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Vasily Zaitsev (sniper)

Vasily Grigoryevich Zaitsev
Zaitsev in 1943
Native name
Василий Григорьевич Зайцев
Born(1915-03-23)23 March 1915
Yeleninskoye, Orenburg Governorate, Russian Empire
Died15 December 1991(1991-12-15) (aged 76)
Kyiv, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union
Mamayev Kurgan, Volgograd, Russia (from 2006)
Allegiance Soviet Union
Years of service1937–1945
AwardsSee list

Vasily Grigoryevich Zaitsev (Russian: Васи́лий Григо́рьевич За́йцев, IPA: [vɐˈsʲilʲɪj ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪdʑ ˈzajtsɨf]; 23 March 1915 – 15 December 1991) was a Soviet sniper during World War II.

Between 22 September 1942 and 19 October 1942, he killed 40 enemy soldiers.[1] Between 10 October 1942 and 17 December 1942, during the Battle of Stalingrad, he killed 225 enemy soldiers.[2]

Zaitsev became a celebrated figure during the war and later a Hero of the Soviet Union, and he remains lauded for his skills as a sniper. His life and military career have been the subject of several books and films: his exploits, as detailed in William Craig's 1973 book Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad, served as the story for the 2001 film Enemy at the Gates, with Jude Law portraying Zaitsev. He is also featured in David L. Robbins's 1999 historical novel War of the Rats.

Early life

Zaitsev was born in Yeleninskoye, Orenburg Governorate in a Russian peasant family and grew up in the Ural Mountains, where he learned marksmanship by hunting deer and wolves with his grandfather and older brother.[3][4] He brought home his first trophy at the age of 12, a wolf that he killed with a single bullet from his first personal gun (given to him by his grandfather), a single-shot 20-gauge shotgun.

In 1930, Zaitsev graduated from construction college in the city of Magnitogorsk, where he received the speciality of fitter. He also studied accounting.

From 1937, Zaitsev served in the Pacific Fleet, where he was clerk of the artillery department. After studying at military school, he was appointed head of the finance department of the Pacific Fleet in Transfiguration Bay.

Military career

Zaitsev, left, in Stalingrad, December 1942
Zaitsev's sniper rifle, a 7.62×54mmR Mosin Model 1891/30 sniper rifle with a PU 3.5× sniper scope. a on display at the Volgograd's Stalingrad Panorama Museum.

Zaitsev was serving in the Soviet Navy as a clerk in Vladivostok when Germany invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Like many of his comrades, he volunteered for transfer to the front line. He had attained the rank of chief petty officer in the Navy and was assigned the rank of senior warrant officer upon transfer to the army. He was assigned to the 1047th Rifle Regiment of the 284th "Tomsk" Rifle Division, which became part of the 62nd Army at Stalingrad on 17 September 1942.[5]

Zaitsev's accuracy with a rifle led to him becoming a sniper. Zaitsev would conceal himself in various locations, for example on high ground, under rubble, or in water pipes. After a few kills, he would change his position or relocate. Together with his partner, Nikolai Kulikov, Zaitsev perfected his hide and sting tactics. One method was to cover a large area from three positions, with two men at each point – a sniper and a scout. This tactic, known as the "sixes", is still in use today by Russian forces and was implemented during the Chechen wars.[6]

Zaitsev fought at the Battle of Stalingrad until January 1943, when a mortar attack injured his eyes. Some conflicting stories state it was a landmine, but the doctor who treated Zaitsev and eventually restored his eyesight was ophthalmologist Vladimir Filatov, founder of the Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy in Odessa, and a pioneer in corneal transplantation. Had Zaitsev been injured by a landmine, an ophthalmologist would not have treated him.[citation needed] According to Soviet sources, before his injury he had killed 225 people in the Battle of Stalingrad alone.

On 22 February 1943, Zaitsev was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. Zaitsev recruited and trained other marksmen during his service in Stalingrad.[7] He returned to the front, and finished the war at the Battle of the Seelow Heights in Germany, with the military rank of captain. He became a member of the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in 1943.

Civilian life

After the war, Zaitsev settled in Kyiv, where he studied at a textile university before obtaining employment as an engineer. He rose to become the director of a textile factory, where he remained until his death on 15 December 1991 in Kyiv, at the age of 76, just 11 days before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. He was buried in Kyiv, although he wished to be buried in the Stalingrad land that he had defended.[8]

2006 commemoration

Zaitsev's grave at Mamayev Kurgan in Volgograd

On 31 January 2006, Vasily Zaitsev was reburied with full military honors at the Stalingrad memorial at Mamayev Kurgan in Volgograd, Russia.[1]

In popular culture


A feature-length film, Enemy at the Gates (2001), starring Jude Law as Zaitsev, was based on part of William Craig's book Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad (1973), which includes a "snipers' duel" between Zaitsev and a Wehrmacht sniper school director, Major Erwin König. Zaitsev indicates in his own memoirs that a three-day duel did indeed occur and that the sniper he killed was the head of a sniper school near Berlin; however, historian Sir Antony Beevor states that the Russian Ministry of Defence archives contradict this and that the duel had been created by the Soviet propaganda.[9] Russian researcher Oleg Kaminsky suggests that the duel could have been between Zaitsev and the German corporal Hermann Stoff of the 295th Infantry Division, who was responsible for 103 killed Red Army soldiers and commanders and who died in Stalingrad at this time.[10]


David L. Robbins's historical novel War of the Rats (1991) includes a sniper duel in Stalingrad, but between Zaitsev and a German adversary named Colonel Heinz Thorvald, identified in the author's introduction as an actual combatant.[11] Ramón Rosanas wrote a comic about the conflict between Zaitsev and König.[12]

Awards and honors


  1. ^ a b "Medal "For Courage" award list, page 62". Pamyat Naroda (in Russian).
  2. ^ "Hero of the Soviet Union award list". Pamyat Naroda (in Russian).
  3. ^ "Vasily Zaitsev".
  4. ^ "Hollywood recycles Soviet tale". 9 November 2000.
  5. ^ Sharp, Charles C. Sharp (1996). "Red Swarm". Soviet Rifle Divisions Formed From 1942 to 1945, Soviet Order of Battle World War II. Vol. X. p. 108.
  6. ^ Balestrieri, Steve (26 July 2021). "Legendary Stalingrad Sniper Vasily Zaytsev Still Teaches Russian Snipers". Sofrep Military Grade Content. Sofrep Media Group. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  7. ^ Zaitsev, Vassili (March 3, 2017). Notes of a Russian Sniper. 5206 S harper Ave, Chicago, IL: Frontline Books. ISBN 978-1-84832-565-4.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  8. ^ "Василий Зайцев будет похоронен на сталинградской земле". 2006-10-31. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  9. ^ Beevor, Antony (29 May 2018). "Antony Beevor: the greatest war movie ever – and the ones I can't bear". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  10. ^ Website, original quote: "Средствами массовой информации была растиражирована версия, что в снайперском поединке он победил то ли майора Эрвина Кёнигса, то ли штандартенфюрера СС Гейнца Торвальда, начальника школы снайперов в Цоссене. Однако всё это досужие выдумки падких на сенсации журналистов, хотя бы потому, что офицеры такого высокого ранга никогда не занимались снайперской охотой. Зато с большой долей вероятности можно предположить, что сраженным Зайцевым снайпером был ефрейтор Герман Штоф из 295-й немецкой пехотной дивизии, на счету которого были 103 убитых красноармейца и командира Красной Армии и, который погиб в Сталинграде примерно в это время…"
  11. ^ Robbins, David L. (1999). War of the Rats. Bantam.
  12. ^ Jiménez, Jesús (19 August 2013). "Ramón Rosanas lleva al cómic al famoso francotirador ruso Vasili Záitsev". Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 January 2019.

Further reading

  • Zaitsev, Vassili (2003) [1956: Original Russian edition]. Okrent, Neil (ed.). Notes of a Sniper. Translated by Givens, David; Kornakov, Peter; Kornakov, Konstatin (1st English translation ed.). Los Angeles: 2826 Press Inc. ISBN 0-615-12148-9.
  • Beevor, Antony (1998). Stalingrad. London: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-100131-9.
  • Robbins, David L. (2000). War of the Rats. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-58135-5.
  • The Reader's Digest Illustrated History of World War II (1989). London: Reader's Digest Association Limited. ISBN 978-0-89577-333-3

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Vasily Zaitsev (sniper)
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