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Treaty of Jeddah (2023)

Treaty of Jeddah
معاهدة جدة
Jeddah Declaration of Commitment to Protect the Civilians of Sudan: the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Rapid Support Forces Agreement on a Short-Term Ceasefire and Humanitarian Arrangements.[1][2]
Location of Saudi Arabia and Sudan on a world map
TypePeace treaty
Signed20 May 2023 (violated)
LocationJeddah, Saudi Arabia
Sealed21 May 2023
Effective22 May 2023[3]
  • 23 May 2023 (Warring sides restart large clashes across Sudan)
  • 27 May 2023 (Official expiration date on the agreement)
  •  United States
  •  Sudan
  •  Saudi Arabia
Languages2: Arabic and English
Full text
Treaty of Jeddah (2023) at Wikisource
  • The United States and Saudi Arabia suspended the agreement fully on 1 June 2023 after several violations, failed agreements, and ceasefires.
  • Due to violations, The U.S. imposes sanctions on Sudan's warring sides.
  • Talks resumed on 7 June 2023

The Treaty of Jeddah (initially known as the Jeddah Agreement) or Jeddah Declaration[1][2] is an international agreement that was made to make peace in Sudan. The Treaty of Jeddah, which was signed by the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan and representatives of both warring sides on 20 May 2023,[3] entered into force 48 hours later on 22 May 2023. The agreement was supposed to create a week-long ceasefire and the distribution of humanitarian aid within the country. The agreement expired suddenly after a surge of clashes on 23 May 2023, a day after the agreement came into effect. With the actual date of expiry being 27 May 2023, the nations agreed on an extension for five days but was shortened due to the agreement's ineffectiveness.


In 2003, war broke out in western Sudan's Darfur region between the government-sponsored, predominantly Arab Janjaweed militia aided by the Sudanese Armed Forces against the predominantly non-Arab Sudan Liberation Movement and Justice and Equality Movement, after SLM and JEM launched attacks against the Sudanese government and accusing them of genocide. El Geneina, as the capital of West Darfur, saw a copious amount of violence, due to its location as the sultanate of the Masalit people.[4] The city had a population of 250,000 in 2008.[5]

In 2020, the war came to an end after several rebel groups signed a peace treaty with the Sudanese government following the Sudanese Revolution and the ousting of Omar al-Bashir. In the process, the Janjaweed restructured itself into the Rapid Support Forces, although many Darfuris still call it the Janjaweed.[6]

Tensions between the RSF and the Sudanese junta began to escalate in February 2023, as the RSF began to recruit members from across Sudan. A brief military buildup in Khartoum was succeeded by an agreement for de-escalation, with the RSF withdrawing its forces from the Khartoum area.[7] The junta later agreed to hand over authority to a civilian-led government,[8] but it was delayed due to renewed tensions between generals Burhan and Dagalo, who serve as chairman and deputy chairman of the Transitional Sovereignty Council, respectively.[9][10] Chief among their political disputes is the integration of the RSF into the military:[9][11] the RSF insisted on a ten-year timetable for its integration into the regular army, while the army demanded integration within two years.[12] Other contested issues included the status given to RSF officers in the future hierarchy, and whether RSF forces should be under the command of the army chief rather than Sudan's commander-in-chief, who is currently al-Burhan.[13] They have also clashed over authority over sectors of Sudan's economy that are controlled by the two respective factions. As a sign of their rift, Dagalo expressed regret over the October 2021 coup.[14]

In early 2023, tensions rose between the Sudanese Armed Forces, led by the 2021 coup leader Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces led by Hemedti, remnants of Omar al-Bashir's Janjaweed that committed ethnic cleansing against non-Arab tribes in Darfur. These tensions came to a head on 15 April, when RSF forces attacked Sudanese forces in Khartoum, Merowe, and several cities across Darfur, including Nyala, El Fasher, and Geneina.[15][16]

On 5 May 2023, the U.S. and Saudi Arabia announced a peace operation for peace in Sudan and a permanent ceasefire for the conflict on 20 May 2023. The agreement was officially signed and was supposed to come into effect two days later. This failed as large clashes still made headlines even after the announcement of the agreement in Sudan.[3]


The large emergency evacuation plan for the humanitarian crisis and the evacuation of citizens in Sudan.

After a surge of refugees, a large humanitarian crisis and evacuation of citizens and foreign nationals began. Saudi Arabia and the U.S. announced an agreement that would occur on 11 May 2023 between both warring parties with the help of the United States and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

Humanitarian crisis in Sudan

The governor of the state of North Darfur called the humanitarian situation in the region of Darfur dire.[17] The Project Coordinator for Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in the state's capital of the state El-Fasher said that the only remaining hospital in the state was "rapidly running out of medical supplies to treat survivors" while other hospitals have had to close due to their proximity to the conflict or the inability of staff to get to the facilities because of the violence.[18] MSF said that its compound in the city of Nyala, South Darfur, had been raided by armed men who "stole everything including vehicles and office equipment".[19]

Chad-Sudan border refugees in mid-May 2023

The United Nations said on 2 May that the fighting in Sudan had produced around 334,000 internally displaced persons, while more than 100,000 had fled the country altogether.[20] The International Organization for Migration estimated that around 70% of IDPs came from the Darfur region.[21] The UN projected that the total number of refugees fleeing Sudan could reach more than 800,000 people.[22] By June 2023, The UN and other nations estimated this number to over 1.8 million internally displaced people (IDP's) and nearly 400,000 fleeing the country, mainly in the Darfur region.

During the evacuation, thousands of people fled from Port Sudan to Saudi Arabia via several boats. On 12 May 2023, announced the end of evacuations in Sudan and reported fully evacuating 19,639 people (8,455 people and 11,184 nationals)[23]


On 5 May 2023, the U.S. and Saudi Arabia announced their commitment to helping Sudanese people with a permanent ceasefire and agreement between both parties in Jeddah.[24] On 11 May 2023 the agreement was signed in the city with the following requirements:[25]

  • 1. Agreeing that the well-being of civilians is a top priority, ensuring that they are protected at all times and allowing them a safe passage to flee areas affected by the fighting.
  • 2. Respecting International Humanitarian Law and international human rights law which, for instance, obligate differentiating between civilians and military targets, not using civilians as human shields, and respecting public and private institutions.
  • 3. Agreeing on the need to allow principal humanitarian operations to resume by facilitating the unhindered passage of humanitarian aid and guaranteeing the freedom of movement of aid personnel, protecting humanitarian workers and not intervening in the work of humanitarian operations.
  • 4. Commit to make all efforts that respect the obligation of International Humanitarian Law.
  • 5. Allowing relevant actors, such as the Sudanese Red Crescent and/or the International Committee of the Red Cross, to take all steps needed to bury the dead in coordination with relevant authorities.
  • 6. Ensuring that all people operating under the instructions of the armed forces and the RSF abide by International Humanitarian Law.
  • 7. Prioritizing talks to reach a short-term ceasefire to ease the delivery of urgent humanitarian aid and restore essential services and committing to scheduling more expanded discussions to reach a permanent end to hostilities.

The first agreement was broken a day later on 12 May 2023, and talks resumed again[26] On 21 May 2023, all the parties made a week long ceasefire for humanitarian aid and calmness in Sudan, the agreement came into effect 48-hour's later but was subsequently broken.[27][28] A third meeting was made between the parties once again for a shorter but more effective ceasefire,[29] but was also violated completely with reports of atrocities such as the killing's of several orphans and the mistreatment of civilians.[30] On 31 May 2023, the SAF suspended their participation in the agreement, subsequently followed by both the U.S. and Saudi Arabia on 1 June 2023.[31][32]

Talks resumed between all the parties on 7 June 2023.[33][needs update]


  1. ^ a b African Affairs, Bureau of (11 May 2023). "Jeddah Declaration of Commitment to Protect the Civilians of Sudan". US State GOV.
  2. ^ a b Spokesperson, Office of the (20 May 2023). "Agreement on a Short-Term Ceasefire and Humanitarian Arrangements in Sudan". US State GOV.
  3. ^ a b c Abdelaziz, Khalid; Nureldin, Mohamed (21 May 2023). "Sudan ceasefire deal raises hopes for relief in Khartoum". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  4. ^ "Sudan's Darfur conflict: Why an accountant took up arms". Yahoo Life. 17 May 2023. Archived from the original on 17 May 2023. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  5. ^ "5th Sudan Population and Housing Census Priority Results". Southern Sudan Center for Census, Statistics, and Evaluation. 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  6. ^ Peltier, Elian; Dahir, Abdi Latif (17 April 2023). "Who are the Rapid Support Forces, the paramilitaries fighting Sudan's Army?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  7. ^ "Stopping Sudan's Descent into Full-Blown Civil War". International Crisis Group. 20 April 2023. Archived from the original on 23 April 2023. Retrieved 22 April 2023.
  8. ^ "Egypt calls for maximum restraint in Sudan amid military clashes". Middle East Monitor. 15 April 2023. Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  9. ^ a b Jack Jeffrey & Samy Magdt, Deal to restore democratic transition in Sudan delayed again Archived 16 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press (7 April 2023).
  10. ^ Walsh, Declan (15 April 2023). "Gunfire and Blasts Rock Sudan's Capital as Factions Vie for Control". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  11. ^ "Sudan unrest: How did we get here?". Middle East Eye. 15 April 2023. Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  12. ^ Salih, Zeinab Mohammed; Igunza, Emmanuel (15 April 2023). "Sudan: Army and RSF battle over key sites, leaving 56 civilians dead". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  13. ^ "At least 56 killed, hundreds injured in clashes across Sudan as paramilitary group claims control of presidential palace". CNN. 16 April 2023. Archived from the original on 16 April 2023. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  14. ^ Olewe, Dickens (20 February 2023). "Mohamed 'Hemeti' Dagalo: Top Sudan military figure says coup was a mistake". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 March 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  15. ^ "Sudan unrest: RSF captures presidential palace as violence rages". Archived from the original on 16 April 2023. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  16. ^ "Fighting between Sudan military rivals enters a second day, with dozens dead". CNN. 15 April 2023. Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  17. ^ السودان.. اشتباكات عنيفة بين الجيش وقوات الدعم السريع (لحظة بلحظة). Al Jazeera (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  18. ^ "Students trapped, hospitals shelled and diplomats assaulted as Sudan fighting intensifies". CNN. 18 April 2023. Archived from the original on 18 April 2023. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  19. ^ "Fierce battles for army headquarters and airport are underway in Sudan". CNN. 19 April 2023. Archived from the original on 19 April 2023. Retrieved 20 April 2023.
  20. ^ "Sudan crisis: Civilians facing 'catastrophe' as 100,000 flee fighting – UN". BBC. 2 May 2023. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  21. ^ "Clashes rock Sudan ceasefire as UN official seeks aid protection". Al Jazeera. 3 May 2023. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  22. ^ "More than 800,000 people may flee Sudan: UN". Al Jazeera. 1 May 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  23. ^ "Saudi Arabia Finalizes Humanitarian Evacuations from Sudan | The Embassy of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  24. ^ Wong, Edward; Dahir, Abdi Latif (5 May 2023). "Warring Parties in Sudan to Hold Talks in Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  25. ^ "Jeddah Declaration: Overview of agreement's 7 points signed by Sudan's army, RSF". Al Arabiya English. 12 May 2023. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  26. ^ Eye, Middle East (12 May 2023). "Sudan fighting resumes after 'meaningless' Jeddah agreement". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  27. ^ Adan, Ali Mahmoud Ali, Elham Kazemi, Abdulkadir (26 May 2023). "Sudan Situation Update: May 2023 | Fighting Rages Amid Ceasefire Talks". ACLED. Retrieved 3 June 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  28. ^ "Sudan conflict: Air strikes and clashes as new ceasefire begins". BBC News. 22 May 2023. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  29. ^ In Dubai, Al Jazeera (31 May 2023). "Intense clashes in Sudan's capital after ceasefire extended". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  30. ^ Michael, Maggie (29 May 2023). "Special Report: Dozens of babies die in orphanage as Sudan war takes grim toll on Khartoum". Reuters. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  31. ^ "Sudan army suspends participation in Jeddah ceasefire talks". Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  32. ^ SudanTribune (2 June 2023). "Facilitators suspend Sudan ceasefire talks amid serious violations". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  33. ^ "Sudan's warring parties resume ceasefire talks in Jeddah". Al Arabiya English. 6 June 2023. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
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Treaty of Jeddah (2023)
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