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FISU World University Games

FISU World University Games
Statusactive
Genresporting event
Frequencybiennial
Location(s)various
Inaugurated1959 (1959) (summer)
1960 (1960) (winter)
Organised byFISU

The FISU World University Games, formerly the Universiade, is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation (FISU). The former name is a portmanteau of the words "University" and "Olympiad".

The Universiade is referred to in English as the World University Games or World Student Games; however, this latter term can also refer to competitions for sub-University grades students. In July 2020 as part of a new branding system by the FISU, it was stated that the Universiade was to be officially branded as the FISU World University Games.[1]

The most recent summer event was the 2021 Summer World University Games held in Chengdu, China from 28 July – 8 August 2023, after being postponed three times due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[2] It effectively replaced the 2023 Summer World University Games, that was set to be held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. It was cancelled after the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[3][4] The most recent winter event was the 2023 Winter World University Games held in Lake Placid, United States from 11 to 21 January 2023, after the 2021 edition scheduled to be held in Lucerne, Switzerland was also cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[5][6][7]

Precursors

A student football match held at the 3rd World Festival of Youth and Students
During the 1989 Summer Universiade
During the 2011 Summer Universiade

The idea of a global international sports competition between student-athletes pre-dates the 1949 formation of the International University Sports Federation (FISU), which now hosts the Universiade, and even the very first World University Games held in 1923. English peace campaigner Hodgson Pratt was an early advocate of such an event, proposing (and passing) a motion at the 1891 Universal Peace Congress in Rome to create a series of international student conferences in rotating host capital cities, with activities including art and sport. This did not come to pass, but a similar event was created in Germany in 1909 in the form of the Academic Olympia. Five editions were held from 1909 to 1913, all of which were hosted in Germany following the cancellation of an Italy-based event.[8]

Opening ceremony of the 2017 Summer Universiade

At the start of the 20th century, Jean Petitjean of France began attempting to organise a "University Olympic Games". After discussion with Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Petitjean was convinced not to use the word "Olympic" in the tournament's name.[8] Petitjean, and later the Confederation Internationale des Etudiants (CIE), was the first to build a series of international events, beginning with the 1923 International Universities Championships. This was followed by the renamed 1924 Summer Student World Championships a year later and two further editions were held in 1927 and 1928. Another name change resulted in the 1930 International University Games. The CIE's International University Games was held four more times in the 1930s before having its final edition in 1947.[9][10]

A separate group organised an alternative university games in 1939 in Vienna, in post-Anschluss Germany.[9] The onset of World War II ceased all major international student sport activities and the aftermath also led to division among the movement, as the CIE was disbanded and rival organisations emerged. The Union Internationale des Étudiants (UIE) incorporated a university sports games into the World Festival of Youth and Students from 1947 to 1962, including one separate, unofficial games in 1954. This event principally catered for Eastern European countries.[11]

After the closure of the CIE and the creation of the first UIE-organised games, FISU came into being in 1949 and held its own first major student sport event the same year in the form of the 1949 Summer International University Sports Week. The Sports Week was held biennially until 1955. Like the CIE's games before it, the FISU events were initially Western-led sports competitions.[9]

Division between the largely Western European FISU and Eastern European UIE eventually began to dissipate among broadened participation at the 1957 World University Games. This event was not directly organised by either group, instead being organised by Jean Petitjean in France (which remained neutral to the split), but all respective nations from the groups took part. The FISU-organised Universiade became the direct successor to this competition, maintaining the biennial format into the inaugural 1959 Universiade. It was not until the 1957 World University Games that the Soviet Union began to compete in FISU events. That same year, what had previously been a European competition became a truly global one, with the inclusion of Brazil, Japan and the United States among the competing nations. The increased participation ultimately led to the establishment of the Universiade as the primary global student sport championship.[8][9]

Precursor events

Not recognized by FISU as Universiade or World University Games:

Precursor events
# Year Event Body Host city Host country
1 1923 International Universities Championships CIE Paris  France
2 1924 Summer Student World Championships CIE Warsaw  Poland
3 1927 Summer Student World Championships CIE Rome  Italy
4 1928 Summer Student World Championships CIE Paris  France
5 1930 International University Games CIE Darmstadt  Germany
6 1933 International University Games CIE Turin  Italy
7 1935 International University Games CIE Budapest  Hungary
8 1937 International University Games CIE Paris  France
9 1939 International University Games CIE Monte Carlo  Monaco
10 1939 International University Games NSDStB Vienna  Germany
11 1947 International University Games CIE Paris  France
12 1947 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Prague  Czechoslovakia
13 1949 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Budapest  Hungary
14 1949 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Merano  Italy
15 1951 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE East Berlin  East Germany
16 1951 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Luxembourg  Luxembourg
17 1953 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Bucharest  Romania
18 1953 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Dortmund  West Germany
19 1955 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Warsaw  Poland
20 1955 Summer International University Sports Week FISU San Sebastián  Spain
21 1957 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Moscow  Soviet Union
22 1957 World University Games PUC Paris  France
23 1959 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Vienna  Austria
24 1962 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Helsinki  Finland

Editions

Summer Games

Locations of host cities of the Summer World University Games (excluding those in Europe)
Locations of host cities of the Summer World University Games (in Europe)
Overview of summer Universiade events
Games Year Host country Host city Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top nation
1 1959  Italy Turin Giovanni Gronchi 26 August – 7 September 45 985 7 60  Italy
2 1961  Bulgaria Sofia Dimitar Ganev 25 August – 3 September 32 1,270 9 68  Soviet Union
3 1963  Brazil Porto Alegre Paulo de Tarso Santos 30 August – 8 September 27 917 9 70  Hungary
4 1965  Hungary Budapest István Dobi 20–30 August 32 1,729 9 74  Hungary
5 1967  Japan Tokyo Hirohito 27 August – 4 September 30 937 10 83  United States
6 1970  Italy Turin[a] Giuseppe Saragat 26 August – 6 September 40 2,080 9 82  Soviet Union
7 1973  Soviet Union Moscow Leonid Brezhnev 15–25 August 72 2,765 10 111  Soviet Union
8 1975  Italy Rome[b] Giovanni Leone 18–21 August 38 450 1 38  Soviet Union
9 1977  Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 17–28 August 78 2,939 10 101  Soviet Union
10 1979  Mexico Mexico City José López Portillo 2–13 September 85 2,974 10 97  Soviet Union
11 1981  Romania Bucharest Nicolae Ceaușescu 19–30 July 86 2,912 10 133  Soviet Union
12 1983  Canada Edmonton Prince Charles 1–12 July 73 2,400 10 118  Soviet Union
13 1985  Japan Kobe Akihito 24 August – 4 September 106 3,949 11 123  Soviet Union
14 1987  Yugoslavia Zagreb Lazar Mojsov 8–19 July 122 6,423 12 139  United States
15 1989  West Germany Duisburg[c] Helmut Kohl 22–30 August 79 1,785 4 66  Soviet Union
16 1991  United Kingdom Sheffield Anne, Princess Royal 14–25 July 101 3,346 11 119  United States
17 1993  United States Buffalo Primo Nebiolo 8–18 July 118 3,582 12 135  United States
18 1995  Japan Fukuoka Naruhito 23 August – 3 September 118 3,949 12 144  United States
19 1997  Italy Sicily Oscar Luigi Scalfaro 20–31 August 122 3,582 10 129  United States
20 1999  Spain Palma de Mallorca Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo 3–13 July 114 4,076 12 142  United States
21 2001  China Beijing Jiang Zemin 22 August – 1 September 165 6,757 12 170  China
22 2003  South Korea Daegu Roh Moo-hyun 21–31 August 174 7,180 13 189  China
23 2005  Turkey İzmir Ahmet Necdet Sezer 11–22 August 133 7,816 14 195  Russia
24 2007  Thailand Bangkok Vajiralongkorn 8–18 August 150 6,093 15 236  China
25 2009  Serbia Belgrade Mirko Cvetković 1–12 July 145 5,379 15 203  Russia
26 2011  China Shenzhen Hu Jintao 12–23 August 165 7,999 24 306  China
27 2013  Russia Kazan Vladimir Putin 6–17 July 162 7,966 27 351  Russia
28 2015  South Korea Gwangju Park Geun-hye 3–14 July 142 7,432 21 274  South Korea
29 2017  Chinese Taipei[d] Taipei Tsai Ing-wen 19–30 August 145 7,377 22 272  Japan
30 2019  Italy Naples[e] Sergio Mattarella 3–14 July 112 5,971 18 220  Japan
31 2021  China Chengdu Xi Jinping 28 July – 8 August 2023[f] 116 5,056 18 268  China
2023  Russia Yekaterinburg Cancelled due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine
32 2025  Germany Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region 16–27 July 20 225
33 2027  South Korea Chungcheong Province 1-12 August 17
34 2029  United States Research Triangle[12] 11-22 July 17
  1. ^ Originally scheduled for Lisbon, Portugal in 1969.
  2. ^ Originally scheduled for Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
  3. ^ Originally scheduled for São Paulo, Brazil.
  4. ^ The Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised as Chinese Taipei by the FISU and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.
  5. ^ Originally scheduled for Brasília, Brazil.
  6. ^ Originally scheduled to be held on 15–27 August 2021 and 25 June – 7 July 2022, but was postponed twice due to the COVID-19 pandemic. With the eventual cancellation of the 2023 Games in Yekaterinburg due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, this edition replaced the 2023 event.

Winter Games

Locations of host cities of the Winter World University Games (excluding those in Europe)
Winter World University Games editions
Games Year Host country Host city Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top nation
1 1960  France Chamonix Charles de Gaulle 28 February – 6 March 16 151 5 13  France
2 1962  Switzerland Villars Paul Chaudet 6–12 March 22 273 6 12  West Germany
3 1964  Czechoslovakia Špindlerův Mlýn Antonín Novotný 11–17 February 21 285 5 15  West Germany
4 1966  Italy Sestriere Giuseppe Saragat 5–13 February 29 434 6 19  Soviet Union
5 1968  Austria Innsbruck Franz Jonas 21–28 January 26 424 7 23  Soviet Union
6 1970  Finland Rovaniemi Urho Kekkonen 3–9 April 25 421 7 24  Soviet Union
7 1972  United States Lake Placid Richard Nixon 26 February – 5 March 23 351 7 25  Soviet Union
8 1975  Italy Livigno Giovanni Leone 6–13 April 15 143 2 13  Soviet Union
9 1978  Czechoslovakia Špindlerův Mlýn Gustáv Husák 5–12 February 21 260 7 16  Soviet Union
10 1981  Spain Jaca Juan Carlos I 25 February – 4 March 28 394 7 19  Soviet Union
11 1983  Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 17–27 February 28 535 7 21  Soviet Union
12 1985  Italy Belluno Sandro Pertini 16–24 February 34 538 7 30  Soviet Union
13 1987  Czechoslovakia Štrbské Pleso Gustáv Husák 21–28 February 21 596 6 25  Czechoslovakia
14 1989  Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 2–12 March 21 681 8 40  Soviet Union
15 1991  Japan Sapporo Naruhito 2–10 March 34 668 8 40  Japan
16 1993  Poland Zakopane Lech Wałęsa 6–14 February 41 668 8 36  Japan
17 1995  Spain Jaca Juan Carlos I 18–28 February 41 765 9 35  South Korea
18 1997  South Korea Muju-Jeonju Kim Young-sam 24 January – 2 February 48 877 9 51  Japan
19 1999  Slovakia Poprad-Vysoké Tatry Rudolf Schuster 22–30 January 40 926 8 52  Russia
20 2001  Poland Zakopane Aleksander Kwaśniewski 7–17 February 41 1,007 9 52  Russia
21 2003  Italy Tarvisio Renzo Tondo 16–26 January 46 1,266 10 59  Russia
22 2005  Austria Innsbruck-Seefeld Heinz Fischer 12–22 January 50 1,449 11 68  Austria
23 2007  Italy Turin George Killian 17–27 January 48 1,638 11 72  South Korea
24 2009  China Harbin Liu Yandong 18–28 February 44 1,545 12 81  China
25 2011  Turkey Erzurum Abdullah Gül 27 January – 6 February 52 1,593 11 66  Russia
26 2013  Italy Trentino Ugo Rossi 11–21 December [a] 50 1,698 12 79  Russia
27 2015  Slovakia Štrbské PlesoOsrblie [b] Andrej Kiska 24 January – 1 February 43 1,546 11 68  Russia
 Spain Granada Felipe VI 4–14 February
28 2017  Kazakhstan Almaty Nursultan Nazarbayev 29 January – 8 February 57 1,604 12 85  Russia
29 2019  Russia Krasnoyarsk Vladimir Putin 2–12 March 58 3,000 11 76  Russia
30 2021  Switzerland Lucerne Cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic
31 2023  United States Lake Placid[13] Kathy Hochul 12–22 January 47 1,443 12 85  Japan
32 2025  Italy Turin 13–23 January 11 72
33 2027 TBA
34 2029 TBA
  1. ^ Originally scheduled for Maribor, Slovenia.
  2. ^ Due to environmental problems in Granada, the Nordic skiing events were transferred to Slovakia.

Sports

Summer Games

Unlike other sporting events, the World University Games are recognized for the flexibility in their program, as since the second edition held in 1961, it has been up to the Organizing Committee and the National University Sports Federation of the host country to choose sports or optional competitions. according to the reality of the host country. However, there is a list of mandatory sports that are defined by the International University Sports Federation that is reviewed at the end of each edition as the games also serves as World University Championship in those sports. At the first edition held in Turin in 1959, only 8 sports were in the sporting program (athletics, basketball, fencing, gymnastics, swimming, tennis, volleyball and water polo). The first sport to be considered optional was diving, which was added to the second edition held in Sofia, Bulgaria in 1961. In addition, optional events were added in basketball and volleyball, when women's tournaments were played. In Porto Alegre 1963 the woman's basketball was dropped from the sporting program. In 1967, the third World University Judo Championship was held in Tokyo, and it was integrated into the fifth edition of the Summer Universiade as an extra sport, thus gaining the status of an optional sport and thus inaugurating a new type of sport at the event, which is that of the optional sport. Therefore, the sport with this status is not part of the fixed program and may be in this edition, but not necessarily in the next one.

Compulsory sports

Team sports
  1. Basketball at the Summer Universiade
  2. Volleyball at the Summer Universiade
  3. Water polo at the Summer Universiade
Individual sports
  1. Athletics at the Summer Universiade
  2. Swimming at the Summer Universiade
  3. Diving at the Summer Universiade
  4. Gymnastics at the Summer Universiade (artistic and rhythmic) Gymnastics (Artistic) was an optional sport in 1961, turned compulsory in 1963. Rhythmic was an optional sport in 1991,1995 and 1997. Turned compulsory in 2001.
  5. Fencing at the Summer Universiade
  6. Tennis at the Summer Universiade
  7. Table tennis at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2007. Optional sport in 2001.
  8. Judo at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2007. Optional sport in 1967, 1985, 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2003.
  9. Taekwondo at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2015. Optional sport in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011.
  10. Archery at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2019. Optional sport in 2003, 2005, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017.
  11. Badminton at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2021. Optional sport in 2007, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017.

Optional sports

Team sports
  1. Baseball at the Summer Universiade – 6 times (1993, 1995, 2015, 2017,scheduled for 2027 and 2029)
  2. Beach volleyball at the Summer Universiade – 3 times (2011, 2013, scheduled for 2025)
  3. Field hockey at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (1991, 2013)
  4. Rugby sevens at the Summer Universiade – 3 times (2013, 2019 scheduled for 2029)
  5. Basketball at the Summer Universiade (3x3 basketball) – scheduled for 2025
  6. Handball at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2015)
  7. Softball at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2007 scheduled for 2029)
Individual sports
  1. Rowing at the Summer Universiade – 7 times (1987, 1989, 1993, 2013, 2015, 2021 and scheduled for 2025)
  2. Shooting at the Summer Universiade – 6 times (2007, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2019 and 2021)
  3. Wrestling at the Summer Universiade – 5 times (1973, 1977, 1981, 2005, 2013)
  4. Golf at the Summer Universiade – 4 times (2007, 2011, 2015, 2017)
  5. Sailing at the Summer Universiade – 4 times (1999, 2005, 2011, 2019)
  6. Open water swimming at the Summer Universiade – 4 times (2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and scheduled for 2025)
  7. Weightlifting at the Summer Universiade – 3 times (2011, 2013, 2017)
  8. Canoeing at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (1987, 2013)
  9. Chess at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (2011, 2013)
  10. Cycling at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (1983, 2011)
  11. Wushu at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (2017, 2021)
  12. Aerobics gymnastics at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2011)
  13. Belt wrestling at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
  14. Billiards at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2017)
  15. Boxing at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
  16. Roller sports at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2017)
  17. Sambo at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
  18. Synchronized swimming at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
Removed sports
  1. Football at the Summer Universiade – Obsolescent since 2019,after the creation of FISU World Cup Optional sport in 1979, compulsory from 1985 to 2019.

Winter Games

Since 1960 until 1989, limited and fixed sports were held. Since 1991 Winter Universiade the host is allowed to choose some sports that are approved by FISU as optional sports.

Compulsory sports

Team sports
  1. Curling at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 2007. Optional sport in 2003.
  2. Ice hockey at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1966. Optional sport in 1962.
Individual sports
  1. Alpine skiing at the Winter Universiade
  2. Biathlon at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1997. Optional sport in 1983, 1989, 1993, 1997 and 1999.
  3. Cross-country skiing at the Winter Universiade
  4. Figure skating at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1981. Optional sport in 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966 and 1968.
  5. Freestyle skiing at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 2023. Optional sport in 2005, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2019.
  6. Snowboarding at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1999. Optional sport in 1995 and 1997.
  7. Ski-orienteering at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 2027. Optional sport in 2019,special status in 2025 and compulsory starting in 2027
  8. Short track speed skating at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1997. Optional sport in 1985, 1989, 1991, 1993 and 1995.

Optional sports

Team sports
  1. Bandy at the Winter Universiade – 1 time (2019)
Individual sports
  1. Nordic combined at the Winter Universiade – 27 times (1960–1970, 1978, 1981–2023). Compulsory sport from 1960 to 1970, and from 1981 to 2007; optional in 1972, 1978, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2023.
  2. Ski jumping at the Winter Universiade – 25 times (1960–1972, 1978, 1981–2017). Compulsory sport from 1960 to 1970, and between 1981 and 2007; optional in 1972, 1978, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2023.
  3. Ski mountaineering at the Winter Universiade – 1 time scheduled for 2025.
  4. Skeleton at the Winter Universiade – 1 time (2005)
Special sport status
  1. Speed skating at the Winter Universiade – 11 times (1968–2023). Sport with special status (1968, 1970, 1972, 1991, 1997, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2013, 2017, 2023).

Medals

Summer Games

RankNUSFGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 China (CHN)5483462931187
2 United States (USA)4934464171356
3 Russia (RUS)4303644191213
4 Soviet Union (URS)*409337251997
5 Japan (JPN)3703644781212
6 South Korea (KOR)260221284765
7 Italy (ITA)212225284721
8 Ukraine (UKR)182185179546
9 Romania (ROU)148132149429
10 Hungary (HUN)120105121346
Totals (10 entries)3172272528758772

Winter Games

RankNUSFGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Russia (RUS)207188180575
2 South Korea (KOR)1218678285
3 Japan (JPN)112119106337
4 Soviet Union (URS)*1039267262
5 China (CHN)746676216
6 Italy (ITA)576271190
7 France (FRA)575755169
8 Poland (POL)566561182
9 Czechoslovakia (TCH)*544025119
10 Austria (AUT)515253156
Totals (10 entries)8928277722491

See also

References

  1. ^ Pavitt, Michael (28 July 2020). "FISU finalises naming system for events". insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  2. ^ "Chengdu 2021 FISU World University Games postponed to 2022". www.fisu.net. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  3. ^ "FISU suspends Yekaterinburg hosting rights for 2023 World University Games".
  4. ^ "FISU World University Summer Games (Universiade)".
  5. ^ "Lucerne 2021 Winter Universiade postponed, will not take place in January 2021". FISU. 31 August 2020.
  6. ^ Morgan, Liam (6 November 2020). "Lucerne 2021 Winter Universiade rescheduled for December". insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  7. ^ "Omicron forces student winter games to cancel". SwissInfo. 29 November 2021.
  8. ^ a b c Bell, Daniel (2003). Encyclopedia of International Games. McFarland and Company, Inc. Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina. ISBN 0-7864-1026-4.
  9. ^ a b c d World Student Games (pre-Universiade). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-12-10.
  10. ^ FISU History Archived 19 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. FISU. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.
  11. ^ World Student Games (UIE). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.
  12. ^ Shaw, Justin (10 January 2023). "North Carolina Wins Bid for 2029 FISU World University Games". SportsTravel. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  13. ^ "Lake Placid set to host 2023 Winter Universiade after MoU signed with FISU". Inside the Games. 6 March 2018.
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FISU World University Games
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