For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Tushratta.

Tushratta

Tushratta
King of Mitanni
Reignc. 1358 BC – c. 1335 BC
PredecessorArtashumara
SuccessorArtatama II
IssueShattiwaza
Tadukhipa
FatherShuttarna II
One of the Amarna letters. A letter from Tushratta king of Mitanni to the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III, c. 1370 BCE. Akkadian cuneiform text. From Tell el-Amarna, Egypt. Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin

Tushratta (Akkadian: Tušratta[1] and Tuišeratta[2]) was a king of Mitanni, c. 1358–1335 BCE,[3] at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten. He was the son of Shuttarna II. Tushratta stated that he was the grandson of Artatama I.[4] His sister Gilukhipa (Gilu-ḫepa in Hurrian) and his daughter Tadukhipa (Tadu-ḫepa in Hurrian) were married to the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III;[5] Tadukhipa later married Akhenaten who took over his father's royal harem.

He had been placed on the throne after the murder of his brother Artashumara. He was probably quite young at the time and was destined to serve as a figurehead only but he managed to dispose of the murderer. A tablet was found in a Mitanni building at Tell Brak which stated it was witnessed "in the presence of Tushratta, the king" and had a seal of an earlier king Shaushtatar on the reverse which was a common practice.[6]

Name

Recorded in three distinct spellings—Tušratta, Tušeratta, Tuišeratta—Tushratta's name is an Akkadianised rendition of an Indo-Aryan name Tvaiṣaratha, itself a cognate of the Vedic Sanskrit name त्वेषरथ (Tveṣaratha)[citation needed], and meaning "[one with, having] a charging chariot".[7][8]

History

At the beginning of his reign, the Hittite King Suppiluliuma I reconquered Kizzuwatna, then invaded the western part of the Euphrates valley and conquered the Amurru and Nuhašše in Hanigalbat. According to the Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza treaty, Suppiluliuma had made a treaty with Artatama, a rival of Tushratta. Nothing is known of Artatama's previous life or connection, if any, to the royal family. The document calls him king of the Hurrians, while Tushratta is given the title of "King of Mitanni", which must have disagreed with Tushratta. Suppiluliuma started to plunder the lands of the west bank of the Euphrates river and he annexed Mount Lebanon. Tushratta threatened to raid beyond the Euphrates if even a single lamb or kid was stolen.

Suppiluliuma then recounts how the land of Isuwa on the upper Euphrates had seceded in the time of his grandfather. Attempts to conquer it failed. In the time of his father, other cities rebelled. Suppiluliuma claims to have defeated them, but the survivors fled to the territory of Isuwa that must have been part of Tushratta's realm. A clause to return fugitives was part of many treaties made at the time, so possibly the harbouring of fugitives by Isuwa formed the pretext for the Hittite invasion. A Hittite army crossed the border, entered Isuwa and returned the fugitives (or deserters or exile governments) to Hittite rule. "I freed the lands which I captured; they dwelt in their places. All the people whom I released rejoined their peoples and Hatti incorporated their territories," Suppiluliuma later boasted.

The Hittite army then marched through various districts towards the Mitanni capital of Washshukanni. Suppiluliuma claims to have plundered the district and to have brought loot, captives, cattle, sheep and horses back to Hatti. He also claims that Tushratta fled, but obviously he failed to capture the capital. While the campaign weakened Tushratta's kingdom, he still held onto his throne.

A second campaign

In a second campaign, the Hittites again crossed the Euphrates and subdued Halab, Mukish, Niya, Arahati, Apina, and Qatna as well as some cities whose names have not been preserved. Charioteers are mentioned among the booty from Arahati, who were brought to Hatti together with all their possessions. While it was common practice to incorporate enemy soldiers in the army, this might point to a Hittite attempt to counter the most potent weapon of the Mitanni, the war-chariots, by building up or strengthening their own chariot forces.

Tushratta had possibly suspected Hittite intentions on his kingdom, for the Amarna letters include several tablets from Tushratta concerning the marriage of his daughter Tadukhipa with Akhenaten, explicitly to solidify an alliance with the Egyptian kingdom. However, when Suppiluliuma invaded his kingdom, the Egyptians failed to respond in time—perhaps because of the sudden death of Akhenaten, and the resulting struggle for control of the Egyptian throne.

According to a treaty later made between Suppiluliuma and Shattiwaza, a son of Tushratta, after a third devastating Hittite raid led to the fall of Carchemish, Tushratta was assassinated by a group led by one of his sons.[9] A time of civil war followed which came to an end when Suppiluliuma placed Shattiwaza on the Mitannian throne.

Amarna letters

Six of the Tushratta letters, including EA 24, were subjected to Neutron Activation Analysis to match the clay composition to potential sites for Waššukanni. The results ruled out a Tell Fakhariyah location.[10]

From King Tushratta to Amenhotep III

From King Tushratta to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten)

  • Amarna letters EA 25
  • Amarna letter EA 27, "The missing gold statues again"
  • Amarna letter EA 28,
  • Amarna letter EA 29,

From King Tushratta to Queen Tiye

References

  1. ^ tu-uš-rat-ta in "CDLI-Archival View". cdli.ucla.edu.
  2. ^ tu-iš-e-rat-ta in "CDLI-Archival View". cdli.ucla.edu.
  3. ^ Mladjov, I., (2019). "The Kings of Mittani in Light of the New Evidence from Terqa", in: NABU 2019, No. 1, March, p. 34.
  4. ^ Goetze, Albrecht. “On the Chronology of the Second Millennium B. C. (Concluded).” Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 11, no. 3, 1957, pp. 63–73
  5. ^ Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3,
  6. ^ N. J. J. Illingworth. “Inscriptions from Tell Brak 1986.” Iraq, vol. 50, 1988, pp. 87–108
  7. ^ Witzel, Michael (2001). "Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 7 (3): 1–118. doi:10.11588/EJVS.2001.3.830. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  8. ^ Liverani, Mario (2014). "16.1. The 'mountain people' and the 'dark age'". The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. p. 273.
  9. ^ Devecchi, Elena. “Details That Make the Difference: The Akkadian Manuscripts of the ‘Šattiwaza Treaties.’” Die Welt Des Orients, vol. 48, no. 1, 2018, pp. 72–95
  10. ^ Dobel, Allan, et al. “Neutron Activation Analysis and the Location of Waššukanni.” Orientalia, vol. 46, no. 3, 1977, pp. 375–82
  11. ^ a b c Mercer, Samuel (1939). The Tell El-Amarna Tablets. Vol. 1: The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited. p. xxiv.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link)

See also

Preceded byArtashumara Mitanni king 14th century BC Succeeded byArtatama II
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Tushratta
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?