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Voiceless labiodental plosive

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Voiceless labiodental plosive
IPA Number101 408
Entity (decimal)p​̪
Unicode (hex)U+0070 U+032A
Braille⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234)⠠ (braille pattern dots-6)⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)

The voiceless labiodental plosive or stop is a consonant sound produced like a [p], but with the lower lip contacting the upper teeth, as in [f]. This can be represented in the IPA as . A separate symbol not recognized by the IPA that was occasionally seen, especially in Bantu linguistics, is the qp ligature ⟨ȹ⟩.[1]

The voiceless labiodental plosive is possibly not phonemic in any language, though see the entry on Shubi. However, it does occur allophonically. The XiNkuna dialect of Tsonga has affricates, [p̪͡f] and [b̪͡v]. German /p͡f/ ranges between [p̪͡f], [p͡f], and [p͡ɸ].


Features of the voiceless labiodental stop:


IPA Description
plain p̪
p̪ʰ aspirated
p̪ʲ palatalized
p̪ʷ labialized
p̪̚ p̪ with no audible release
p̪̌ voiced
p̪ʼ ejective


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Greek σάπφειρος [ˈsap̪firo̞s̠] 'sapphire' See Modern Greek phonology
English up-front [ʌp̪ˈfrʌnt] 'up-front' Common allophone of /p/ before the labiodentals /f/ and /v/ (although it is also possible for the labiodentals to shift to bilabial /ɸ/ and /β/, respectively, instead).
Slovene snop vidim [ˈs̪nɔ̂p̪ ˈʋíːd̪ìm] '(I) see a sheaf' Allophone of /p/ before /f, ʋ/. See Slovene phonology.

See also


  1. ^ Peter, Ladefoged; Ian, Maddieson. The sounds of the world's languages. Blackwell Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 9780631198147.
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Voiceless labiodental plosive
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