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Terrain

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Present-day Earth altimetry and bathymetry. Data from the National Geophysical Data Center's TerrainBase Digital Terrain Model.
Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain
A shaded and colored image (i.e. terrain is enhanced) of varied terrain from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This shows an elevation model of New Zealand's Alpine Fault running about 500 km (310 mi) long. The escarpment is flanked by a vast chain of hills between the fault and the mountains of the Southern Alps. Northeast is towards the top.

Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface. The term bathymetry is used to describe underwater relief, while hypsometry studies terrain relative to sea level. The Latin word terra (the root of terrain) means "earth."

In physical geography, terrain is the lay of the land. This is usually expressed in terms of the elevation, slope, and orientation of terrain features. Terrain affects surface water flow and distribution. Over a large area, it can affect weather and climate patterns.

Importance

The understanding of terrain is critical for many reasons:

  • Terrain is important in determining weather patterns. Two areas geographically close to each other may differ radically in precipitation levels or timing because of elevation differences or a rain shadow effect.
  • Precise knowledge of terrain is vital in aviation, especially for low-flying routes and maneuvers (see terrain collision avoidance) and airport altitudes. Terrain will also affect range and performance of radars and terrestrial radio navigation systems. Furthermore, a hilly or mountainous terrain can strongly impact the implementation of a new aerodrome and the orientation of its runways.

Relief

Relief (or local relief) refers specifically to the quantitative measurement of vertical elevation change in a landscape. It is the difference between maximum and minimum elevations within a given area, usually of limited extent.[5] A relief can be described qualitatively, such as a "low relief" or "high relief" plain or upland. The relief of a landscape can change with the size of the area over which it is measured, making the definition of the scale over which it is measured very important. Because it is related to the slope of surfaces within the area of interest and to the gradient of any streams present, the relief of a landscape is a useful metric in the study of the Earth's surface. Relief energy, which may be defined inter alia as "the maximum height range in a regular grid",[6] is essentially an indication of the ruggedness or relative height of the terrain.

Geomorphology

Geomorphology is in large part the study of the formation of terrain or topography. Terrain is formed by concurrent processes operating on the underlying geological structures over geological time:

Tectonic processes such as orogenies and uplifts cause land to be elevated, whereas erosional and weathering processes wear the land away by smoothing and reducing topographic features.[7] The relationship of erosion and tectonics rarely (if ever) reaches equilibrium.[8][9][10] These processes are also codependent, however the full range of their interactions is still a topic of debate.[11][12][13]

Land surface parameters are quantitative measures of various morphometric properties of a surface. The most common examples are used to derive slope or aspect of a terrain or curvatures at each location. These measures can also be used to derive hydrological parameters that reflect flow/erosion processes. Climatic parameters are based on the modelling of solar radiation or air flow.

Land surface objects, or landforms, are definite physical objects (lines, points, areas) that differ from the surrounding objects. The most typical examples airlines of watersheds, stream patterns, ridges, break-lines, pools or borders of specific landforms.

Digital terrain model

3D rendering of a DEM of Tithonium Chasma on Mars

A digital elevation model (DEM) or digital surface model (DSM) is a 3D computer graphics representation of elevation data to represent terrain or overlaying objects, commonly of a planet, moon, or asteroid. A "global DEM" refers to a discrete global grid. DEMs are used often in geographic information systems (GIS), and are the most common basis for digitally produced relief maps. A digital terrain model (DTM) represents specifically the ground surface while DEM and DSM may represent tree top canopy or building roofs.

While a DSM may be useful for landscape modeling, city modeling and visualization applications, a DTM is often required for flood or drainage modeling, land-use studies,[14] geological applications, and other applications,[15] and in planetary science.

See also

References

  1. ^ Dwevedi, Alka; Kumar, Promod; Kumar, Pravita; Kumar, Yogendra; Sharma, Yogesh K.; Kayastha, Arvind M. (January 1, 2017). Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai (ed.). "15 - Soil sensors: detailed insight into research updates, significance, and future prospects". New Pesticides and Soil Sensors. Academic Press: 561–594. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-804299-1.00016-3. ISBN 978-0-12-804299-1. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  2. ^ Baker, N.T.; Capel, P.D. (2011). "Environmental factors that influence the location of crop agriculture in the conterminous United States". U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5108. U.S. Geological Survey. p. 72.
  3. ^ Brush, L. M. (1961). Drainage basins, channels, and flow characteristics of selected streams in central Pennsylvania (PDF). Washington D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey. pp. 1–44. Retrieved October 29, 2017. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  4. ^ "Joint Publication 1-02" (PDF). Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. * "compartmentation ... [involves] areas bounded on at least two sides by terrain features such as woods..."
    * "culture — A feature of the terrain that has been constructed by man. Included are such items as roads, buildings, and canals; boundary lines; and, in a broad sense, all names and legends on a map."
    * "key terrain — Any locality, or area, the seizure or retention of which affords a marked advantage to either combatant."
    * "terrain intelligence — Intelligence on the military significance of natural and manmade characteristics of an area."
  5. ^ Summerfield, M.A. (1991). Global Geomorphology. Pearson. p. 537. ISBN 9780582301566.
  6. ^ Bollig, Michael; Bubenzer, Olaf, eds. (2009). African Landscapes: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Cologne: Springer. p. 48. ISBN 9780387786827 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Strak, V.; Dominguez, S.; Petit, C.; Meyer, B.; Loget, N. (2011). "Interaction between normal fault slip and erosion on relief evolution; insights from experimental modelling" (PDF). Tectonophysics. 513 (1–4): 1–19. Bibcode:2011Tectp.513....1S. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2011.10.005.
  8. ^ Gasparini, N.; Bras, R.; Whipple, K. (2006). "Numerical modeling of non–steady-state river profile evolution using a sediment-flux-dependent incision model. Special Paper". Geological Society of America. 398: 127–141. doi:10.1130/2006.2398(08).
  9. ^ Roe, G.; Stolar, D.; Willett, S. (2006). "Response of a steady-state critical wedge orogen to changes in climate and tectonic forcing. Special Paper". Geological Society of America. 398: 227–239. doi:10.1130/2005.2398(13).
  10. ^ Stolar, D.; Willett, S.; Roe, G. (2006). "Climatic and tectonic forcing of a critical orogen. Special Paper". Geological Society of America. 398: 241–250. doi:10.1130/2006.2398(14).
  11. ^ Wobus, C.; Whipple, K.; Kirby, E.; Snyder, N.; Johnson, J.; Spyropolou, K.; Sheehan, D. (2006). "Tectonics from topography: Procedures, promise, and pitfalls. Special Paper". Geological Society of America. 398: 55–74. doi:10.1130/2006.2398(04).
  12. ^ Hoth et al. (2006), pp. 201–225; Bonnet, Malavieille & Mosar (2007); King, Herman & Guralnik (2016), pp. 800–804
  13. ^ University of Cologne (23 August 2016). "New insights into the relationship between erosion and tectonics in the Himalayas". ScienceDaily.
  14. ^ I. Balenovic, H. Marjanovic, D. Vuletic, etc. Quality assessment of high density digital surface model over different land cover classes. PERIODICUM BIOLOGORUM. VOL. 117, No 4, 459–470, 2015.
  15. ^ "Appendix A – Glossary and Acronyms" (PDF). Severn Tidal Tributaries Catchment Flood Management Plan – Scoping Stage. UK: Environment Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-10.

Bibliography

Further reading

The dictionary definition of terrain at Wiktionary

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Terrain
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