It is dated to the 10th century BCE, and contains the earliest known Phoenician reference to Baalshamin.[4]

The earliest known Aramaean evidence of this god is found around 790 BC in the Stele of Zakkur.[5]

Text of the inscription

The inscription reads:[6][7]

(1)

BT

Z

BNY

YḤMLK

MLK

GBL

BT Z BNY YḤMLK MLK GBL

[This is] the temple that he has built, Yehimilk, king of Byblos.

(2-3)

H’T

ḤWY

KL

MPLT

HBTM

/

’L

H’T ḤWY KL MPLT HBTM / ’L

It was he who restored all these ruins of temples.

(3-4)

Y’RK

B‘L-ŠMM

WB‘L(T)

/

GBL

Y’RK B‘L-ŠMM WB‘L(T) / GBL

May they [the gods] prolong —Baalsamem, and Ba'al(at) Gebal,

(4-5)

WMPḤRT

’L

GBL

/

QDŠM

WMPḤRT ’L GBL / QDŠM

and the assembly of the holy gods of Byblos—

(5-6)

YMT

YḤMLK

WŠNTW

/

‘L

GBL

YMT YḤMLK WŠNTW / ‘L GBL

[may these gods prolong] Yehimilk's days and his years over Byblos,

(6-7)

K

MLK

ṢDQ

WMLK

/

YŠR

K MLK ṢDQ WMLK / YŠR

because [he is] a just king and a righteous king

(7)

LPN

’L

GBL

QDŠM

[H’]

LPN ’L GBL QDŠM [H’]

before the holy gods of Byblos, he.

Bibliography

References

  1. ^ Maurice Dunand, Nouvelle Inscription Phénicienne Archaique, RB 39 (1930): 321–331.
  2. ^ "Middle East Kingdoms- Ancient Central Levant States". Kessler Associates. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  3. ^ Dunand, Maurice (1939). Fouilles de Byblos: Tome 1er, 1926-1932 [The Byblos excavations, Tome 1, 1926–1932]. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique (in French). Vol. 24. Paris: Librarie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner. and Dunand, Maurice (1937). Fouilles de Byblos, Tome 1er, 1926–1932 (Atlas) [The Byblos excavations, Tome 1, 1926–1932 (Atlas)]. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique (in French). Vol. 24. Paris: Librarie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner – via https://gallica.bnf.fr. ((cite book)): External link in |via= (help)
  4. ^ van der Toorn, K.; Becking, B.; van der Horst, P.W. (1999). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-8028-2491-2. Retrieved 2022-01-30.
  5. ^ Herbert Niehr (ed), The Aramaeans in Ancient Syria. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1: The Near and Middle East. BRILL, 2014 ISBN 978-90-04-22943-3 pp.168-169
  6. ^ Donner, Herbert; Rölig, Wolfgang (2002). Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften (5 ed.). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. p. I, 1.
  7. ^ Krahmalkov, Charles R. (2000). Phoenician-Punic Dictionary. Leuven: Peeters / Departement Oosterse Studies. pp. 106, 129, 179, 218. ISBN 90-429-0770-3.
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Yehimilk inscription
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