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United States Navy Chaplain Corps

United States Navy Chaplain Corps
Seal of the United States Navy Chaplain Corps
Founded28 November 1775; 248 years ago (1775-11-28)
Country United States
Branch United States Navy[1]
WebsiteUS Navy Chaplain Corps
Jewish Worship Pennant, flying over the national ensign (U.S. flag) on a U.S. Navy ship.[2]
The insignia for Christian, Muslim, and Jewish chaplains are shown on the uniforms of three U.S. Navy chaplains.

The United States Navy Chaplain Corps is the body of military chaplains of the United States Navy who are commissioned naval officers. Their principal purpose is "to promote the spiritual, religious, moral, and personal well-being of the members of the Department of the Navy," which includes the Navy and the United States Marine Corps. Additionally, the Chaplain Corps provides chaplains to the United States Coast Guard.

The Chaplain Corps consists of clergy endorsed from ecclesiastical bodies providing assistance for all Navy, Marine Corps, Merchant Marine, and Coast Guard personnel and their families. Navy chaplains come from a variety of religious backgrounds; chaplains are Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Jewish, Muslim, and Buddhist.

Chaplains have non-combatant status and do not participate directly in hostilities. In the U.S. they are prohibited from carrying weapons. Chaplains are assisted by Navy enlisted personnel in the Religious Program Specialist (RP) rating, when available. Otherwise, a variety of personnel in the Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard—as applicable—may support unit chaplains. RPs who are combatants also serve as the armed protection for chaplains in combat and other operational environments. Since RPs are enlisted, the Chaplain Corps, while protective of them, does not "own" the rating.

History

A navy chaplain in May 2014 speaks about his work during an official visit to the Philippines

The history of the Chaplain Corps traces its beginnings to 28 November 1775 when the second article of Navy Regulations was adopted. It stated that "the Commanders of the ships of the thirteen United Colonies are to take care that divine services be performed twice a day on board and a sermon preached on Sundays unless bad weather or other extraordinary accidents prevent." Although chaplains were not specifically mentioned in this article, one can infer that Congress intended that an ordained clergyman be part of ship's company.[3]

United States Navy Chaplain Corps was established on 28 November 1775.[4]

The Continental Navy, the predecessor of the United States Navy, was approved by the Second Continental Congress on 13 October 1775. It was administered by a Marine Committee of three members later expanded to seven members. The Navy Regulations adopted by the Marine Committee on 28 November 1775 mirrored those of the Royal Navy.

The first mention of a chaplain in the Journals of the Continental Congress refers to his share in the distribution of prize money. On 6 January 1776, Congress passed a resolution detailing the prize share percentages and includes the distribution of a portion to the chaplain. On 15 November 1776, Congress fixed the base pay of the chaplain at $20 a month. The first chaplain known to have served in the Continental Navy was the Reverend Benjamin Balch, a Congregational minister, whose father had served in a similar capacity in the Royal Navy. Benjamin Balch's son, William Balch, is the first chaplain known to have received a commission in the U.S. Navy after the department was established in 1798.[5]

During World War II, at least 24 Chaplains died, with three being killed during the Attack on Pearl Harbor.[6]

Qualifications

The Navy accepts clergy from religious denominations and faith groups. Clergy must be endorsed by an approved endorsing agency. Once endorsed, clergy must meet requirements established by the Department of the Navy including age and physical fitness requirements. A chaplain's ecclesiastical endorsement can be withdrawn by the endorser at any time, after which the chaplain is no longer able to serve as a chaplain.

Qualified applicants must be U.S. citizens at least 21 years old; meet certain medical and physical fitness standards; hold a bachelor's degree, with no less than 120 semester hours from a qualified educational institution; and hold a post-baccalaureate graduate degree, which includes 72 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in theological or related studies. At least one-half of these hours must include topics in general religion, theology, religious philosophy, ethics, and/or the foundational writings from one's religious tradition. Accredited distance education graduate programs are acceptable.

Chaplains then attend the Navy Chaplain School at Ft. Jackson, South Carolina, at the Armed Forces Chaplaincy Center (AFCC).[7]

The Navy has a "Chaplain Candidate Program Officer" (CCPO) Program for seminary students interested in obtaining a commission before completing their graduate studies.[8][9]

Naval Chaplaincy School and Center

The Naval Chaplaincy School and Center (NCSC) is located at Naval Station Newport in Rhode Island. Its mission is to train, develop, and inspire chaplains and religious program specialists to pursue excellence as they strengthen the soul of the warfighter, the family, and the fleet. The NCSC trains Navy chaplains (1945, 4105, 4100) and religious program specialists (RP) to fulfill a critical role in helping the Department of the Navy achieve and maintain a ready force. Accession-level RP training is located at Naval Technical Training Center Meridian, Mississippi.[10]

Mission

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Navy chaplains explain their duties

The mission of the Chaplain Corps is:

  • PROVIDE religious ministry and support to those of our own faith.
  • FACILITATE for all religious beliefs.
  • CARE for all Marine, Navy and Coast Guard personnel and their families.
  • ADVISE commanders to ensure the free exercise of religion.

Priorities

  • Promote ethical and moral behavior throughout the Sea Services.
  • Ensure religious ministry enhances current readiness.
  • Think strategically for future readiness.
  • Employ Reserve religious ministry assets more effectively.
  • Realign assets to improve religious ministry for operational forces.
  • Improve recruitment and retention.
  • Enhance external and internal communications.
  • Leverage technology to support the mission.

Guiding principles

The guiding principles are:

  • We are faithful to our individual religious traditions and practices.
  • We respect the right of others to hold spiritual beliefs and religious practices different from our own
  • We cooperate and collaborate in ministry.
  • We are committed to the highest standards of morality and personal integrity.
  • We are committed to professionalism in the performance of duty.

Vision

Mission-ready sailors, marines, and their families, demonstrating spiritual, moral and ethical maturity, supported by the innovative delivery of religious ministry and compassionate pastoral care.

Controversies

This section appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events. (September 2018)

The United States Navy is required to be responsive to diverse requirements of sailors, Marines, Coast Guardsmen, Merchant Marines and all their family members. Since its inception over two centuries ago, the United States Navy Chaplain Corps has experienced several controversies in fulfilling such requirements as a Staff Corps community within the U.S. Navy.

Some contemporary controversies include the filing of class-action lawsuits by "non-liturgical" active and former active-duty Protestant chaplains alleging religious discrimination. These chaplains argued that the Navy allegedly employed a quota system that caused "non-liturgical" Protestant chaplains to be underrepresented through the current career promotion established by the Department of the Navy.[11]

In the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, Accommodating Faith in the Military (dated 3 July 2008) states: "That precise question has been raised in a series of cases, going back a decade, over the way that the Navy selects chaplains. These lawsuits allege that the Navy has hired chaplains using a "thirds policy," a formula dividing its chaplains into thirds: one-third consisting of liturgical Protestant denominations (such as Methodists, Lutherans, Episcopalians and Presbyterians); another third consisting of Catholics; and a last third consisting of non-liturgical Protestant denominations (such as Baptists, evangelicals, Bible churches, Pentecostals and charismatics) and other faiths. The lawsuits claim that the Navy's criteria are unconstitutional because they disfavor non-liturgical Protestants, who make up a great deal more than one-third of the Navy, while Catholics and liturgical Protestants each make up less than one-third.

In April 2007, a U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C., rejected one of these challenges to the Navy's chaplain-selection criteria. The court held that the Navy had abandoned the thirds policy and said that its current criteria were constitutional because the Navy has broad discretion to determine how to accommodate the religious needs of its service members. This decision was affirmed in 2008 by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.

In June 2009, the Navy's Inspector General found that the Deputy Chief of Chaplains, RDML Alan Baker, took actions which "reprised against" his former Executive Assistant during a promotion board in 2008 and was subsequently not recommended for his second star and selection to Chief of Chaplains by the CNO. This determination found that Adm Baker improperly influenced a Captain promotion board in a negative manner. Chaplain Baker retired in September 2009.

The current (27th) Chief of Chaplains for the Navy is RADM Brent W. Scott.

Navy Chaplain (Fr.) George Pucciarelli wears a stole over his Marine Corps camouflage uniform that he donned to deliver Last Rites after the 1983 truck bomb attack. He tore off a piece of his uniform to make a new kippa for Jewish chaplain Arnold Resnicoff, as they ministered side-by-side to all Marines

Chaplain and Religious Program Specialist (RP) Insignia

Leadership

On 1 July 1944, Chaplain Lindner reads the benediction held in honor of USS South Dakota shipmates killed in the air action off Guam
Chaplain Joseph T. O'Callahan ministers to an injured man aboard USS Franklin, 1945.
A U.S. Navy chaplain celebrates Catholic Mass for Marines at Saipan, June 1944, commemorating comrades fallen in initial amphibious landings.

Federal Service Academy Chapels

Prayers

Notable chaplains

Ships named for Navy chaplains

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Per U.S. Navy customs, traditions and etiquette, worship pennants may be flown above the ensign "Naval Customs, Traditions, & Etiquette – Church Pennant". U.S. Fleet Forces. United States Navy. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015.
  3. ^ "History".
  4. ^ "NHHC". www.history.navy.mil. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  5. ^ See also: "History of the Chaplain Corps" (1993). U.S. Coast Guard website (Chaplain of the Coast Guard). Written by Commander Margaret G. Kibben, CHC, USNR, History Projects Officer, Chaplain Resource Board. Retrieved 3 December 2009.
  6. ^ Drury, Clifford Merrill (May 1994). History of the Chaplain Corps, Part 2: NAVEDTRA 14282 (PDF). Naval Publications and Forms Center. p. 206. NSN: 0500-LP-288-0000 – via NavyBMR.com.
  7. ^ Vanderwerff, Steve (10 November 2009). "First Group of Navy Chaplains Graduate from NSCS Fort Jackson". navy.mil. United States Navy. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  8. ^ Rod Powers, "Navy Commissioned Officer Job Designators Description & Qualification Factors (chaplain)". About.com Guide. Retrieved 5 December 2009.
  9. ^ Chaplain: Officer: Careers & Jobs: Navy. U.S. Navy official website. Retrieved 3 December 2009.
  10. ^ "Naval Chaplaincy School and Center". Naval Education and Training Command. US Navy. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  11. ^ "Harry Potter to work his magic at AAFES". stripes.com. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  12. ^ Soccaras, Lisa, "Fr. Mode Battles for Souls", CathMil.org (Catholics in the Military), 23 October 2009. Navy chaplain assigned as a USCGA chaplain in June 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
  13. ^ "Locations" of Navy chaplains assigned to USCG (5 June 2009). U.S. Coast Guard official website (Chaplain of the Coast Guard). Retrieved 3 December 2009.
  14. ^ https://www.usmma.edu/mariners-chapel
  15. ^ To access the prayers, go to Coast Guard prayers Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine and then (in the left-hand column) click on "USCG". ChaplainCare (online Navy chaplain corps "Distance Support") official website. Retrieved 3 December 2009.
  16. ^ To access the prayer, go to Marine Prayer Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine and then (in the left-hand column) click on "USMC". ChaplainCare (online Navy chaplain corps "Distance Support") official website. Retrieved 3 December 2009.
  17. ^ See: Vincent R. Capodanno § Capodanno Hall, San Francisco.
  18. ^ "First Catholic Chaplains in U.S. Army and Navy". Woodstock Letters. LXX (3): 466–467. 1 October 1941. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018 – via Jesuit Online Library.
  19. ^ "Cardinal O'Connor – His Life".
  20. ^ Martin, Lawrence H. CHC, Head, Chaplain's Corps History Branch, USN, William. N. Thomas: Navy Chaplain and Southern Gentleman p. 1.
  21. ^ Martin, Lawrence H. CHC, Head, Chaplain's Corps History Branch, USN, William. N. Thomas: Navy Chaplain and Southern Gentleman p. 1-18.

Further reading

See: United States military chaplains § Further reading
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United States Navy Chaplain Corps
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