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Arnold J. Toynbee

Arnold J. Toynbee
Born
Arnold Joseph Toynbee

(1889-04-14)14 April 1889
London, England
Died22 October 1975(1975-10-22) (aged 86)
York, England
Spouses
  • (m. 1913; div. 1946)
  • Veronica M. Boulter
    (m. 1946)
Children
RelativesArnold Toynbee (uncle)
Jocelyn Toynbee (sister)
Academic background
EducationBalliol College, Oxford
Influences
Academic work
DisciplineHistory
Institutions
Main interestsUniversal history
Notable worksA Study of History
Influenced
Signature

Arnold Joseph Toynbee CH FBA (/ˈtɔɪnbi/; 14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was an English historian, a philosopher of history, an author of numerous books and a research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and King's College London. From 1918 to 1950, Toynbee was considered a leading specialist on international affairs;[6] from 1929 to 1956 he was the Director of Studies at Chatham House,[7] in which position he also produced 34 volumes of the Survey of International Affairs, a "bible" for international specialists in Britain.[8][9]

He is best known for his 12-volume A Study of History (1934–1961). With his prodigious output of papers, articles, speeches and presentations, and numerous books translated into many languages, Toynbee was a widely read and discussed scholar in the 1940s and 1950s.

Biography

Early life and education

Toynbee was born on 14 April 1889 in London, England, to Harry Valpy Toynbee (1861–1941), secretary of the Charity Organization Society, and his wife Sarah Edith Marshall (1859–1939). His mother took the equivalent of an undergraduate degree in English history at Cambridge University, when higher education for women was unusual and before women were allowed to graduate from the university,[10] and his sister Jocelyn Toynbee was an archaeologist and art historian. Arnold Toynbee was the grandson of Joseph Toynbee; nephew of the 19th-century economist Arnold Toynbee (1852–1883); and a descendant of prominent British intellectuals for several generations.

Having won a scholarship, he was educated at Winchester College, an all-boys independent boarding school in Winchester, Hampshire. From 1907 to 1911, having won a scholarship to Oxford University, he read literae humaniores (i.e. classics) at Balliol College, Oxford.[11] Early in his degree, his father suffered a nervous collapse and was institutionalised, causing financial difficulties for the family.[10] Regardless, Toynbee achieved first class honours in mods and in greats, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree.[10] From 1911 to 1912, he toured Italy and Greece to study the classical landscape and remains that "he had thitherto known only through books".[10] He also studied briefly at the British School at Athens, an experience that influenced the genesis of his philosophy about the decline of civilisations.[citation needed]

Career

In 1912, having returned from his travels, Toynbee was elected a fellow of his alma mater Balliol College, Oxford, and appointed a tutor in ancient history.[10][12] Unusually for a British classical scholar of the early 20th century, his interests crossed Greek and Roman civilisation, and ranged from Bronze Age Greece through to the Byzantine Empire.[10] He also combined the tradition classical literary scholarship with the emerging discipline of classical archaeology.[10]

The First World War

The First World War began in 1914. Toynbee had suffered from a bad case of dysentery on his return from Greece and so he was judged unfit for military service. [10] In 1915, he began working for the intelligence department of the British Foreign Office. He worked under Viscount Bryce to investigate the Ottoman atrocities against the Armenians, and wrote a number of pro-Allies propaganda leaflets.[10]

The Paris Peace Conference

He served as a delegate to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, where he played a role in shaping the Treaty of Sèvres.[10] There he was present at the meeting at the Hotel Majestic when Lionel Curtis preposed to the delegates the formation of an Institute of International Affairs resulting in the formation of Chatham House in London and The Council on Foreign Relations in New York.

Historian and Director of Studies

Following the end of the First World War, he returned to academia at the University of London, specialising in the Byzantine Empire and Modern Greek studies: Toynbee was appointed to the Koraes Professor of Modern Greek and Byzantine History, Language and Literature at King's College London in 1919.[12] He would ultimately resign from the chair in 1924, following an academic dispute (see subsection on Greece below).[13][14] In 1921 and 1922 he was the Manchester Guardian correspondent during the Greco-Turkish War, an experience that resulted in the publication of The Western Question in Greece and Turkey.[15] In 1925 he became Research Professor of International History at the London School of Economics.[12] In 1929 he became Director of Studies at the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House), a post he held until 1956. [16]

He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA), the United Kingdoms national academy for the humanities and social sciences, in 1937.[12] He was elected an International Member of the American Philosophical Society in 1941 and an International Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1949.[17]

Personal life

His first marriage was to Rosalind Murray (1890–1967), daughter of Gilbert Murray, in 1913; they had three sons, of whom Philip Toynbee was the second. They divorced in 1946; Toynbee then married his research assistant, Veronica M. Boulter (1893-1980), in the same year.[8] He died on 22 October 1975, age 86.

Views on the post-World War I peace settlement and geopolitical situation

Toynbee endorsed holding a plebiscite in Masuria after the end of WWI, as indeed happened in 1920. Germany decisively won this plebiscite.
In spite of the Polish majority in parts of it, Toynbee opposed detaching East Prussia from Germany in a post-World War I peace settlement. Toynbee's recommendation was not followed here due to the creation of the Polish Corridor.

In his 1915 book Nationality & the War, Toynbee argued in favor of creating a post-World War I peace settlement based on the principle of nationality.[18] In Chapter IV of his 1916 book The New Europe: Essays in Reconstruction, Toynbee criticized the concept of natural borders.[19] Specifically, Toynbee criticized this concept as providing a justification for launching additional wars so that countries can attain their natural borders.[19] Toynbee also pointed out how once a country attained one set of natural borders, it could subsequently aim to attain another, further set of natural borders; for instance, the German Empire set its western natural border at the Vosges Mountains in 1871 but during World War I, some Germans began to advocate for even more western natural borders—specifically ones that extend all of the way up to Calais and the English Channel—conveniently justifying the permanent German retention of those Belgian and French territories that Germany had just conquered during World War I.[19]

As an alternative to the idea of natural borders, Toynbee proposes making free trade, partnership, and cooperation between various countries with interconnected economies considerably easier so that there would be less need for countries to expand even further—whether to their natural borders or otherwise.[19] In addition, Toynbee advocated making national borders based more on the principle of national self-determination—as in, based on which country the people in a particular area or territory actually wanted to live in.[19] (This principle was in fact indeed sometimes (albeit inconsistently) followed in the post-World War I peace settlement with the various plebiscites that were conducted in the twenty years after the end of World War I—specifically in Schleswig, Upper Silesia, Masuria, Sopron, Carinthia, and the Saar—in order to determine the future sovereignty and fate of these territories.[20][21])

In Nationality & the War, Toynbee offered various elaborate proposals and predictions for the future of various countries—both European and non-European.

Alsace-Lorraine

In regards to the Alsace-Lorraine dispute between France and Germany, for instance, Toynbee proposed a series of plebiscites to determine its future fate—with Alsace voting as a single unit in this plebiscite due to its interconnected nature.[22]

Schleswig-Holstein

Toynbee likewise proposed a plebiscite in Schleswig-Holstein to determine its future fate, with him arguing that the linguistic line might make the best new German–Danish border there (indeed, ultimately a plebiscite was held in Schleswig in 1920).[23]

Poland

In regards to Poland, Toynbee advocated for the creation of an autonomous Poland under Russian rule (specifically a Poland in a federal relationship with Russia and that has a degree of home rule and autonomy that is at least comparable to that of the Austrian Poles)[24] that would have put the Russian, German, and Austrian Poles under one sovereignty and government. Toynbee argued that Polish unity would be impossible in the event of an Austro-German victory in World War I since a victorious Germany would be unwilling to transfer its own Polish territories (which it views as strategically important and still hopes to Germanize) to an autonomous or newly independent Poland.[25]

Upper Silesia, Posen Province, and western Galicia

Toynbee also proposed giving most of Upper Silesia, Posen Province, and western Galicia to this autonomous Poland and suggested holding a plebiscite in Masuria[26] (as indeed ultimately occurred in 1920 with the Masurian plebiscite) while allowing Germany to keep all of West Prussia, including the Polish parts that later became known as the Polish Corridor (while, of course, making Danzig a free city that the autonomous Poland would be allowed to use).[27][28]

Austria-Hungary

In regards to Austria-Hungary, Toynbee proposed having Hungary give up Galicia to Russia and an enlarged autonomous Russian Poland, give up Transylvania and Bukovina[29] to Romania, give up Trentino (but not Trieste or South Tyrol) to Italy, and give up Bosnia, Croatia, and Slovenia so that newly independent states can be formed there.[28]

Czech lands

Toynbee also advocated allowing Austria to keep Czech lands due to the strategic location of its Sudeten Mountain ridges while allowing Hungary to keep Slovakia.[28]

Bessarabia

Toynbee also advocated splitting Bessarabia between Russia and Romania, with Russia keeping the Budjak while Romania would acquire the rest of Bessarabia. Toynbee argued that a Romanian acquisition of the Budjak would be pointless due to its non-Romanian population and due to it providing little value for Romania; however, Toynbee did endorse Romanian use of the Russian port of Odessa, which would see its trade traffic double in such a scenario.[30]

Ukraine

In regards to Ukraine (also known as "Little Russia"), Toynbee rejected both home rule[31] and a federal solution for Ukraine.[32] Toynbee's objection to the federal solution stemmed from his fear that a federated Russia would be too divided to have a unifying center of gravity and would thus be at risk of fragmentation and breaking up just like the United States previously did for a time during its own civil war.[32] In place of autonomy, Toynbee proposed making the Ukrainian language co-official in the Great Russian parts of the Russian Empire so that Ukrainians (or Little Russians) could become members of the Russian body politic as Great Russians' peers rather than as Great Russians' inferiors.[33] Toynbee also argued that if the Ukrainian language were not able to become competitive with Russian even if the Ukrainian language were to be given official status in Russia, then this would prove once and for all the superior vitality of the Russian language (which, according to Toynbee, was used to write great literature while the Ukrainian language was only used to write peasant ballads).[34]

Outer Mongolia and the Tarim Basin

In regards to future Russian expansion, Toynbee endorsed the idea of Russia conquering Outer Mongolia and the Tarim Basin, arguing that Russia could improve and revitalize these territories just like the United States did for the Mexican Cession territories (specifically Nuevo Mexico and Alta California) when it conquered these territories from Mexico in the Mexican–American War back in 1847 (a conquest that Toynbee noted was widely criticized at the time, but which eventually became viewed as being a correct move on the part of the United States).[35]

Pontus and the Armenian Vilayets of the Ottoman Empire

Toynbee also endorsed the idea of having Russia annex both Pontus and the Armenian Vilayets of the Ottoman Empire[36] while rejecting the idea of a Russo-British partition of Persia as being impractical due to it being incapable of satisfying either Britain's or Russia's interests in Persia—with Toynbee believing that a partition of Persia would inevitably result in war between Britain and Russia.[37] Instead, Toynbee argued for (if necessary, with foreign assistance) the creation of a strong, independent, central government in Persia that would be capable of both protecting its own interests and protecting the interests of both British and Russia while also preventing both of these powers from having imperialist and predatory designs on Persia.[37]

Afghanistan

In addition, in the event of renewed trouble and unrest in Afghanistan (which Toynbee viewed as only a matter of time), Toynbee advocated partitioning Afghanistan between Russia and British India roughly along the path of the Hindu Kush.[38][39] A partition of Afghanistan along these lines would result in Afghan Turkestan being unified with the predominantly Turkic peoples of Russian Central Asia as well as with the Afghan Pashtuns being reunified with the Pakistani Pashtuns within British India.[39] Toynbee viewed the Hindu Kush as being an ideal and impenetrable frontier between Russia and British India that would be impossible for either side to cross through and that would thus be great at providing security (and protection against aggression by the other side) for both sides.[40]

Academic and cultural influence

Somervell's abridgement of Toynbee's magnum opus A Study of History
Toynbee on the front cover of Time magazine, 17 March 1947

Michael Lang says that for much of the twentieth century,

Toynbee was perhaps the world's most read, translated, and discussed living scholar. His output was enormous, hundreds of books, pamphlets, and articles. Of these, scores were translated into thirty different languages....the critical reaction to Toynbee constitutes a veritable intellectual history of the midcentury: we find a long list of the period's most important historians, Beard, Braudel, Collingwood, and so on.[41]

In his best-known work, A Study of History, published 1934–1961,[42] where Toynbee

...examined the rise and fall of 26 civilisations in the course of human history, and he concluded that they rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders.[43]

A Study of History was both a commercial and academic phenomenon. In the US alone, more than seven thousand sets of the ten-volume edition had been sold by 1955. Most people, including scholars, relied on the very clear one-volume abridgement of the first six volumes by David Churchill Somervell, which appeared in 1947; the abridgement sold over 300,000 copies in the US. The press printed innumerable discussions of Toynbee's work, not to mention there being countless lectures and seminars. Toynbee himself often participated. He appeared on the cover of Time magazine in 1947, with an article describing his work as "the most provocative work of historical theory written in England since Karl Marx's Capital",[44] and was a regular commentator on BBC (examining the history of and reasons for the current hostility between east and west, and considering how non-westerners view the western world).[45][46]

Canadian historians were especially receptive to Toynbee's work in the late 1940s. The Canadian economic historian Harold Adams Innis (1894–1952) was a notable example. Following Toynbee and others (Spengler, Kroeber, Sorokin, Cochrane), Innis examined the flourishing of civilisations in terms of administration of empires and media of communication.[47]

Toynbee's overall theory was taken up by some scholars, for example, Ernst Robert Curtius, as a sort of paradigm in the post-war period. Curtius wrote as follows in the opening pages of European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages (1953 English translation), following close on Toynbee, as he sets the stage for his vast study of medieval Latin literature. Curtius wrote, "How do cultures, and the historical entities which are their media, arise, grow and decay? Only a comparative morphology with exact procedures can hope to answer these questions. It was Arnold J. Toynbee who undertook the task."[48]

After 1960, Toynbee's ideas faded both in academia and the media, to the point of seldom being cited today.[49][50] In general, historians pointed to his preference of myths, allegories, and religion over factual data. His critics argued that his conclusions are more those of a Christian moralist than of a historian.[51] In his 2011 article for the Journal of History titled "Globalization and Global History in Toynbee," historian Michael Lang wrote:

To many world historians today, Arnold J. Toynbee is regarded like an embarrassing uncle at a house party. He gets a requisite introduction by virtue of his place on the family tree, but he is quickly passed over for other friends and relatives.[52]

However, his work continued to be referenced by some classical historians, because "his training and surest touch is in the world of classical antiquity."[53] His roots in classical literature are also manifested by similarities between his approach and that of classical historians such as Herodotus and Thucydides.[54] Comparative history, by which his approach is often categorised, has been in the doldrums.[55]

Political influence in foreign policy

While the writing of the Study was under way, Toynbee produced numerous smaller works and served as Director of Studies of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, (from 1929-1956);[56] he also retained his position at the London School of Economics until his retirement in 1956.[43]

Foreign Office and Paris Peace Conference 1919

Toynbee worked for the Political Intelligence Department of the British Foreign Office during World War I and served as a delegate to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.

Chatham House

He was Director of Studies at Chatham House from 1929-1956.[57]

Toynbee was co-editor with his research assistant, Veronica M. Boulter, of the RIIA's annual Survey of International Affairs, from 1922-1956. It became the "bible" for international specialists in Britain.[58][59]

Chatham House's WWII Foreign Press and Research Service

At the outbreak of the Second World War the institute was decentralised for security reasons, with many of the staff moving to Balliol College, Oxford from Chatham House's main buildings in St James's Square. There, the Foreign Press and Research Service of the Institute worked closely with the Foreign Office to provide intelligence for and to work closely with the Foreign Office dedicating their research to the war effort under the Chairmanship of Waldorf Astor,[60]

The formal remit of Chatham House for the FPRS at Balliol was:
1. To review the press overseas.
2. To “produce at the request of the Foreign Office, and the Service and other Departments, memoranda giving the historical and political background on any given situation on which information is desired”.
3. “To provide information on special points desired" (in regards to each country).[61] It provided various reports on foreign press, historical and political background of the enemy and various other topics.

Many eminent historians served on the FPRS under Arnold J. Toynbee as its Director and with Lionel Curtis (represented the Chairman) at Oxford until 1941 when Ivison Macadam took over the role from Curtis. There were four deputy directors. The four Deputy Directors were Alfred Zimmern, George N. Clark, Herbert J. Patton and Charles K. Webster and a number of experts in its nineteen divisions.[62]

It was moved to the Foreign Office 1943–46.[63]

Meeting Hitler

While on a visit in Berlin in 1936 to address the Law Society, Toynbee was invited to a private interview with Adolf Hitler at Hitler's request.[64] During the interview, which was held a day before Toynbee delivered his lecture, Hitler emphasized his limited expansionist aim of building a greater German nation, and his desire for British understanding and co-operation with Nazi Germany.[65] Hitler also suggested Germany could be an ally to Britain in the Asia-Pacific region if Germany's Pacific colonial empire were restored.[66] Toynbee believed that Hitler was sincere and endorsed Hitler's message in a confidential memorandum for the British prime minister and foreign secretary.[67]

Toynbee presented his lecture in English, but copies of it were circulated in German by Nazi officials, and it was warmly received by his Berlin audience who appreciated its conciliatory tone.[66] Tracy Philipps, a British 'diplomat' stationed in Berlin at the time, later informed Toynbee that it 'was an eager topic of discussion everywhere'.[66] Back home, some of Toynbee's colleagues were dismayed by his attempts at managing Anglo-German relations.[66]

Russia

Toynbee was troubled by the Russian Revolution since he saw Russia as a non-Western society and the revolution as a threat to Western society.[68] However, in 1952, he argued that the Soviet Union had been a victim of Western aggression. He portrayed the Cold War as a religious competition that pitted a Marxist materialist heresy against the West's spiritual Christian heritage, which had already been foolishly rejected by a secularised West. A heated debate ensued, and an editorial in The Times promptly attacked Toynbee for treating communism as a "spiritual force".[69]

Greece

Toynbee was a leading analyst of developments in the Middle East. His support for Greece and hostility to the Turks during World War I had gained him an appointment to the Koraes Chair of Modern Greek and Byzantine History at King's College, University of London.[13] However, after the war he accusing Greece's military government in occupied Turkish territory of atrocities and massacres. This earned him the enmity of the wealthy Greeks who had endowed the chair, and in 1924 he was forced to resign the position.

The Middle East

His stance during World War I reflected less sympathy for the Arab cause and took a pro-Zionist outlook. Toynbee investigated Zionism in 1915 at the Information Department of the Foreign Office, and in 1917 he published a memorandum with his colleague Lewis Namier which supported exclusive Jewish political rights in Ottoman Palestine.[70] He expressed support for Jewish immigration to Palestine, which he believed had "begun to recover its ancient prosperity" as a result.[71] Historian Isaiah Friedman felt Toynbee had been influenced by the Palestine Arab delegation which was visiting London in 1922.[70] His subsequent writings reveal his changing outlook on the subject, and by the late 1940s he had moved away from the Zionist concept taking into account the Palestine Arabs' tenure. Toynbee maintained that the Jewish people had neither historic nor legal claims to Palestine, stating that the Arab "population's human rights to their homes and property over-ride all other rights in cases where claims conflict." Toynbee did concede that Jews, "being the only surviving representatives of any of the pre-Arab inhabitants of Palestine, had a further claim to a national home in Palestine," but even so Toynbee felt the Balfour Declaration had guaranteed that such a claim was valid "only in so far as it can be implemented without injury to the rights and to the legitimate interests of the native Arab population of Palestine."[72]

Although not the official view of Chatham House which discussed numerous opinions on the then evolving situation,[73] Toynbee came to be known, by his own admission, as "the Western spokesman for the Arab cause."[70]

The views Toynbee expressed in the 1950s continued to oppose the formation of a Jewish state, partly out of his concern that it would increase the risk of Middle East conflict with the Jews and Arabs and could lead to a nuclear confrontation.Toynbee in his article "Jewish Rights in Palestine",[74] challenged the views of the editor of the Jewish Quarterly Review, historian and talmudic scholar Solomon Zeitlin, who published his rebuke, "Jewish Rights in Eretz Israel (Palestine)"[75] in the same issue. However, as a result of Toynbee's debate in January 1961 with Yaakov Herzog, the Israeli ambassador to Canada, Toynbee softened his view and called on Israel, by then established, to fulfil its special "mission to make contributions to worldwide efforts to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war."[70][76]

Criticism of Toynbee

Toynbee's views on Middle East politics have been believed by some Jewish scholars to be a disparagement of Jews and Judaism.[77][78][79]This seems to conflate Toynbee's original concern about Zionism's potential for conflict in Palestine with imputed views about Jews themselves. It is notable that Toynbee co-authoured papers with and commissioned articles from Jewish scholars and in his book Acquaintances he includes a chapter each on three highly admired friends who were of Jewish heritage.[80]

Abba Eban delivered a speech entitled The Toynbee Heresy. Eban was then the Ambassador of Isreal to the United States and it was delivered at the Israeli Institute, Yeshiva University, New York, on I8 January 1955, [77] Eban claimed Toynbee assigned a uniformly negative role and associations to Judaism and Jews in his history of world civilization, A Study of History, and Eban believed this was based on a belief in the superiority of Christianity.[77] Eban notes how Toynbee uses the term "Judaic" to describe episodes of "extreme brutality," even where Jews themselves were not involved, as in the Gothic persecution of the Christians.[77] More generally Eban states, throughout the first eight volumes of his civilization series, Toynbee often refers to the Jewish people (then a minority in Palestine prior to the formation of Israel) as a "fossil remnant". (This was the term that Toynbee used in writing A Study of History in 1934 to describe all the three remnants of the Syriac civilisation by then minorities without a still remaining nation there. These he describes as the Jews and Parsees as the oldest stratum; the Nestorians and Monophysites as the mid stratum and the most recent stratum the Shiis. [81] By which Eban believed Toynbee meant that Judaism was defined by its "fanaticism," its "provincialism," and its "exclusivity," whose value derived solely from its role as a seedbed for the superior civilization and moral code of Christianity.[77]

Eban believed Toynbee's reading of Jews and Judaism was through a Christian lens that coloured his view of Zionism and the state of Israel.[77] He believed Toynbee characterized Judaism as a morally primitive belief-system based on the idea of Jews as a "master race," and then asserting that Jews' claim to Israel is based on this premise. However in The Jewish Quarterly Review article Toynbee argues The Jewish, Christian, and Muslim communities each claim to be 'the chosen people' of one and the same god. The rest of the human race does not agree that any of these three mutually incompatible claims entitles the claimants to special privileges. [82] Eban makes the startling claim that Toynbee figures Zionism as "kindred to Nazism", without substantiation.[77] On the other hand Eban claims, Toynbee argues that by failing to accept their fate as a diaspora community and trying instead to replace the "traditional Jewish hope of an eventual Restoration of Israel to Palestine on God's initiative through the agency of a divinely inspired Messiah," Zionist Jews have the same "impious" relationship to their religion as Communists do to Christianity.[77] Eban views that Toynbee thus equated Zionism with both Nazism and Communism. [77] Later Eban quotes Toynbee On the Day of Judgement, the gravest crime standing to the German National Socialists' account might be, not that they had exterminated a majority of the Western Jews, but that they had caused the surviving remnant of Jewry to stumble.

Dialogue with Daisaku Ikeda

In 1972, at the end of his life, Toynbee met with Daisaku Ikeda, president of the Soka Gakkai International (SGI). Toynbee and Ikeda viewed the atomic bomb as escalation of warfare which threatened the existence of the human race. In May 1973, Ikeda again flew to London to meet with Toynbee for 40 hours over a period of 10 days. Their dialogue and ongoing correspondence lead to the publication of Choose Life.

Toynbee being "paid well" for the interviews with Ikeda raised criticism : "he accepted the dialogue with the controversial Ikeda primarily for the money", according to historian Louis Turner.[83]

In 1984 his granddaughter Polly Toynbee wrote a critical article for The Guardian on meeting Ikeda. She writes: "My grandfather [...] was 85 when the dialogue was recorded, a short time before his final incapacitating stroke (...) My grandfather never met Ikeda on his visits to Japan. His old Japanese friends were clearly less than delighted with lkeda's grandiose appropriation of his memories. Polly Toynbee was invited to Japan by Daisaku Ikeda, and she reminds that "Several days passed before we were to meet our mysterious host, time in which we learned more about Mr Ikeda and his Soka Gakkai movement. One thing above all others was made clear: this was an organisation of immense wealth, power and political influence (...) Asked to hazard a guess at his occupation, few would have selected him as a religious figure. I have met many powerful men -- prime ministers, leaders of all kinds -- but I have never in my life met anyone who exuded such an aura of absolute power as Mr Ikeda (...) I talked to the Oxford University Press, my grandfather's publishers. They said they had firmly turned down the Toynbee/Ikeda Dialogues, which were being heavily promoted by Ikeda after my grandfather's death.""[84]

Challenge and response

With the civilisations as units identified, he presented the history of each in terms of challenge-and-response, a process he proposed as a scientific law of history. Civilizations arose in response to some set of extreme challenges, when "creative minorities" devised new solutions that reoriented their entire society. Challenges and responses were physical, as when the Sumerians exploited the intractable swamps of southern Iraq by organising the Neolithic inhabitants into a society capable of carrying out large-scale irrigation projects; or social, as when the Catholic Church resolved the chaos of post-Roman Europe by enrolling the new Germanic kingdoms in a single religious community. When civilisations responded to challenges, they grew; but they disintegrated when their leaders stopped responding creatively, sinking into nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority. According to an Editor's Note in an edition of Toynbee's A Study of History, Toynbee believed that societies always die from suicide or murder rather than natural causes; and nearly always the former.[85] He sees the growth and decline of civilizations as a spiritual process, writing that "Man achieves civilization, not as a result of superior biological endowment or geographical environment, but as a response to a challenge in a situation of special difficulty which rouses him to make a hitherto unprecedented effort."[86][87]

Toynbee Prize Foundation

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Named after Arnold J. Toynbee, the [Toynbee Prize] Foundation was chartered in 1987 'to contribute to the development of the social sciences, as defined from a broad historical view of human society and of human and social problems.' In addition to awarding the Toynbee Prize, the foundation sponsors scholarly engagement with global history through sponsorship of sessions at the annual meeting of the American Historical Association, of international conferences, of the journal New Global Studies and of the Global History Forum.[88]

The Toynbee Prize is an honorary award, recognising social scientists for significant academic and public contributions to humanity. Currently, it is awarded every other year for work that makes a significant contribution to the study of global history. The recipients have been Raymond Aron, Lord Kenneth Clark, Sir Ralf Dahrendorf, Natalie Zemon Davis, Albert Hirschman, George Kennan, Bruce Mazlish, J. R. McNeill, William McNeill, Jean-Paul Sartre, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Barbara Ward, Lady Jackson, Sir Brian Urquhart, Michael Adas, Christopher Bayly, and Jürgen Osterhammel.[89]

Toynbee's works

  • The Armenian Atrocities: The Murder of a Nation, with a speech delivered by Lord Bryce in the House of Lords (Hodder & Stoughton 1915)
  • Nationality and the War (Dent 1915)
  • The New Europe: Some Essays in Reconstruction, with an Introduction by the Earl of Cromer (Dent 1915)
  • Contributor, Greece, in The Balkans: A History of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Rumania, Turkey, various authors (Oxford, Clarendon Press 1915)
  • British View of the Ukrainian Question (Ukrainian Federation of U.S., New York, 1916)
  • Editor, The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Fallodon by Viscount Bryce, with a Preface by Viscount Bryce (Hodder & Stoughton and His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1916)
  • The Destruction of Poland: A Study in German Efficiency (1916)
  • The Belgian Deportations, with a statement by Viscount Bryce (T. Fisher Unwin 1917)
  • The German Terror in Belgium: An Historical Record (Hodder & Stoughton 1917)
  • The German Terror in France: An Historical Record (Hodder & Stoughton 1917)
  • Turkey: A Past and a Future (Hodder & Stoughton 1917)
  • The Western Question in Greece and Turkey: A Study in the Contact of Civilizations (Constable 1922)
  • Introduction and translations, Greek Civilization and Character: The Self-Revelation of Ancient Greek Society (Dent 1924)
  • Introduction and translations, Greek Historical Thought from Homer to the Age of Heraclius, with two pieces newly translated by Gilbert Murray (Dent 1924)
  • Contributor, The Non-Arab Territories of the Ottoman Empire since the Armistice of 30 October 1918, in H. W. V. Temperley (editor), A History of the Peace Conference of Paris, Vol. VI (Oxford University Press under the auspices of the British Institute of International Affairs 1924)
  • The World after the Peace Conference, Being an Epilogue to the "History of the Peace Conference of Paris" and a Prologue to the "Survey of International Affairs, 1920–1923" (Oxford University Press under the auspices of the British Institute of International Affairs 1925). Published on its own, but Toynbee writes that it was "originally written as an introduction to the Survey of International Affairs in 1920–1923, and was intended for publication as part of the same volume".
  • With Kenneth P. Kirkwood, Turkey (Benn 1926, in Modern Nations series edited by H. A. L. Fisher)
  • The Conduct of British Empire Foreign Relations since the Peace Settlement (Oxford University Press under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs 1928)
  • A Journey to China, or Things Which Are Seen (Constable 1931)
  • Editor, British Commonwealth Relations, Proceedings of the First Unofficial Conference at Toronto, 11–21 September 1933, with a foreword by Robert L. Borden (Oxford University Press under the joint auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and the Canadian Institute of International Affairs 1934)
  • A Study of History
    • Vol I: Introduction; The Geneses of Civilizations
    • Vol II: The Geneses of Civilizations
    • Vol III: The Growths of Civilizations
(Oxford University Press 1934)
  • Editor, with J. A. K. Thomson, Essays in Honour of Gilbert Murray (George Allen & Unwin 1936)
  • A Study of History
    • Vol IV: The Breakdowns of Civilizations
    • Vol V: The Disintegrations of Civilizations
    • Vol VI: The Disintegrations of Civilizations
(Oxford University Press 1939)
  • D. C. Somervell, A Study of History: Abridgement of Vols I-VI, with a preface by Toynbee (Oxford University Press 1946)
  • Civilization on Trial (Oxford University Press 1948)
  • The Prospects of Western Civilization (New York, Columbia University Press 1949). Lectures delivered at Columbia University on themes from a then-unpublished part of A Study of History. Published "by arrangement with Oxford University Press in an edition limited to 400 copies and not to be reissued".
  • Albert Vann Fowler (editor), War and Civilization, Selections from A Study of History, with a preface by Toynbee (New York, Oxford University Press 1950)
  • Introduction and translations, Twelve Men of Action in Greco-Roman History (Boston, Beacon Press 1952). Extracts from Thucydides, Xenophon, Plutarch and Polybius.
  • The World and the West (Oxford University Press 1953). Reith Lectures for 1952.
  • A Study of History
    • Vol VII: Universal States; Universal Churches
    • Vol VIII: Heroic Ages; Contacts between Civilizations in Space
    • Vol IX: Contacts between Civilizations in Time; Law and Freedom in History; The Prospects of the Western Civilization
    • Vol X: The Inspirations of Historians; A Note on Chronology
(Oxford University Press 1954)
  • An Historian's Approach to Religion (Oxford University Press 1956). Gifford Lectures, University of Edinburgh, 1952–1953.
  • D. C. Somervell, A Study of History: Abridgement of Vols VII-X, with a preface by Toynbee (Oxford University Press 1957)
  • Christianity among the Religions of the World (New York, Scribner 1957; London, Oxford University Press 1958). Hewett Lectures, delivered in 1956.
  • Democracy in the Atomic Age (Melbourne, Oxford University Press under the auspices of the Australian Institute of International Affairs 1957). Dyason Lectures, delivered in 1956.
  • East to West: A Journey round the World (Oxford University Press 1958)
  • Hellenism: The History of a Civilization (Oxford University Press 1959, in Home University Library)
  • With Edward D. Myers, A Study of History
    • Vol XI: Historical Atlas and Gazetteer
(Oxford University Press 1959)
  • D. C. Somervell, A Study of History: Abridgement of Vols I-X in one volume, with a new preface by Toynbee and new tables (Oxford University Press 1960)
  • A Study of History
    • Vol XII: Reconsiderations
(Oxford University Press 1961)
  • Between Oxus and Jumna (Oxford University Press 1961). Account of a journey made in North-West India, West Pakistan and Afghanistan during the early months of 1960.
  • America and the World Revolution (Oxford University Press 1962). Public lectures delivered at the University of Pennsylvania, spring 1961.
  • The Economy of the Western Hemisphere (Oxford University Press 1962). Weatherhead Foundation Lectures delivered at the University of Puerto Rico, February 1962.
  • The Present-Day Experiment in Western Civilization (Oxford University Press 1962). Beatty Memorial Lectures delivered at McGill University, Montreal, 1961.
The three sets of lectures published separately in the UK in 1962 appeared in New York in the same year in one volume under the title America and the World Revolution and Other Lectures, Oxford University Press.
  • Universal States (New York, Oxford University Press 1963). Separate publication of part of Vol VII of A Study of History.
  • With Philip Toynbee, Comparing Notes: A Dialogue across a Generation (Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1963). "Conversations between Arnold Toynbee and his son, Philip … as they were recorded on tape."
  • Between Niger and Nile (Oxford University Press 1965)
  • Hannibal's Legacy: The Hannibalic War's Effects on Roman Life
    • Vol I: Rome and Her Neighbours before Hannibal's Entry
    • Vol II: Rome and Her Neighbours after Hannibal's Exit
(Oxford University Press 1965)
  • Change and Habit: The Challenge of Our Time (Oxford University Press 1966). Partly based on lectures given at University of Denver in the last quarter of 1964, and at New College of Florida and the University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee in the first quarter of 1965.
  • Acquaintances (Oxford University Press 1967)
  • Between Maule and Amazon (Oxford University Press 1967)
  • Editor, Cities of Destiny (Thames & Hudson 1967)
  • Editor and principal contributor, Man's Concern with Death (Hodder & Stoughton 1968)
  • Editor, The Crucible of Christianity: Judaism, Hellenism and the Historical Background to the Christian Faith (Thames & Hudson 1969)
  • Experiences (Oxford University Press 1969)
  • Some Problems of Greek History (Oxford University Press 1969)
  • Cities on the Move (Oxford University Press 1970). Sponsored by the Institute of Urban Environment of the School of Architecture, Columbia University.
  • Surviving the Future (Oxford University Press 1971). Rewritten version of a dialogue between Toynbee and Professor Kei Wakaizumi of Kyoto Sangyo University: essays preceded by questions by Wakaizumi.
  • With Jane Caplan, A Study of History, new one-volume abridgement, with new material and revisions and, for the first time, illustrations (Oxford University Press and Thames & Hudson 1972)
  • Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World (Oxford University Press 1973)
  • Editor, Half the World: The History and Culture of China and Japan (Thames & Hudson 1973)
  • Toynbee on Toynbee: A Conversation between Arnold J. Toynbee and G. R. Urban (New York, Oxford University Press 1974)
  • Mankind and Mother Earth: A Narrative History of the World (Oxford University Press 1976), posthumous
  • Richard L. Gage (editor), The Toynbee-Ikeda Dialogue: Man Himself Must Choose (Oxford University Press 1976), posthumous. The record of a conversation lasting several days.
  • E. W. F. Tomlin (editor), Arnold Toynbee: A Selection from His Works, with an introduction by Tomlin (Oxford University Press 1978), posthumous. Includes advance extracts from The Greeks and Their Heritages.
  • The Greeks and Their Heritages (Oxford University Press 1981), posthumous
  • Christian B. Peper (editor), An Historian's Conscience: The Correspondence of Arnold J. Toynbee and Columba Cary-Elwes, Monk of Ampleforth, with a foreword by Lawrence L. Toynbee (Oxford University Press by arrangement with Beacon Press, Boston 1987), posthumous
  • The Survey of International Affairs was published by Oxford University Press under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs between 1925 and 1977 and covered the years 1920–1963. Toynbee wrote, with assistants, the Pre-War Series (covering the years 1920–1938) and the War-Time Series (1938–1946), and contributed introductions to the first two volumes of the Post-War Series (1947–1948 and 1949–1950). His actual contributions varied in extent from year to year.
  • A complementary series, Documents on International Affairs, covering the years 1928–1963, was published by Oxford University Press between 1929 and 1973. Toynbee supervised the compilation of the first of the 1939–1946 volumes, and wrote a preface for both that and the 1947–1948 volume.

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Hall, Ian (2006). The International Thought of Martin Wight. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 188. doi:10.1057/9781403983527. ISBN 978-1-4039-8352-7.
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed., vol. 9, p. 148.
  3. ^ Joll, James (1985). "Two Prophets of the Twentieth Century: Spengler and Toynbee". Review of International Studies. 11 (2): 91–104. doi:10.1017/S026021050011424X. ISSN 0260-2105. JSTOR 20097037. S2CID 145705005.
  4. ^ "The Evolution of Civilizations - An Introduction to Historical Analysis (1979)" – via Internet Archive.
  5. ^ Wilkinson, David (Fall 1987). "Central Civilization". Comparative Civilizations Review. Vol. 17. pp. 31–59.
  6. ^ Scott, J. Creagh (2017). Hidden Government. London: The A.K. Chesterton Trust. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-912258-00-0. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  7. ^ Chatham House: Its history and Inhabitants C.E. Carrington and Mary Bone, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2004. p115
  8. ^ a b McNeill, William H. (1989). Arnold J. Toynbee: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780195058635.
  9. ^ Brewin, Christopher; Toynbee, Arnold (1992). "Research in a Global Context: A Discussion of Toynbee's Legacy". Review of International Studies. 18 (2): 115–130. doi:10.1017/S0260210500118819. ISSN 0260-2105. JSTOR 20097289. S2CID 145529789.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j William H. McNeill (1978). "Arnold Joseph Toynbee, 1889-1975" (PDF). Proceedings of the British Academy. 63. The British Academy: 441–469. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  11. ^ Orry, Louise (1997). Arnold Toynbee, Brief Lives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 537. ISBN 978-0198600879.
  12. ^ a b c d "Toynbee, Arnold Joseph". Who Was Who. Oxford University Press. 1 December 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U160398. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  13. ^ a b "King's College London - Classics at King's". Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  14. ^ Clogg, Richard (1985). "Politics and the Academy: Arnold Toynbee and the Koraes Chair". Middle Eastern Studies. 21 (4): v–115. JSTOR 4283087.
  15. ^ Toynbee, Arnold J. (1922). The Western Question in Greece and Turkey: A Study in the Contact of Civilisations (PDF). London: Constable and Company Ltd.
  16. ^ Chatham House: Its history and Inhabitants C.E. Carrington and Mary Bone, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2004. p115
  17. ^ "Arnold Joseph Toynbee". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. 9 February 2023. Retrieved 25 April 2023.
  18. ^ Camera Graeca: Photographs, Narratives, Materialities. Routledge. 9 March 2016. ISBN 978-1-317-17005-1.
  19. ^ a b c d e Toynbee, Arnold (1916). The New Europe: Some Essays in Reconstruction.
  20. ^ "A Monograph on Plebiscites: With a Collection of Official Documants". Oxford University Press. 1920.
  21. ^ Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy. A&C Black. December 2002. ISBN 978-1-62356-603-6.
  22. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  23. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  24. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  25. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  26. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  27. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  28. ^ a b c The New Republic. Republic Publishing Company. 1917.
  29. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  30. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  31. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  32. ^ a b "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  33. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  34. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  35. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  36. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  37. ^ a b "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  38. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  39. ^ a b "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  40. ^ "Nationality & the War". J.M. Dent & sons. 1915.
  41. ^ Lang, Michael (December 2011). "Globalization and Global History in Toynbee". Journal of World History. 22 (4): 747–783. doi:10.1353/jwh.2011.0118. S2CID 142992220.(subscription required)
  42. ^ Published in 12 volumes from 1934-1961 under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs by Oxford University Press with the disclaimer in each volume The Royal Institute of International Affairs is an unofficial and non-political body, founded in 1920 to encourage and facilitate the scientific study of international questions. The Institute, as such, is precluded by its rules from expressing an opinion on any aspects of international affairs: opinions expressed in this book are, therefore, purely individual.
  43. ^ a b "Arnold Toynbee". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 6 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.(subscription required)
  44. ^ Kennan, George F. (1 June 1989). "The History of Arnold Toynbee". The New York Review of Books. 36 (9). Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  45. ^ Montagu, M. F. Ashley, ed. (1956). Toynbee and History: Critical Essays and Reviews. Boston: Porter Sargent. p. vii.
  46. ^ "The Psychology of Encounters—Arnold Toynbee: The World and the West: 1952". BBC Radio 4. The Reith Lectures. 14 December 1952. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  47. ^ Massolin, Philip Alphonse (2001). Canadian Intellectuals, the Tory Tradition, and the Challenge of Modernity, 1939–1970. University of Toronto Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0802035097.
  48. ^ Curtius, Ernst Robert (1953). European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691018997.
  49. ^ McIntire, C. T.; Perry, Marvin, eds. (1989). Toynbee: Reappraisals. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0802057853.
  50. ^ Perry, Marvin (1996). Arnold Toynbee and the Western Tradition. American University Studies—5—Philosophy. Vol. 169. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0820426716.
  51. ^ "Arnold Toynbee (British historian)". Encyclopedia Britannica. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  52. ^ LANG, MICHAEL. "Globalization and Global History in Toynbee." Journal of World History, vol. 22, no. 4, 2011, pp. 747–783. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41508017.
  53. ^ Gruen, Erich S., ed. (1970). "Rome on the Brink of Expansion". Imperialism in the Roman Republic. European Problem Studies. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Intro, page 10. ISBN 978-0-030-77620-5.
  54. ^ "Is a History of Humanity Possible?". University of Oxford History Podcasts. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  55. ^ Cohen, Deborah (Fall 2001). "Comparative History: Buyer Beware" (PDF). GHI Bulletin. 29: 23–33. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  56. ^ Chatham House: Its history and inhabitants, C. E. Carrington and Mary Bone, Royal Institute of International Affairs, p115
  57. ^ Chatham House: Its history and inhabitants, C. E. Carrington and Mary Bone, Royal Institute of International Affairs, p115
  58. ^ McNeill, William H. (1989). Arnold J. Toynbee: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195058635.
  59. ^ Brewin, Christopher (1995). "Arnold Toynbee, Chatham House, and Research in a Global Context". In Long, David; Wilson, Peter (eds.). Thinkers of the Twenty Years' Crisis: Inter-War Idealism Reassessed. Oxford University Press. pp. 277–302. ISBN 9780198278559. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  60. ^ Chatham House: Its history and inhabitants, C. E. Carrington and Mary Bone, Royal Institute of International Affairs, p 114
  61. ^ Chatham House: Its History and Inhabitants. Chatham House. 2004. pp. 63–64. ISBN 1-86203-154-1.
  62. ^ Experts in their fields working at Chatham House's WWII Foreign Press and Research Service included J. L. Brierly working on reform of international law; A. J. B. Fisher on economic conditions for reconstruction of Europe; Benedict H. Sumner on the USSR; Charles K. Webster on the United States; Alfred Zimmern on the British Commonwealth and Empire; H. A. R. Gibb on the Arab world; R. A. Humphreys on Latin America; George N. Clark on the Low Countries, Scandinavia and Italy; Marshall on Germany and Czechoslovakia; W. Stewart on France; William J. Rose on Poland; Carlile A. Macartney on Hungary; David Mitrany on Romania; Sir Andrew Ryan on Bulgaria and Albania; Mrs. Thompson on Greece; Rosalind Murray on the Vatican, among others.
  63. ^ Chatham House and British Foreign Policy, 1919-1945, Edited by Andrea Bosco & Cornelia Nevari, Lothian Foundation Press, 1994, p146.
  64. ^ Brody, J. Kenneth (1 October 1999). The Avoidable War—Volume 2: Pierre Laval and the Politics of Reality, 1935–1936. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0765806222.
  65. ^ A Lecture by Hitler, Arnold J. Toynbee (1967). Acquaintances. Oxford University Press. pp 276-295
  66. ^ a b c d Pemberton, Jo-Anne (2020). The Story of International Relations, Part Three: Cold-Blooded Idealists. Springer Nature. p. 34.
  67. ^ McNeill, William H. (1989). Arnold J. Toynbee: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press. Chapter 8. ISBN 9780195058635.
  68. ^ Paquette, Gabriel B. (June 2000). "The Impact of the 1917 Russian Revolutions on Arnold J. Toynbee's Historical Thought, 1917–34". Revolutionary Russia. 13 (1): 55–80. doi:10.1080/09546540008575717. S2CID 144711181.
  69. ^ McNeill, William H. (1989). Arnold J. Toynbee: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 223–4. ISBN 9780195058635.
  70. ^ a b c d Friedman, Isaiah (Spring 1999). "Arnold Toynbee: Pro-Arab or Pro-Zionist?". Israel Studies. 4 (1): 73–95. doi:10.1353/is.1999.0019. Retrieved 11 April 2014.(subscription required)
  71. ^ Arnold Joseph Toynbee (2017). Turkey: A Past and a Future. Good Press. Under this new Jewish husbandry Palestine has begun to recover its ancient prosperity.
  72. ^ "Prof. Toynbee Rebuked by U.S. Scholar for Renewed Attack on Jews". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 1 December 1961. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  73. ^ Thomas G. Fraser, ‘Chatham House and the Palestinian Question, 1920-1939’, in Bosco and Navari, op. cit., p.187-203
  74. ^ Toynbee, Arnold J (1961). "Jewish Rights in Palestine". The Jewish Quarterly Review. 52 (1): 1–11. doi:10.2307/1453271. JSTOR 1453271.
  75. ^ Zeitlin, Solomon (1961). "Jewish Rights in Eretz Israel (Palestine)". The Jewish Quarterly Review. 52 (1): 12–34. doi:10.2307/1453272. JSTOR 1453272.
  76. ^ "This is how we ruined Toynbee's theory". Haaretz. 24 January 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i Eban, Abba; Aridan, Natan (2006). "The Toynbee Heresy". Israel Studies. 11 (1): 91–107. doi:10.2979/ISR.2006.11.1.91. ISSN 1084-9513. JSTOR 30245781. S2CID 144405178.
  78. ^ Friedman, Isaiah (1999). "Arnold Toynbee: Pro-Arab or Pro-Zionist?". Israel Studies. 4 (1): 73–95. doi:10.2979/ISR.1999.4.1.73. ISSN 1084-9513. JSTOR 30245728. S2CID 144149113.
  79. ^ Kedourie, Elie (2004). The Chatham House version and other Middle-Eastern studies. David Pryce-Jones, אלי. קדורי. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-561-6. OCLC 53356640.
  80. ^ Those of Jewish heritage he included were Sir Alfred Zimmern, Sir Lewis Napier (formerly Bernstein) who was a close friend from their Balliol days, a leading historian but also a Zionists, and Lord Samuel. Arnold J. Toynbee (1967). Acquaintances. Oxford University Press.
  81. ^ Arnold J. Toynbee (1934). A Study of History, Vol. 2, p 235. Royal Institute of International Affairs, Oxford University Press.
  82. ^ Toynbee, Arnold J. (1961). "Jewish Rights in Palestine". The Jewish Quarterly Review. 52 (1): 1–11. doi:10.2307/1453271. JSTOR 1453271 – via JSTOR.
  83. ^ Louis Turner (23 September 2010). "Arnold Toynbee and Japan: From Historian to Guru". In Hugh Cortazzi (ed.). Britain and Japan: Biographical Portraits, Vol. VII. Global Oriental. p. 292. ISBN 978-90-04-21803-1. Toynbee "was paid well for six days of extended interviews [...]. The Toynbee-Ikeda dialogue was the final book in Toynbee's prolific career, which meant that his career ended on a controversial note. In some ways this dialogue played into the hands of Toynbee's critics who disliked his obsession with money. Just as his reputation had suffered in the US from his obsession with accepting lucrative lecturing engagements without much concern about the quality of the institutions he was addressing, so it can be argued that he accepted the dialogue with the controversial Ikeda primarily for the money. [...] The controversial Ikeda/Soka Gakkai attempt to use Toynbee's name and reputation needs to be seen in a wider context.
  84. ^ Toynbee, Polly (19 May 1984). "The Value of a Grandfather Figure". Manchester Guardian.
  85. ^ Arnold J. Toynbee (1947). A Study of History: Abridgement of Volumes I to VI. Oxford University Press. p. 273. ISBN 9780199826698.
  86. ^ Graeme Snooks (2002). The Laws of History. Taylor & Francis. p. 91. ISBN 9780203452448.
  87. ^ Arnold J. Toynbee (1987). A Study of History: Volume I: Abridgement of. Oxford U.P. p. 570. ISBN 9780195050806.
  88. ^ "The Toynbee Prize Foundation". Toynbee Foundation. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  89. ^ "The 2017 Toynbee Prize Lecture: "Arnold Toynbee and the Problems of Today" (Jürgen Osterhammel) | Toynbee Prize Foundation". toynbeeprize.org. Retrieved 25 January 2017.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Beacock, Ian. Humanist among machines – As the dreams of Silicon Valley fill our world, could the dowdy historian Arnold Toynbee help prevent a nightmare? (March 2016), Aeon
  • Ben-Israel, Hedva. "Debates With Toynbee: Herzog, Talmon, Friedman", Israel Studies, Spring 2006, Vol. 11 Issue 1, pp. 79–90
  • Brewin, Christopher. "Arnold Toynbee, Chatham House, and Research in a Global Context", in David Long and Peter Wilson, eds. Thinkers of the Twenty Years' Crisis: Inter-War Idealism Reassessed (1995) pp. 277–302.
  • Costello, Paul. World Historians and Their Goals: Twentieth-Century Answers to Modernism (1993). Compares Toynbee with H. G. Wells, Oswald Spengler, Pitirim Sorokin, Christopher Dawson, Lewis Mumford, and William H. McNeill
  • Friedman, Isaiah. "Arnold Toynbee: Pro-Arab or Pro-Zionist?" Israel Studies, Spring 1999, Vol. 4#1, pp. 73–95
  • Hutton, Alexander. "'A belated return for Christ?': the reception of Arnold J. Toynbee's A Study of History in a British context, 1934–1961". European Review of History 21.3 (2014): 405–424.
  • Lang, Michael. "Globalization and Global History in Toynbee", Journal of World History 22#4 Dec 2011 pp. 747–783 in project MUSE
  • McIntire, C. T. and Marvin Perry, eds. Toynbee: Reappraisals (1989) 254pp
  • McNeill, William H. Arnold J. Toynbee: a life (Oxford UP, 1989). The standard scholarly biography.
  • Martel, Gordon. "The Origins of World History: Arnold Toynbee before the First World War", Australian Journal of Politics and History, Sept 2004, Vol. 50 Issue 3, pp. 343–356
  • Montagu, Ashley M. F., ed. Toynbee and History: Critical Essays and Reviews (1956) online edition
  • Paquette, Gabriel B. "The Impact of the 1917 Russian Revolutions on Arnold J. Toynbee's Historical Thought, 1917–34", Revolutionary Russia, June 2000, Vol. 13#1, pp. 55–80
  • Perry, Marvin. Arnold Toynbee and the Western Tradition (1996)
  • Toynbee, Arnold J. A Study of History abridged edition by D. C. Somervell (2 vol. 1947); 617pp online edition of vol. 1, covering vols 1–6 of the original; A Study of History online edition
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