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Voiced alveolar affricate

A voiced alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
dz
IPA Number104 133
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʣ
Unicode (hex)U+02A3
X-SAMPAdz

The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with d͡z or d͜z (formerly ʣ).

Features

Features of the voiced alveolar sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • The stop component of this affricate is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge. For simplicity, this affricate is usually called after the sibilant fricative component.
  • There are at least three specific variants of the fricative component:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [z] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʒ] or laminal [ʐ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

The following sections are named after the fricative component.

Dentalized laminal alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] ձուկ/dzuk [d̻͡z̪uk] 'fish'
Belarusian[3] пэндзаль/pendzal [ˈpɛn̪d̻͡z̪alʲ] 'paintbrush' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Czech[4] Afgánec byl [ˈävɡäːnɛd̻͡z̪ bɪɫ̪] 'an Afghan was' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
Hungarian[5] bodza [ˈbod̻͡z̪ːɒ] 'elderberry' See Hungarian phonology
Japanese 残念/zan'nen [d͡zã̠nːẽ̞ɴ] 'regretful' See Japanese phonology
Kashubian[6] dze [d͡ze] 'where'
Latvian[7] drudzis [ˈd̪rud̻͡z̪is̪] 'fever' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[8] ѕвезда/dzvezda [ˈd̻͡z̪ve̞z̪d̪ä] 'star' See Macedonian phonology
Montenegrin[9] dzindzula [ˈd̻͡z̪inˈd̻͡z̪ulä] 'jujube' See Montenegrin phonology
Pashto ځوان [d͡zwɑn] 'youth' 'young' See Pashto phonology
Polish[10] dzwon [d̻͡z̪vɔn̪] 'bell' See Polish phonology
Russian[11] плацдарм/placdarm [pɫ̪ɐd̻͡z̪ˈd̪är̠m] 'bridgehead' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[12] otac bi [ǒ̞t̪äd̻͡z̪ bi] 'father would' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.[12] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak medzi [med͡zi] 'between' See Slovak phonology
Slovene[13] brivec brije [ˈbɾíːʋə̀d̻͡z̪ bɾíjɛ̀] 'barber shaves' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants in native words. As a phoneme present only in loanwords. See Slovene phonology
Tyap zat [d͡zad] 'buffalo'
Ukrainian[14] дзвін dzvin [d̻͡z̪ʋin̪] 'bell' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[15] [example needed] Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.[15]

Non-retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Najdi[16] قـليب/dzelib [d͡zɛ̝lib] 'well' Corresponds to /q/, /ɡ/, or /dʒ/ in other dialects.
English Broad Cockney[17] day [ˈd͡zæˑɪ̯] 'day' Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /d/.[18][19] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[19] [ˈd͡zeˑɪ̯]
New York[20] Possible syllable-initial and sometimes also utterance-final allophone of /d/.[20] See English phonology
Scouse[21] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /d/.[21] See English phonology
French Quebec du [d͡zy] 'of the' Allophone of /d/ before /i, y, j/.
Georgian[22] ვალი/dzvali [d͡zvɑli] 'bone'
Luxembourgish[23] spadséieren [ʃpɑˈd͡zɜ̝ɪ̯əʀən] 'to go for a walk' Marginal phoneme that occurs only in a few words.[23] See Luxembourgish phonology
Marathi जोर/dzor [d͡zor] 'force' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by ज, which also represents [d͡ʒ]. The aspirated sound is represented by झ, which also represents [d͡ʒʱ]. There is no marked difference for either one.
Ollari jōnel [d͡zoːnel] 'maize'
Nepali /ādza [äd͡zʌ] 'today' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by /ज/. The aspirated sound is represented by /झ/. See Nepali phonology
Naiki jūrol [d͡zuːɾol] 'cricket'
Portuguese European[24] desafio [d͡zɐˈfi.u] 'challenge' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/, or assimilation due to the deletion of /i ~ ɨ ~ e/. Increasingly used in Brazil.[25]
Brazilian[24][25] aprendizado [apɾẽ̞ˈd͡zadu] 'learning'
Many speakers mezzosoprano [me̞d͡zo̞so̞ˈpɾɐ̃nu] 'mezzo-soprano' Marginal sound. Some might instead use spelling pronunciations.[26] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[27] zic [d͡zɨk] 'say' Corresponds to [z] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Telugu ౙత/dzata [d͡zɐt̪ɐ] 'pair, set'
Teochew Swatow 日本/jitpun [d͡zit̚˨˩.pʊn˥˧] 'Japan'
Toda üɀ [yd͡z] 'five'

Retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[28] dotze [ˈd̪odd̠͡z̠ə] 'twelve' Apical. See Catalan phonology
Occitan Gascon messatge [IPA needed] 'message' Laminal in other dialects. Varies with [] in some words.
Languedocien
Piedmontese arvëdse [ɑrˈvəd̠͡z̠e] 'goodbye'
Sardinian Central dialects pranzu [ˈpränd̠͡z̠u] 'lunch'

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Greek[29] τζάκι [ˈd͡zɐc̠i] 'fireplace' Varies between retracted and non-retracted, depending on the environment. Phonemically, it is a stop–fricative sequence.[29] See Modern Greek phonology
Italian[30] zero [ˈd͡zɛːro] 'zero' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar.[30] See Italian phonology
Montenegrin dzavala [ˈd̻͡z̪avalä] 'haystack' Varies between dentalized laminal and sibilant affricate. See Montenegrin phonology
West Frisian[31] skodzje [ˈs̠kɔd͡zjə] 'shake' Laminal; varies between retracted and non-retracted.[31] Phonemically, it is a stop–fricative sequence. The example word also illustrates []. See West Frisian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate
dɹ̝
dð̠
dð͇
Audio sample

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[32] [example needed] A possible realization of word-final, non-pre-pausal /r/.[32]
English General American[33] dream [d͡ɹ̝ʷɪi̯m] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/; more commonly postalveolar [d̠͡ɹ̠˔].[33] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[33]
Italian Sicily[34] Adriatico [äd͡ɹ̝iˈäːt̪iko] 'the Adriatic Sea' Apical. It is a regional realization of the sequence /dr/, and can be realized as the sequence [dɹ̝] instead.[35] See Italian phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995:6)
  3. ^ Padluzhny (1989:48–49)
  4. ^ Palková (1994:234–235)
  5. ^ Szende (1999:104)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
  7. ^ Nau (1998:6)
  8. ^ Lunt (1952:1)
  9. ^ "Pravopis crnogorskoga jezika".
  10. ^ Rocławski (1976:162)
  11. ^ Chew (2003:67 and 103)
  12. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
  13. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  14. ^ S. Buk; J. Mačutek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16: 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198.
  15. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984:22, 38))
  16. ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5.
  17. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322–323.
  18. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  19. ^ a b Cruttenden (2014), p. 172.
  20. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 515.
  21. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  22. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  23. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 72.
  24. ^ a b (in Portuguese) Palatalization of dental occlusives /t/ and /d/ in the bilingual communities of Taquara and Panambi, RS – Alice Telles de Paula Page 14
  25. ^ a b "Seqüências de (oclusiva alveolar + sibilante alveolar) como um padrão inovador no português de Belo Horizonte – Camila Tavares Leite" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-06. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
  26. ^ "Adaptações fonológicas na pronúncia de estrangeirismos do Inglês por falantes de Português Brasileiro – Ana Beatriz Gonçalves de Assis" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-13. Retrieved 2014-12-13.
  27. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  28. ^ Hualde (1992:370)
  29. ^ a b Arvaniti (2007), pp. 12, 20, 23–24.
  30. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 75–76.
  31. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 190.
  32. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  33. ^ a b c Cruttenden (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  34. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 64.
  35. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 64–65.

References

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics, 8: 97–208, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.692.1365, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv, archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-11
  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
  • Chew, Peter A. (2003), A computational phonology of Russian, Universal Publishers
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 978-9004103405
  • Cruttenden, Alan (2014), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Hualde, José (1992), Catalan, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-05498-2
  • Kozintseva, Natalia (1995), Modern Eastern Armenian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3895860352
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Lewis jr., Robert Eugene (2013), Complementizer Agreement in Najdi Arabic (PDF)
  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje((citation)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Nau, Nicole (1998), Latvian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-228-2
  • Padluzhny, Ped (1989), Fanetyka belaruskai litaraturnai movy, Навука і тэхніка, ISBN 5-343-00292-7
  • Palková, Zdena (1994), Fonetika a fonologie češtiny, Karolinum, ISBN 978-8070668436
  • Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Pretnar, Tone; Tokarz, Emil (1980), Slovenščina za Poljake: Kurs podstawowy języka słoweńskiego, Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski
  • Puppel, Stanisław; Nawrocka-Fisiak, Jadwiga; Krassowska, Halina (1977), A handbook of Polish pronunciation for English learners, Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, ISBN 9788301012885
  • Rocławski, Bronisław (1976), Zarys fonologii, fonetyki, fonotaktyki i fonostatystyki współczesnego języka polskiego, Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina
  • Szende, Tamás (1999), "Hungarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 104–107, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Vol. 2: The British Isles (pp. i–xx, 279–466), Vol. 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511611759, 10.1017/CBO9780511611766. ISBN 0-52128540-2 , 0-52128541-0 .
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Voiced alveolar affricate
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