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Terminal degree

A terminal degree is the highest-level university degree that can be achieved and awarded in an academic discipline or professional field. In other cases, it is a degree that is awarded because a doctoral-level degree is not available nor appropriate.[1][2][3][4][5] The two main types of terminal degrees are academic or professional.

An academic doctorate such as the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) is a terminal degree for expanding human knowledge through research and dissertation defense. A professional doctorate is a terminal degree for licensure in an occupation, such as the Doctor of Medicine (MD), Juris Doctor (JD), and Doctor of Engineering (EngD).[6]

The phrase "terminal degree" is used heavily in the United States, but is used less in other countries. The term is not generally used in the United Kingdom or Canada, for example, and its exact meaning varies somewhat between those areas and disciplines in which the term is used. In some countries there are degrees which are more advanced than the PhD, such as the higher doctorates in the United Kingdom and Russia, and the habilitation degree awarded in Germany and Austria.

Not all terminal degrees are doctorates. For example, in professional practice fields there are often terminal master-level degrees, some which are called doctorates e.g. MEng (Master of Engineering), MLArch standing for Master Landscape Architect or BEng for Engineers, MB (Bachelor of Medicine (UK)). Architecture was a discipline where the M.Arch was considered terminal as a professionally oriented degree, but a Doctor of Architecture (D.Arch) that is recognized by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) establishes the doctoral level as the highest level of "professional degree" in architecture in the United States.[7][8] For the same discipline of Architecture, the "Laurea di Dottore" is the terminal degree in Italy. Interior design and Interior Architecture have terminal master-level degrees such as MID, MA, MS interior design education. Most non-doctoral degrees are not terminal in academic terms, with the exception of the Master of Fine Arts (MFA), an academically recognized terminal degree given to practitioners in the fine arts and performing arts. The Master of Business Administration (MBA) is also considered a terminal professional degree.[9]

Research degrees

In academic fields, the typical terminal degree is that of Doctor of Philosophy, although others also exist. The first phase of the Ph.D. consists of coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to complete. This is often followed by a preliminary or comprehensive examination and/or a series of cumulative examinations, in which the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge. Finally, another two to four years is usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge embodied in a written dissertation that in the social sciences and humanities is typically 250 to 450 pages in length. Dissertations generally consist of (i) a comprehensive literature review, (ii) an outline of methodology, and (iii) several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by his or her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.

Typical professional degrees, professional/clinical doctorates, and research doctorates

Professional degrees

A professional degree is a degree that is required, often by law as in the case of medical and other clinical professions, that must be earned first before the holder of the degree can practice in the profession. A speech-language pathologist, for example, must hold a master's degree in communicative disorders: speech-language pathology in order to practice. However, an actor does not need a degree to act, even though there are degrees for acting available. In some fields, especially those linked to a profession (such as medicine, law or teaching), a distinction is to be drawn between a professional degree, an advanced degree and terminal degree. A first professional degree is generally required by law or custom to practice the profession without limitation. An advanced professional degree provides further training in a specialized area of the profession. A first professional degree is an academic degree designed to prepare the holder for a particular career or profession, fields in which scholarly research and academic activity are not the profession, but rather the practice of the profession. In many cases such as law, medicine and teaching, the first professional degree is also terminal, usually because no further advanced degree is required for practice in that field, even though more advanced academic degrees may exist.

Typical professional degree

Advanced professional degrees

See also

References

  1. ^ "Graduate Degrees - American Graduate Education". www.americangraduateeducation.com.
  2. ^ "What Is the Difference Between a Terminal Degree & a Research Degree?". Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
  3. ^ "Terminal Master's Degree Programs in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences" (PDF). Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
  4. ^ "Qualifications for Tenure Track Hire Policy". San Francisco State University. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  5. ^ "Presidential Diversity Research Grant". Binghamton University. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  6. ^ American Bar Association. "Law School Accreditation Council Statements" (PDF). American Bar Association. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  7. ^ "What Is the Difference Between a Terminal Degree & a Research Degree?". Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
  8. ^ "NAAB". National Architectural Accrediting Board.
  9. ^ "What is an MBA? Is an MBA a Terminal Degree?". University of Alabama at Birmingham. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  10. ^ "Standards and Guidelines". College Arts Association. The College Art Association. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  11. ^ "Standards and Guidelines". College Arts Association. The College Art Association. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Standards and Guidelines". College Arts Association. The College Art Association. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Education Overview". 19 March 2015.
  14. ^ "Doctor of Behavioral Health (DBH)".
  15. ^ "Doctor of Economic Development (DED) | NMSU College of Business | New Mexico State University". business.nmsu.edu. Archived from the original on 2015-01-25.
  16. ^ MBA represents a professional designation in the field of Management
  17. ^ "The National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying".
  18. ^ "MT :: Master of Teaching, CTL, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto". Oise.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
  19. ^ "CVN - Columbia Video Network". Cvn.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
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Terminal degree
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