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Territorial Support Group

Territorial Support Group
Active1987–present
CountryUnited Kingdom
BranchSpecialist Crime & Operations
TypePolice
Role
Part ofMetropolitan Police Service
Nickname(s)TSG
Insignia
Identification
symbol
"U" on shoulder number

The Territorial Support Group (TSG) is a Met Operations unit of London's Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) which specialises in public order policing, amongst other specialist areas.[1] In 2012 it consisted of 793 officers and 29 support staff.[2] The TSG is a uniformed unit of the MPS that replaced the similarly constituted Special Patrol Group in 1987.[1] TSG units patrol the streets of London in marked police vans or "carriers"; using the call sign prefix "Uniform". Generally each carrier has an advanced (police) driver, six constables, and a sergeant. Territorial Support Groups often comprise three carriers, twenty one constables, and three sergeants reporting to an Inspector. They separately patrol designated areas experiencing serious levels of gang violence or disorder. When deployed, it is by the MPS Information Room. Due to the public order nature of their role, numerous carriers will often be assigned. TSG officers can be identified as TSG from the distinctive "U" in their shoulder numbers. Some TSG officers are also plainclothes officers, carrying a taser and handcuffs.

Role

Today the TSG has three main tasks in the policing of the Metropolitan Police District:[1]

  • Securing the capital against terrorism.
  • Responding to disorder anywhere within London.
  • Reducing priority crime through borough support.

Public order

TSG officers in 2009. ( Note the "U" on the helmet to distinguish from other riot officers)

Although public order is not the TSG's only role, it is certainly their most visible and well-known. Like most police support unit vehicles, TSG vans are equipped with mesh window shields and officers are equipped with acrylic glass riot shields, visored 'NATO' helmets, shin and elbow guards, along with fireproof coveralls when required. This level of protection allows them to deal with many violent situations, including riots, football violence, and suspects armed with a variety of weapons. TSG officers are trained to a higher standard of operational readiness in their public order role than most other police support units in London; TSG training is refreshed every five weeks as a matter of routine. Exercises are conducted predominantly at the MPS Specialist Training Centre in Gravesend, Kent, though other sites are used as required, and encompass all public order scenarios. Officers undergo extensive riot training including being petrol bombed in large-scale engagements, prison clearance tactics, football stadium scenarios, night club scenarios, aircraft, rail and various “angry-man” scenarios, as well as additional specialist training. TSG units spend considerable time training with other specialist police teams as well as certain military units. Also, if a siege situation is present, but firearms are not involved, TSG will often be deployed to counter the threat.[3] Reflecting this role the unit's former head, Commander Michael Johnson, was tactical commander for the London 2012 Olympics.[4]

Borough support

TSG Mercedes Sprinters, these models were phased out after the London Riots in 2011.

TSG provides support to regular divisional officers through high-visibility patrols, surveillance and decoy operations while also providing a presence on the streets. Boroughs are also supported through the provision of a “Commissioner's Reserve”, a section of TSG that is on standby all year round. The Commissioner's Reserve is designed so such units are always available for rapid response of a sizeable number of officers anywhere within the metropolis to quell public order problems, from a bar brawl to large-scale public disorder and public protest. On a day-to-day basis, TSG assists the boroughs in handling and relocating particularly violent prisoners.[1]

Terrorism response

Whilst the majority of TSG officers are unarmed, and therefore do not engage in the initial confrontation of terrorists, the TSG is equipped and trained to deal with the aftermath or evacuation during or after a terrorism emergency in London, and the unit includes a CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) trained team. Working closely with SO15 (the Metropolitan Police Counter Terrorism Command) TSG also has counterterrorism responsibilities.[1] 200 TSG officers are now trained as firearms officers, and are available to be called upon in the event of a major attack.[5]

Recruitment

Potential TSG candidates are selected from mainstream divisional officers. Officers are selected on merit and much emphasis is placed upon their personal policing ability, motivation, resilience and good communication skills. Fitness and stamina are also seen as essential attributes of TSG personnel. Applicants must be recommended by a senior officer (minimum rank of Inspector) whilst on division.[1]

Equipment

TSG Public Order Vehicle (Carrier)

Large police vans are the standard vehicle of TSG and each van transports six constables and a sergeant. Three of these vans can form an operational Serial ready to respond to incidents; following the national PSU model, this would include an inspector, three sergeants, eighteen constables, two medics and three drivers.[3][6] The TSG also maintains a fleet of armoured Ford F450 based Jankel Guardians[7] for use in serious public order situations, like the 2011 England riots.[8] These are identical to, and interchangeable with, the Guardians used by SCO18 Aviation Command and SCO19 Firearms Command, but do not carry armed officers in public order situations.

TSG officers are not routinely armed, but are equipped with Speedcuffs, fixed batons and CS/PAVA incapacitant spray like all officers. TSG does, however, have its own firearms capability with some officers being trained as Authorised Firearms Officers (AFOs). These officers may conduct certain infrequent armed patrols across London, typically in response to a threat of terrorism.[9]

Instead of TSG officers wearing standard black trousers and white shirt, when policing demonstrations they often wear fire-retardant overalls with their stab vests underneath.[3]

Criticism

The TSG and their predecessors, the SPG, have been likened to paramilitary units during riot control operations by Tony Jefferson in The Case against Paramilitary Policing (1990). He argued this because of their use of shields, batons and helmets, their centralised command structure, their willingness to use force, and their squad-like formations. Peter Waddington, who has been credited with developing kettling, countered this conclusion in the British Journal of Criminology by pointing out that their equipment is mainly defensive. As employees, the police force have a duty to protect them from harm, he also notes that paramedics in riot situations also wear similar helmets and armour. Jefferson argues that by the police preparing for an event, such as a march or protest where they expect there to be violence, they create a self-fulfilling prophecy and that violence will occur. Waddington responds to this by pointing out that the TSG were deployed at the Notting Hill Carnival every year and yet there was not always violence. Jefferson also believes that by controlling the ground the TSG incites violence, Waddington cites examples (including the Battle of the Beanfield) where problems were caused by the police not controlling the ground and that when they have then tried to gain control violence ensued.[10]

Waddington argued that if the presence of the TSG caused violence, then violence would not occur if they were not deployed. Waddington uses examples from three Poll Tax Riots to illustrate that the assumption that their deployment causes violence is not correct. When the TSG were not deployed, serious disorder occurred, including a fully-fledged riot. In contrast when the TSG, including specialists in riot control, were deployed there was less violence. What is more he found that the more the police planned for the 'worst-case scenario' the less disorder there was. When they controlled the space and the crowd was at its greatest, violence was lowest. Waddington states that whilst the deployment of the TSG in a riot situation is never desirable, it is often essential to maintain order and limit violence. However, he also believes that the use of force should be as minimal as possible and that it should only be used to achieve publicly acceptable purposes.[10]

Officers in the TSG have faced criticism about their policing methods and complaints have been made against officers of the TSG.[11] Senior officers say that the type of work that the TSG are involved with, policing protests and performing drug raids makes them more likely to have complaints made against them.[12] As the result of a freedom of information request made by The Guardian newspaper, it was revealed that more than 5,000 complaints were made against the TSG in 4 years but only 9 have been upheld. Commenting on these figures, a member of the Metropolitan Police Authority stated that officers in the TSG are "practically immune" from criticism.[12]

One ex-Metropolitan Police officer suggested that TSG members, "spend (their) days waiting for action, and far too many officers join seeking excitement and physical confrontation." Some officers are ex-military personnel and these are "the worst bullies" as "the laws of the battlefield are not appropriate to the streets of our capital".[13]

Incidents

In 1997 a man was beaten by officers from the TSG in what was described as an "outrageous display of brutality",[14] which only stopped when the man pretended to be unconscious. The man was charged with assault and threatening behaviour over the incident but was cleared after photographs of his injuries showed the officers had lied about the case under oath. After the man's acquittal the officers went on trial accused of assault in 1999 but were later cleared.[15] In 2003, six officers of the TSG performed what a judge in 2009 called a "serious, gratuitous and prolonged" assault and "religious abuse" on suspect, Babar Ahmad, a 34-year-old IT support analyst who was not subsequently charged with any offence.[16] The officers involved had already been the subject of as many as 60 complaints about unwarranted assaults against other men.[17] A number of mail sacks containing these complaints were somehow lost.[18] The accusations were investigated by the Independent Police Complaints Commission[19] but that they were found to be unsubstantiated. Five of the six officers were still members of the TSG in 2009.[17] Babar Ahmed was later awarded £60,000 compensation, by the High Court, for the assault.[16] In August, 2009, it was announced that the police officers accused of attacking Babar Ahmad would face criminal charges.[20] However all four officers were found not guilty in June 2011 after a recording from listening device placed in Mr. Ahmed's home surfaced shortly before the trial which "proved the account originally given by these officers was correct and specific details of the complaint made by Mr. Ahmad were not present"[21]

In 2005 a Kurdish youth recorded an officer on his mobile phone telling him "If you say one more fucking word, I'll smash your fucking Arab face in" after he was stopped near Paddington Green police station.[22] The officer was suspended but denied the charge.[23]

Another investigation into six other officers of the TSG by the IPCC was launched following allegations made by three men that they were racially abused during an incident during June 2007 in Paddington.[24] A van of officers stopped after seeing youths mouthing obscenities towards them.[25] The officers appeared in court in December 2008 and were prosecuted; two for racially abusing the men, four of misconduct in a public office and one of racially aggravated assault.[26] The Guardian reported that a request may have been made to restrict reporting of the trial by the media.[27] The officer who was driving the van acted as a whistleblower during the trial.[25] One officer, a former Royal Marine, accused in this case was also involved in the assault of Babar Ahmed and has had 31 complaints lodged against him since 1993. In November 2009, he was cleared of all offences, along with the other officers, and returned to work with the TSG.[12][28]

During the 2009 G-20 London summit protests two officers of the TSG were suspended from duty following publication of videos which recorded alleged assaults on members of the public at the 2009 G-20 London summit protests and at a subsequent memorial. In the first case, the member of the public, Ian Tomlinson, died shortly afterwards. In the second case, Sgt Delroy (Tony) Smellie was seen hitting Nicola Fisher. Following her complaint, the Crown Prosecution Service announced in September 2009, that there was sufficient evidence to charge Sgt Smellie with assault. He appeared in court on 16 November 2009 and was cleared of assault charges on 31 March 2010 at City of Westminster Magistrates' Court. However, it was reported that he could still face misconduct proceedings over the incident.[29][needs update] Video evidence showed that the officer seen hitting Ian Tomlinson had his face covered,[30] and that the officers involved in both cases were not displaying their identification numbers. Following the investigation into police handling of the protest, the human rights group Liberty called for further study of what it referred to as the "militaristic approach" used by the TSG.[31]

Bases of operations

The TSG operates from four bases located around London:[1][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]

The 1TSG unit based in Paddington Green Police Station was decommissioned in 2016 relating to poor working practices, unauthorised claiming of overtime and bullying.[39]

List of known commanding officers

  • Michael "Mick" Johnson (2007–2011)[40]
  • Mark Bird (2011)[41]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Metropolitan Police: Territorial Support Group". Metropolitan Police Force. 29 October 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  2. ^ http://www.ipcc.gov.uk/Documents/investigation_commissioner_reports/territorial_support_group_report.pdf IPCC, 21 December 2012 Metropolitan Police Service Territorial Support Group: A review of complaints data and IPCC cases 2008-2012
  3. ^ a b c Waldren, Michael J. (2007). Armed Police, The Police Use of Firearms since 1945. England: Sutton. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-7509-4637-7.
  4. ^ "Acting Commissioner's Report". MPA Committee Reports. MPA. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  5. ^ Admin, D. P. F. (13 June 2016). "Met to train riot police as back-up gun squad in case of terror attack". Defence Police Federation. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  6. ^ "Dyfed-Powys Police – Public Order" (PDF). Best Value Review Inspection Reports. HMIC. March 2003. Retrieved 1 March 2003.
  7. ^ "MPS Marked vehicles" (PDF). 29 June 2019.
  8. ^ Peracha, Qasim (13 May 2019). "Meet the 'Guardian' seven tonne monster truck keeping Londoners safe". getwestlondon. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  9. ^ "MPS Firearms Policy, performance and training". MPA Committee Reports. MPA. 18 January 2002. Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  10. ^ a b Waddington, P. A. J (Summer 1993). "The case against paramilitary policing considered". British Journal of Criminology. 33 (3): 353–373. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjc.a048330. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
  11. ^ Dugan, Emily (19 April 2009). "Third allegation of police brutality at G20 investigated". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 21 April 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  12. ^ a b c Lewis, Paul; Matthew Taylor (6 November 2009). "Scotland Yard riot squad faces calls to end 'culture of impunity'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  13. ^ Macintyre, James (16 April 2009). "Stress, sexism and sacrifice of ideals". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009.
  14. ^ Dodd, Vikram (5 October 1999). "Police beat up man then lied on oath, court told". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  15. ^ "Police trio cleared of beating up suspect". The Mirror. 21 October 1999. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  16. ^ a b "£60,000 awarded to terror suspect". BBC News. 18 March 2009.
  17. ^ a b "Specialist protest squads at centre of investigations into G20 police violence". The Guardian. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  18. ^ "Metropolitan police pays Muslim man £60,000 damages over 'serious attack'". The Guardian. 18 March 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  19. ^ "Complaint by Mr Babar Ahmed". Independent Police Complaints Commission. 10 September 2004.
  20. ^ "Policemen to face trial for alleged assault on terror suspect Babar Ahmad". The Guardian. 12 August 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  21. ^ "Babar Ahmad police officers not guilty of assault". BBC News. 3 June 2011.
  22. ^ "Constable suspended 'after racist tirade caught on mobile'". The Guardian. 19 May 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  23. ^ "Policeman denies 'racist attack'". BBC News. 5 April 2006.
  24. ^ "Six officers summonsed following IPCC managed investigation". Independent Police Complaints Commission. 5 December 2008.
  25. ^ a b Saddique, Haroon (12 October 2009). "Police officers racially abused teenagers in van, court hears". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  26. ^ "Police face racial abuse charges". BBC News. 5 December 2008.
  27. ^ "Six Met officers to appear in court over racial abuse allegations". The Guardian. 6 December 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  28. ^ Gardham, Duncan (4 November 2009). "Police officer cleared of racist assault had attacked terrorism suspect before". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  29. ^ "Officer faces G20 assault charge". BBC News. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
  30. ^ Lawson, Dominic (12 April 2009). "Lash out, close ranks – it's the police way". The Sunday Times.
  31. ^ "Police protest tactics need urgent reform, says Denis O'Connor's G20 report". The Times. 8 July 2009.
  32. ^ Daily Telegraph Police officer who stole and crashed riot van jailed, 30 December 2008
  33. ^ Metropolitan Police Authority North east operations OCU – tender approval, 15 May 2001
  34. ^ Metropolitan Police Service NE Garage – Chadwell Heath, Accessed 13 April 2009
  35. ^ Greater London Authority Written Answers to FBQT, 13 June 2001 Archived 8 May 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Metropolitan Police Service Lambeth TSG Open Day, 22 November 2008
  37. ^ Metropolitan Police Authority Proposals for redeveloping deployment facilities at Alperton traffic garage, Brent, Accessed 6 January 2012
  38. ^ GetWestLondon New police base to open in Alperton this week, 30 June 2014
  39. ^ Dodd, Vikram. "Met police decommissions riot squad unit amid disciplinary investigation". The Guardian. No. 9 February 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  40. ^ "Appendix 1" (PDF). Towerhamlets.gov.uk.
  41. ^ Gough, Helen (2012). Police and Constabulary Almanac 2012: Official Register. England: Sweet & Maxwell. ISBN 978-0-414-02342-0.
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Territorial Support Group
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