For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Voiceless retroflex plosive.

Voiceless retroflex plosive

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Voiceless retroflex plosive" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this message)
Voiceless retroflex plosive
ʈ
IPA Number105
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʈ
Unicode (hex)U+0288
X-SAMPAt`
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)

The voiceless retroflex plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. This consonant is found as a phoneme mostly (though not exclusively) in two areas: South Asia and Australia.

Transcription

The symbol that represents this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ʈ ⟩. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of "t" (the letter used for the equivalent alveolar consonant). In many fonts lowercase "t" already has a rightward-pointing hook, but ⟨ʈ⟩ is distinguished from ⟨t⟩ by extending the hook below the baseline.

Features

Features of the voiceless retroflex stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a plosive.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical subapical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat)[citation needed].
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Translation Notes
Bengali[1] টাকা [ʈaka] 'taka' Apical postalveolar;[1] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Brahui سىٹ [asiʈ] 'one'
English time [ʈaɪm] 'time' Corresponds to alveolar /t/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2] ટાકા [bəʈaːka] 'potato' Subapical;[2] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4] टोपी [ʈoːpiː] 'hat' Apical postalveolar
ٹوپی
Hmong raus [ʈàu] 'immerse in liquid' Contrasts with aspirated form (written ⟨rh⟩).
Iwaidja yirrwartbart [jiɺwɑʈbɑʈ] 'taipan'
Javanese bathang [baʈaŋ] 'cadaver'
Kannada ತಟ್ಟು [t̪ʌʈːu] 'to tap' Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Lo-Toga[5] dege [ʈəɣə] 'we (incl.)' Laminal retroflex.
Malayalam കാട്ട് [kaːʈːɨ̆] 'wild' Contrasts /t̪ t ʈ d̪ ɖ/.
Marathi[2] बटाटा [bəʈaːʈaː] 'potato' Subapical;[2] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Mutsun TiTkuSte [ʈiʈkuʃtɛ] 'torn'
Nepali टोली [ʈoli] 'team' Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Nepali phonology
Norwegian kort [kɔʈː] 'card' See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[6] rdagowa [ʈakowa] 'prawn'
Odia ଗର/ṭagara [ʈɔgɔrɔ] 'crepe jasmine' Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms.
Pashto ټـول [ʈol] 'all'
Punjabi ਟੋਪੀ [ʈoːpi] 'hat'
ٹـوپی
Sicilian latru [ˈlaʈɽu] 'thief'
Scottish Gaelic árd [aːʈ] 'high' Corresponds to the sequence /rˠt/ in other dialects. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Swedish[7] karta [ˈkʰɑːʈa] 'map' See Swedish phonology
Sylheti ꠐꠥꠟ꠆ꠟꠤ [ʈulli] 'skull' contains tonal pronunciation.[8] See Sylheti phonology
Tamil[2][9] எட்டு [eʈːɯ] 'eight' Subapical.[2] See Tamil phonology
Telugu కొట్టు [koʈːu] 'to hit or beat' Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Torwali[10][11] ٹـىىےل [ʈiɡel] 'words' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Vietnamese bạn tr [ɓa˧˨ʔɳˀ ʈa˧˩˧] 'you pay' May be somewhat affricated. See Vietnamese phonology
Welayta [ʈaza] 'dew'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Mazumdar (2000:57)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Khatiwada (2009:374)
  3. ^ Ladefoged (2005:141)
  4. ^ Tiwari (2004:?)
  5. ^ François (2009:189); François (2016:35).
  6. ^ Ladefoged (2005:158)
  7. ^ Eliasson (1986:278–279)
  8. ^ Wright, Tony (2002). "Doing language awareness". Language in Language Teacher Education. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Vol. 4. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 113–130. doi:10.1075/lllt.4.09wri. ISBN 978-90-272-1697-7. Retrieved 2023-07-11.
  9. ^ Keane (2004:111)
  10. ^ Lunsford (2001:11–16)
  11. ^ "ٹیگیل". Online Torwali Dictionary. Center for Language Engineering. Archived from the original on 2024-03-28.

References

{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Voiceless retroflex plosive
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?