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Tel Megiddo

Tel Megiddo
מגידו
An aerial view of Tel Megiddo
Tel Megiddo is located in Jezreel Valley region of Israel
Tel Megiddo
Shown within Jezreel Valley region of Israel
Tel Megiddo is located in Israel
Tel Megiddo
Tel Megiddo (Israel)
Tel Megiddo is located in West and Central Asia
Tel Megiddo
Tel Megiddo (West and Central Asia)
Alternative nameTell el-Mutesellim
LocationNear Kibbutz Megiddo, Israel
RegionLevant
Coordinates32°35′07″N 35°11′04″E / 32.58528°N 35.18444°E / 32.58528; 35.18444
TypeSettlement
Part ofKingdom of Israel, Canaan
History
Abandoned350 BCE
Official nameBiblical Tells – Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iii, iv, vi
Designated2005 (29th session)
Reference no.1108
RegionAsia-Pacific

Tel Megiddo (Hebrew: תל מגידו; Arabic: مجیدو, Tell el-Mutesellim, lit. "Mound of the Governor"; Greek: Μεγιδδώ, Megiddo) is the site of the ancient city of Megiddo, the remains of which form a tell (archaeological mound), situated in northern Israel near Kibbutz Megiddo, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) south-east of Haifa, at the western edge of Jezreel Valley. Megiddo is known for its historical, geographical, and theological importance, especially under its Greek name Armageddon. During the Bronze Age, Megiddo was an important Canaanite city-state. During the Iron Age, it was a royal city in the Kingdom of Israel.

Megiddo drew much of its importance from its strategic location at the northern end of the Wadi Ara defile, which acts as a pass through the Carmel Ridge, and from its position overlooking the rich Jezreel Valley from the west.

Excavations have unearthed 20 strata of ruins since the Neolithic phase, indicating a long period of settlement.[1] The site is protected as Megiddo National Park and is a World Heritage Site.[2]

Etymology

Megiddo was known in the Akkadian language used in Assyria as Magiddu, Magaddu. In Egyptian, it was Maketi, Makitu, and Makedo. In the Canaanite-influenced Akkadian used in the Amarna tablets, it was known as Magidda and Makida.

Greek: Μαγεδών/Μαγεδδώ, Magedón/Mageddó in the Septuagint.[3][4][5] Latin: Mageddo in the Vulgate.[6]

The Book of Revelation describes an apocalyptic battle at Armageddon (Revelation 16:16): Ἁρμαγεδών (Harmagedōn),[7] a Koine Greek transliteration of the Hebrew "Har Megiddo" (Mount Megiddo).[8] From this surreal appearance in a well-known eschatological text, the term "Armageddon" has come to signify any world-ending catastrophe.[9]

History

Megiddo was important in the ancient world. It guarded the western branch of a narrow pass on the most important trade route of the ancient Fertile Crescent, linking Egypt with Mesopotamia and Asia Minor (Anatolia) and known today as Via Maris. Because of its strategic location, Megiddo was the site of several battles. It was inhabited approximately from 5000 to 350 BCE,[1] or even, as Megiddo Expedition archaeologists suggest, since around 7000 BCE.[10]

Neolithic and Chalcolithic

Archaeological Stratum XX in Tel Megiddo began around 5000 BCE, belonging to the Neolithic period.[1] The first Yarmukian culture remains were found at this level in 1930s excavations, but they were not recognized as such then. These remains, found in Area BB, were pottery, a figurine, and flint items.[11] The Chalcolithic period came next, with significant content around 4500-3500 BCE, as part of the Wadi Rabah culture, at the following base level of Tel Megiddo, as other large tell sites in the region, was located near a spring.[12][13]

Early Bronze Age

Megiddo's Early Bronze Age I (3500–2950 BCE) was originally worked in 1933–1938 by the Oriental Institute, now the Institute for the Study of Ancient Cultures. Decades later, a temple from the end of this period was found and dated to Early Bronze Age IB (ca. 3000 BCE) and described by its excavators, Adams, Finkelstein, and Ussishkin,[14] as "the most monumental single edifice so far uncovered" in the early Bronze Age Levant and among the largest structures of its time in the Near East.[15]

Samples, obtained by Israel Finkelstein's Megiddo Expedition, at the temple-hall in the year 2000, provided calibrated dates from the 31st and 30th century BCE.[16] The temple is the most monumental Early Bronze I structure known in the Levant, if not the entire Ancient Near East. Archaeologists' view is that "taking into account the manpower and administrative work required for its construction, it provides the best manifestation for the first wave of urban life and, probably, city-state formation in the Levant".[17]

To the South of this temple there is an unparalleled monumental compound. It was excavated by the Megiddo Expedition in 1996 and 1998, and belongs to the later phase of Early Bronze IB,[18] ca. 3090-2950 BCE.[19] It consists of several long, parallel stone walls, each of which is 4 meters wide. Between the walls were narrow corridors, filled hip-deep with the remains of animal sacrifice. These walls lie immediately below the huge ‘megaron’ temples of the Early Bronze III (2700-2300 BCE).[18] The megaron temples remained in use through the Intermediate Bronze period.[20]

Magnetometer research, before the 2006 excavations, found that the entire Tel Megiddo settlement covered an area of ca. 50 hectares, being the largest known Early Bronze Age I site in the Levant.[17] In 2014, Pierre de Miroschedji stated that Tel Megiddo had around 25 hectares in the Early Bronze IA and IB periods, when most settlements in the region only covered a maximum area of 5 hectares, but that excavations suggest large sites like Tel Megiddo were "sparsely built, with dwellings disorderly distributed and separated by open spaces."[21]

Tel Megiddo was still among the large fortified sites, between 5 and 12 hectares, during the Early Bronze II-III period, when its palace testifies that it was a real city-state "characterized by a strong social hierarchy, a hereditary centralized power, and the functioning of a palatial economy."[22]

The town declined in the Early Bronze Age IV period (2300–2000 BCE) as the Early Bronze Age political systems collapsed at the last quarter of the third millennium BCE.[23]

Middle Bronze Age

Early in the second millennium BCE, at the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1950 BCE), urbanism once again took hold throughout of the southern Levant. Large urban centers served as political power in city-states. By the later Middle Bronze Age, the inland valleys were dominated by regional centers such as Megiddo, which reached a size of more than 20 hectares, including the upper and lower cities.[24] A royal burial was found in Tel Megiddo, dating to the later phase of the Middle Bronze Age, around 1700-1600 BCE, when the power of Canaanite Megiddo was at its peak and before the ruling dynasty collapsed under the might of Thutmose's army.[25]

In mortuary contexts, in a dental calculus of individual MGD018 (c. 1630-1550 BCE), at Tel Megiddo, turmeric and soybean proteins were found, which are South Asian products, suggesting he may have been a merchant or trader who "consumed foods seasoned with turmeric or prepared with soy oil in the Levant, in South Asia, or elsewhere," indicating the possible existence of an Indo-Mediterranean trade.[26] Sesamum protein (sesame), another South Asian product, was found in individual MGD011 (c. 1688-1535 BCE).[27]

Late Bronze Age

Late Bronze Age city gate

At the Battle of Megiddo the city was subjugated by Thutmose III (r. 1479–1425 BCE), and became part of the Egyptian Empire. The city still prospered, and a massive and elaborate government palace was constructed in the Late Bronze Age.[28]

In the Amarna Period (c. 1353–1336 BCE), Megiddo was a vassal of the Egyptian Empire. The Amarna Letter E245 mentions local ruler Biridiya of Megiddo. Other contemporary rulers mentioned were Labaya of Shechem and Surata of Akka, nearby cities. This ruler is mentioned in the corpus from the city of 'Kumidu', the Kamid al lawz. This indicates that there were relations between Megiddo and Kumidu.

Megiddo's Stratum VIIB lasted until slightly before or in the reign of Ramesses III (c. 1184-1153 BCE).[29]

Iron Age

Iron Age began in Tel Megiddo around 1150 BCE.[30] Egypt's control of this Canaanite region ended around 1130 BCE,[31] as Stratum VIIA was destroyed around this date or shortly thereafter,[32] attested in the palace and adjacent Level H-11 building.[33] A Canaanite dynasty still controlled the city after the Egyptians abandoned the region.[34] The beginning of Philistine Bichrome pottery at Megiddo was after 1124 BCE, or in the period (c. 1128-1079 BCE), based on radiocarbon datings with a confidence of 95.4%.[29]

The city represented by Stratum VI is considered completely Canaanite by Israel Finkelstein. It is thought to have a mixed Israelite and Philistine character by archaeologists Yigael Yadin and Amihai Mazar. It fell victim to fire,[15] when the earliest fragmentary Gate 3165 from Stratum VIA in the Late Iron Age I, around 1050-950 BCE, was destroyed along with the whole city.[35] This new devastation in Stratum VI was considered by Finkelstein to have taken place around 1073 BCE or slightly later,[36] marking the end of Iron I in the Jezreel Valley and of Canaanite culture there.[37] This destruction was "caused by the growing proto-Israelite power in the central hill country, out of which [emerged] the Northern Kingdom of Israel [that] should be dated to the first half of the 10th century BCE," related to "the biblical narrative of the war led by Deborah and Barak in Judges 4-5."[38]

In a 2023 paper, Finkelstein's team proposes, based on recent radiocarbon datings, that Stratum VIA ended in the early 10th century BCE, before 985 BCE, not due to the conquest of Shoshenq I but by "the expansion of the highlanders into the valley, a development that soon brought about the emergence of the Israelite Northern Kingdom."[39][40]

There have been a number of contradictory proposals for the political history of the Early Iron Age excavation layers.[41] The destruction of Stratum V was attributed, by Yadin and Mazar, to the Egyptian Pharaoh Shoshenq I, first ruler of the 22nd Dynasty of Egypt, who would have taken Megiddo sometime around 926 BCE,[42] which is attested in a cartouche on a stele fragment, found in a spoil heap of the Shumacher excavation by the Oriental Institute team, and in a partial and damaged list of toponyms at the Temple of Karnak.[43] However, recalibration of radiocarbon datings, using calibration curve (IntCal20), supports Finkelstein's view that the destruction of Stratum V was due to Hazael's Campaign, c. 835 BCE (9th century BCE).[44]

Gate 2156, Late Iron Age IIA, built during Omride dynasty, (Late Iron Age IIA, c. 900-780 BCE).

Rulers of the Israelite Northern Kingdom improved the fortress from around 900 to 750 BCE. The palaces, water systems and fortifications of the site at this period were among the most elaborate Iron Age constructions found in the Levant.[43] There is a putative "Solomonic gate" (Gate 2156), which belongs to Stratum VA-IVB, dated by recent excavations and new radiocarbon analysis by Megiddo Expedition, led by Israel Finkelstein, during the time of the Omride dynasty, (c. 886-835 BCE), in the Late Iron Age IIA (around 900-780 BCE).[35]

Hendrik J. Bruins recalibrated Israel Finkelstein's radiocarbon available samples, using the latest 2020 calibration curve (IntCal20), and concluded that the initial establishment of Stratum VB belongs to the 10th century BCE, during the time of the possible United Monarchy, based in two radiocarbon samples.[45] These two samples are RTT-5498 and RTK-6755, dated to 961 cal BCE (median) and 928 cal BCE (median) respectively.[46] Other four samples from Stratum VA-IVB, which are RTK-6408, 6760, 6429, and RTT-3948, belong to the period of Omride dynasty, dated to 865, 858, 858, and 857 cal BCE (median) respectively.[47]

The Neo-Assyrian Empire phase, the site was now called Magiddu, c. 732-609 BCE, plan and ruins.

Tel Megiddo became an important city, before being destroyed, possibly by Aramaean raiders. The Aramean occupation was around 845-815 BCE.[48] Jeroboam II (c. 789-748 BCE) reigned over Megiddo. Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria conquered Megiddo in 732 BCE, turning it to the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire's province of Magiddu.[15] Hoshea (c. 732-721 BCE), the last king of the Israelite Northern Kingdom, was vassal to Tiglath-Pileser III. The site was rebuilt as an administrative center for Tiglath-Pileser III's occupation of Samaria.

In 609 BCE, Megiddo was conquered by Egyptians under Necho II, during the Battle of Megiddo. Its importance soon dwindled, and it was thought as finally abandoned around 586 BCE.[49] Since that time it would have remained uninhabited, preserving ruins pre-dating 586 BCE without settlements ever disturbing them. Archaeologist Eric Cline considers Tel Megiddo came to an end later, around 350 BCE, during Achaemenid times.[1] Then, the town of al-Lajjun, not to be confused with the al-Lajjun archaeological site in Jordan, was built up near to the site, but without inhabiting or disturbing its remains.

Modern Israel

A view of Jezreel Valley and Mount Tabor from Megiddo

Megiddo is south of Kibbutz Megiddo by 1 kilometre (0.62 mi). Today, Megiddo Junction is on the main road connecting the center of Israel with lower Galilee and the north. It lies at the northern entrance to Wadi Ara, an important mountain pass connecting the Jezreel Valley within Israel's coastal plain.[50]

In 1964, during Pope Paul VI's visit to the Holy Land, Megiddo was the site where he met with Israeli dignitaries, including President Zalman Shazar and the Prime Minister Levi Eshkol.[51]

Battles

Famous battles include:

History of archaeological excavation

Megiddo has been excavated three times and is currently being excavated. The first excavations were carried out between 1903 and 1905 by Gottlieb Schumacher for the German Society for the Study of Palestine, excavating one main north-south trench and some subsidiary trenches and probes.[52] Techniques used were rudimentary by later standards and Schumacher's field notes and records were destroyed in World War I before being published. After the war, Carl Watzinger published the remaining available data from the dig.[53]

In 1925, digging was resumed by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, financed by John D. Rockefeller Jr., continuing until the outbreak of the Second World War. The work was led initially by Clarence S. Fisher, and later by P. L. O. Guy, Robert Lamon, and Gordon Loud.[54][55][56][57][58][59] The Oriental Institute intended to completely excavate the whole tel, layer by layer, but money ran out before they could do so. Today, excavators limit themselves to a square or a trench on the basis that they must leave something for future archaeologists with better techniques and methods. During these excavations it was discovered that there were around 8 levels of habitation. Many of the uncovered remains are preserved at the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem and the Institute for the Study of Ancient Cultures. The East Slope area of Megiddo was excavated to the bedrock to serve as a spoil area. The full results of that excavation were not published until decades later.[60]

Yigael Yadin conducted excavations in 1960, 1966, 1967, and 1971 for the Hebrew University.[61][62] The formal results of those digs were published by Anabel Zarzecki-Peleg in Hebrew University's monograph 2016 Qedem 56.[63]

Since 1994, Megiddo has been the subject of biannual excavation campaigns conducted by the Megiddo Expedition of Tel Aviv University, currently co-directed by Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin, and Baruch Halpern with Eric H. Cline of The George Washington University serving as associate director (USA), together with a consortium of international universities.[64][65][66][67] One notable feature of the dig is close on-site co-operation between archaeologists and specialist scientists, with detailed chemical analysis being performed at the dig itself using a field infrared spectrometer.[68]

In 2010, the Jezreel Valley Regional Project, directed by Matthew J. Adams of Bucknell University in cooperation with the Megiddo Expedition, undertook excavations of the eastern extension of the Early Bronze Age town of Megiddo, at the site known as Tel Megiddo (East).[69]

Archaeological features

A path leads up through a six-chambered gate, previously believed to be built by Solomon, built during the Omride dynasty, found in Stratum VA-IVB, late Iron IIA period.[35] It overlooks the excavations of the Institute for the Study of Ancient Cultures. A solid circular stone structure has been interpreted as an altar or a high place from the Canaanite period. Further on is a grain pit from the Israelite period for storing provisions in case of siege. There are stables, originally thought to date from the time of Solomon but now dated a century and a half later to the time of Ahab. A water system consists of a square shaft 35 metres (115 ft) deep, the bottom of which opens into a tunnel bored through rock for 100 metres (330 ft) to a pool of water.

The Great Temple

A circular altar-like shrine from the Early Bronze Age

Megiddo's 5,000 year old "Great Temple", dated to the Early Bronze Age IB (ca. 3000 BCE), has been described by its excavators as "the most monumental single edifice so far uncovered in the EB I Levant and ranks among the largest structures of its time in the Near East."[70] The structure includes an immense, 47.5 by 22 meters sanctuary. The temple was more than ten times larger than a typical temple of that era and was determined to be the site of ritual animal sacrifice. Corridors were used as favissae (deposits of cultic artifacts) to store bones after ritual sacrifice. More than 80% of the animal remains were of young sheep and goats. The rest were cattle.[71]

Jewelry

In 2010, a collection of jewelry pieces was found in a ceramic jug.[72][73] The jewelry dates to around 1100 BCE.[74] The collection includes beads made of carnelian stone, a ring and earrings. The jug was subjected to molecular analysis to determine the contents. The collection was probably owned by a wealthy Canaanite family, likely belonging to the ruling elite.[75]

Megiddo ivories

A female sphynx plaque, ivory, Megiddo 1300-1200 BCE

The Megiddo ivories are thin carvings in ivory found at Tel Megiddo, the majority excavated by Gordon Loud. The ivories are on display at the Institute for the Study of Ancient Cultures in Chicago and the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem. They were found in the stratum VIIA, or Late Bronze Age layer of the site. Carved from hippopotamus incisors from the Nile, they show Egyptian stylistic influence. An ivory pen case was found inscribed with the cartouche of Ramses III.

Megiddo stables

Southern stables

At Megiddo two stable complexes were excavated from Stratum IVA, one in the north and one in the south. Stratum VA-IVB has also been proposed for this area.[76][77] The southern complex contained five structures built around a lime paved courtyard. The buildings were divided into three sections.[78]

Two long stone paved aisles were built adjacent to a main corridor, paved with lime. The buildings were about twenty-one meters long by eleven meters wide. Separating the main corridor from outside aisles was a series of stone pillars. Holes were bored into many of these pillars so that horses could be tied to them. The remains of stone mangers were found in the buildings. These mangers were placed between the pillars to feed the horses.[78]

It is suggested that each side could hold fifteen horses, giving each building an overall capacity of thirty horses. The buildings on the northern side of the city were similar in their construction. There was no central courtyard. The capacity of the northern buildings was about three hundred horses altogether. Both complexes could hold from 450 to 480 horses combined.[78]

The buildings were found during excavations between 1927 and 1934. The head excavator originally interpreted the buildings as stables. Since then, his conclusions have been challenged by James Pritchard, Dr Adrian Curtis of Manchester University Ze'ev Herzog, and Yohanan Aharoni, who suggest they were storehouses, marketplaces or barracks.[78]

The Bronze Age tomb

In February 2023, the remains of two elite brothers buried with Cypriot pottery, food and other valuable possessions were found in a Bronze Age tomb. Bioarchaeologists identified the early evidence of a Bronze Age cranial surgery called trepanation in one of the brothers. The study published in PLOS One, reports that the younger brother died in his teens or early 20s, most likely from an infectious illness like leprosy or tuberculosis. The older brother who died immediately after the surgery had angular notched trephination and was thought to be between the ages of 20 and 40. A 30-millimeter (1.2-inch) square-shaped hole was created on the frontal bone of the skull, after his scalp was cut with a sharp instrument with a bevelled-edge.[79][80][81]

Megiddo church

The Megiddo church is next to Megiddo Junction, inside the precinct of the Megiddo Prison. It was built within the ancient city of Legio. It is believed to date to the 3rd century, which would make it one of the oldest churches in the world. It was situated a few hundreds yards from the Roman base camp of Legio VI Ferrata. One of the mosaics found in the church was donated by a centurion.[82]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Cline, Eric, (2020). "Megiddo", in Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception, Vol. 18, De Gruyter.
  2. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Document - Tel Megiddo National Park".
  3. ^ Septuagint Bible, "Joshua 12:22": "βασιλέα Μαγεδών..." ("The king of Magedón...")
  4. ^ Septuagint Bible, "Joshua 17:11": "καὶ ἔσται Μανασσῆ ἐν ᾿Ισσάχαρ καὶ ἐν ᾿Ασὴρ Βαιθσὰν καὶ αἱ κῶμαι αὐτῶν καὶ τοὺς κατοικοῦντας Δὼρ καὶ τὰς κώμας αὐτῆς, καὶ τοὺς κατοικοῦντας Μαγεδδώ, καὶ τὰς κώμας αὐτῆς..." ("And Manasses shall have Issachar and Aser Baethsan and their villages, and the inhabitants of Dor, and its villages, and the inhabitants of Mageddó, and its villages...")
  5. ^ Septuagint Bible, "Judges 5:19": "ἦλθον αὐτῶν βασιλεῖς, παρετάξαντο, τότε ἐπολέμησαν βασιλεῖς Χαναὰν ἐν Θαναὰχ ἐπὶ ὕδατι Μαγεδδώ." ("Kings set themselves in array, then the kings of Chanaan fought in Thanaach at the water of Mageddó.") Bible Study Tools, "Bible Versions: LXX"
  6. ^ English Latin Bible: Biblia Sacra Vulgata 405, Second Kings 23:29: "...et abiit Iosias rex in occursum eius et occisus est in Mageddo cum vidisset eum..."
  7. ^ Biblehub: Revelation 16:16, in original Koine Greek.
  8. ^ Introducing Megiddo, in Megiddo Expedition, retrieved on 25 March 2020: "...In the New Testament it appears as Armageddon (a Greek corruption of the Hebrew Har [=Mount] Megiddo), location of the millennial battle between the forces of good and evil..."
  9. ^ Tourist Israel: "...For Christians the word Megiddo is synonymous with the end of the world as mentioned in the Book of Revelation, Megiddo or Armageddon as it is also known will be the site of the Final Battle..."
  10. ^ Introducing Megiddo, in Megiddo Expedition, retrieved on 21 March 2020.
  11. ^ Garnfinkel, Yosef, (1993). "The Yarmukian Culture in Israel", in Paléorient, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 115, 117.
  12. ^ Issar, A., & Mattanyah Zohar, (2004). "Climate Change: Environment and Civilization in the Middle East", Springer Science & Business Media, p. 70.
  13. ^ Nativ, Assaf, Danny Rosenberg, and Dani Nadel, (2014). "The Southern tip of the Northern Levant? The Early Pottery Neolithic assemblage of Tel Ro'im West, Israel", in Paléorient, Vol. 40, No. 1 (2014), p. 99.
  14. ^ Adams, Matthew J., Israel Finkelstein, and David Ussishkin, (2014). "The Great Temple of Early Bronze I Megiddo", in American Journal of Archaeology Vol. 118, No. 2, April, pp. 285–305.
  15. ^ a b c Wiener, Noah." Early Bronze Age: Megiddo's Great Temple and the Birth of Urban Culture in the Levant" Bible History Daily, Biblical Archaeology Society, 2014.
  16. ^ Megiddo Expedition 2004, in Area J of Tel Megiddo.
  17. ^ a b Megiddo Expedition 2006, in Area J of Tel Megiddo.
  18. ^ a b Megiddo Expedition 1994-1998, in Area J of Tel Megiddo.
  19. ^ Sapir-Hen, Lidar, Deirdre N. Fulton, Matthew J. Adams, and Israel Finkelstein, (2022). "The Temple and the Town at Early Bronze Age I Megiddo: Faunal Evidence for the Emergence of Complexity", in Bulletin of ASOR, Volume 387, May 2022, Abstract: "...faunal assemblages from...Megiddo, a cult site, and Tel Megiddo East, a town site...are dated to the Early Bronze Age IB (EB IB; 3090–2950 b.c.e.), at the dawn of urbanization in the Near East."
  20. ^ David Ussishkin. “The Sacred Area of Early Bronze Megiddo: History and Interpretation.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 373, 2015, pp. 69–104
  21. ^ De Miroschedji, Pierre, (2014). "The Southern Levant (Cisjordan) during the Early Bronze Age", in M.L. Steiner and A.E. Killebrew (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant c.8000–332 BCE, Oxford University Press, pp. 309, 310.
  22. ^ De Miroschedji, Pierre, (2014). "The Southern Levant (Cisjordan) during the Early Bronze Age", in M.L. Steiner and A.E. Killebrew (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant c.8000–332 BCE, Oxford University Press, pp. 314, 319, and Fig. 22.1.
  23. ^ Golden, Jonathan M., 2004. Ancient Canaan and Israel: New Perspectives, ABC-CLIO, Library of Congress, Santa Barbara-California, p. 144.
  24. ^ Golden, Jonathan M., 2004. Ancient Canaan and Israel: New Perspectives, ABC-CLIO, Library of Congress, Santa Barbara-California, pp. 144-145.
  25. ^ Bohstrom, Phlippe, (13 March 2018). "Exclusive Royal Burial in Ancient Canaan May Shed New Light on Biblical City", in National Geographic.
  26. ^ Scott, Ashley, et al., (2020). "Exotic foods reveal contact between South Asia and the Near East during the second millennium BCE", in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118(2), pp. 7-8, and Table 1.
  27. ^ Scott et al. (2020), Table 1, p.4.
  28. ^ "Merchants and Empires. Late Bronze Age. 1539-1200 BCE". University of Penn Museum.
  29. ^ a b Levy, Eythan, et al., (2021). "The Date of Appearance of Philistine Pottery at Megiddo: A Computational Approach", in Bulletin of ASOR, Ahead of Print.
  30. ^ Langgut, Dafna, and Israel Finkelstein, (May 24, 2023). "Environment, subsistence strategies and settlement seasonality in the Negev Highlands (Israel) during the Bronze and Iron Ages: The palynological evidence", in: PLoS ONE 18(5): e0285358, pp. 5-6: "Based on [L]ake Kinneret [Sea of Galilee] and Dead Sea high-resolution, well-dated palynological-climatological investigation, [...] Iron I (ca. 1150-950 [BCE]) and the Iron IIA (ca. 950-780 BCE), [t]he Iron IIB (ca. 780-680 BCE) and Iron IIC (ca. 680-586 BCE)[...]"
  31. ^ Pioske, Daniel, (2022). "The Historian and the Assemblage: On the Interpretation of Texts and Artifacts for the History of Ancient Israel", in: The Ancient Israelite World, p. 61: "But around 1130 BCE Egyptian control of Canaan comes to an end."
  32. ^ Arie, Eran, (2023). "Canaanites in a Changing World: The Jezreel Valley during the Iron Age I", in: From Nomadism to Monarchy, p. 120: "The destruction of Tel Megiddo VIIA has traditionally been dated to 1130 BCE, due to several Egyptian objects bearing names of Pharaohs of the Twentieth Dynasty, the latest of whom is Ramesses VI, [but] recent excavations in area H, [o]nly some 30 meters from the palace, [in] the only destruction [a]ssociated with the nearby burnt palace, [uncovered] two complete Philistine strainer jugs [...]"
  33. ^ Finkelstein, Israel, et al., (2017). "New Evidence on the Late Bronze/Iron I Transition at Megiddo: Implications for the End of the Egyptian Rule and the Appearance of Philistine Pottery", in Egypt and the Levant 27, p. 277: "[T]he destruction of Stratum VIIA in the palace and adjacent Level H-11 building – took place in the early Iron I, in the middle decades of the 11th century BCE [sic]."
  34. ^ Arie, Eran, (2023). "Canaanites in a Changing World: The Jezreel Valley during the Iron Age I", in: From Nomadism to Monarchy, p. 120: "[I]t appears that the Canaanite dynasty ruling Megiddo successfully continued to control the city for some decades after the Egyptians had withdrawn from the region, until local factors led to the destruction of the city around 1080 BCE or shortly thereafter."
  35. ^ a b c Finkelstein, Israel, et al., (2019). "The Iron Age Gates of Megiddo: New Evidence and Updated Interpretations", in Tel Aviv, Vol. 46, 2019, Issue 2, p. 167.
  36. ^ Finkelstein, Israel, et al., (2017). "New Evidence on the Late Bronze/Iron I Transition at Megiddo: Implications for the End of the Egyptian Rule and the Appearance of Philistine Pottery", in Egypt and the Levant 27, p. 275: "Level H-11 of the early Iron I dates within the first half of the 11th century. It was destroyed sometime in the middle decades of the 11th century, not earlier than 1073 BCE. It features two complete Philistine bichrome vessels."
  37. ^ Arie, Eran, (2023). "Canaanites in a Changing World: The Jezreel Valley during the Iron Age I", in: From Nomadism to Monarchy, p. 120: "The massive and complete destruction of Tel Megiddo VIA and Tel Yoqne'am XVII mark the end of the Iron I in the valley [of Jezreel] and have been considered the end of Canaanite culture in the northern valleys, since the region's material culture in the subsequent Iron IIA is remarkably different in most respects[...]"
  38. ^ Arie, Eran, (2023). "Canaanites in a Changing World: The Jezreel Valley during the Iron Age I", in: From Nomadism to Monarchy, p. 120: "[P]reserved in the biblical narrative of the war led by Deborah and Barak in Judges 4-5, [t]he only possible background for this story is the battles [b]etween the Israelites from the hill country and the Canaanites who lived in the valley during the Iron I [...]"
  39. ^ Kleiman, Assaf, et al., (2023). "Crisis in motion: the final days of Iron Age I Megiddo", in: Levant, 4 September 2023.
  40. ^ Kleimam, Assaf, et al., (2023): "As for the destruction of Stratum VIA, a radiocarbon study published a few years ago, which was based on a larger quantity of samples, suggested that the event occurred in the range of 985–935 BCE (Toffolo et al. 2014). A more recent model puts it in the early 10th century BCE (Finkelstein and Piasetzky in press)..."
  41. ^ Thomas, Z., "The Political History of Megiddo in the Early Iron Age and the Ambiguities of Evidence", Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History, 9(1), pp. 69-94, 2022
  42. ^ Bruins, Hendrik J., (2023), (Fig. 2, p. 812).
  43. ^ a b Megiddo Expedition, "History of Megiddo", Tel Aviv University.
  44. ^ Bruins, Hendrik J., (2023): "...the destruction layer of Stratum VA-IVB dates to the ninth century BCE, supporting Finkelstein who related this devastation to Hazael's Campaign..." (p. 811, and Fig. 2).
  45. ^ Bruins, Hendrik J. (2023). "Time and Paradigm at Tel Megiddo: David, Shoshenq I, Hazael and Radiocarbon Dating". In Ben-Yosef, Erez; Jones, Ian W. N. (eds.). "And in Length of Days Understanding" (Job 12:12): Essays on Archaeology in the Eastern Mediterranean and Beyond in Honor of Thomas E. Levy. Springer Nature. pp. 811–837. ISBN 978-3-031-27330-8.
  46. ^ Bruins, Hendrik J., (2023), (p. 828).
  47. ^ Bruins, Hendrik J., (2023), (Table 2, p. 828).
  48. ^ Shaar, Ron, et al., (2022). "Archaeomagnetism in the Levant and Mesopotamia Reveals the Largest Changes in the Geomagnetic Field", in: JGR Solid Earth Volume127, Issue12, December 2022: "In addition, the Aramean occupation (845–815 BCE), which is dated using both radiocarbon and historical constraints, is also used as a useful chronological anchor."
  49. ^ Bahn, Paul. Lost Cities: 50 Discoveries in World Archaeology. London: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1997. 88–91. Print.
  50. ^ Davies, Graham, Megiddo, (Lutterworth press, 1986), pg 1.
  51. ^ "The Megiddo Expedition". The Megiddo Expedition. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009.
  52. ^ Schumacher, Gottlieb; Watzinger, Carl (1908): Tell el Mutesellim; Bericht über die 1903 bis 1905 mit Unterstützung SR. Majestät des deutschen Kaisers und der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft vom deutschen Verein zur Erforschung Palästinas Veranstalteten Ausgrabungen Volume: 1
  53. ^ Schumacher, Gottlieb; Watzinger, Carl, 1877-1948, (1929): Tell el Mutesellim; Bericht über die 1903 bis 1905 mit Unterstützung SR. Majestät des deutschen Kaisers und der Deutschen Orientgesellschaft vom deutschen Verein zur Erforschung Palästinas Veranstalteten Ausgrabungen, vol. 2.
  54. ^ oi.uchigao.edu Clarence S. Fisher, The Excavation of Armageddon, Oriental Institute Communications 4, University of Chicago Press, 1929
  55. ^ oi.uchigao.edu P. L. O. Guy, New Light from Armageddon: Second Provisional Report (1927-29) on the Excavations at Megiddo in Palestine, Oriental Institute Communications 9, University of Chicago Press, 1931
  56. ^ oi.uchigao.edu Robert S. Lamon and Geoffrey M. Shipton, Megiddo 1. Seasons of 1925-34: Strata I-V, Oriental Institute Publication 42, Oriental Institute of Chicago, 1939, ISBN 978-0-226-14233-3
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  64. ^ Israel Finkelstein, David Ussishkin and Baruch Halpern (eds.), Megiddo III: The 1992–1996 Seasons, Tel Aviv University, 2000, ISBN 978-965-266-013-8
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  67. ^ Finkelstein, Israel, et al. Megiddo VI: The 2010-2014 Seasons. Eisenbrauns, 2022 ISBN 978-1-64602-165-9
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Further reading

  • [3] Rupert Chapman, Putting Sheshonq I in his Place, 2009 (dating, context and analysis of the Sheshonq Fragment)], with a reconstructionof the stele at Breasted’s reconstruction of the Sheshonq I Victory Stela (1929: Fig 9).  | Download Scientific Diagram
  • Marian H Feldman, Luxurious forms: Redefining a Mediterranean "International Style," 1400-1200 B.C., The Art Bulletin, New York, vol. 84, iss. 1, March 2002
  • [4] P. L. O. Guy, Megiddo Tombs, Oriental Institute Publications 33, The University of Chicago Press, 1938
  • [5] Robert S. Lamon, The Megiddo Water System, Oriental Institute Publication 32, University of Chicago Press, 1935
  • [6] Gordon Loud, The Megiddo Ivories, Oriental Institute Publication 52, University of Chicago Press, 1939 ISBN 978-0-226-49390-9
  • Martin, Mario AS, Israel Finkelstein, and Eli Piasetzky, "Radiocarbon-dating the Late Bronze Age: cultural and historical considerations on Megiddo and beyond", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 384.1, pp. 211–240, 2020
  • [7] H.G. May, Material Remains of the Megiddo Cult, Oriental Institute Publication 26, University of Chicago Press, 1935
  • [8] Gabrielle V. Novacek, Ancient Israel: Highlights from the Collections of the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Museum Publications 31, Oriental Institute, 2011 ISBN 978-1-885923-65-3
  • [9] Geoffrey M. Shipton, Notes on the Megiddo Pottery of Strata VI-XX, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 17, University of Chicago Press, 1939
  • John A. Wilson, The Megiddo Ivories, American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 333–336, (Jul. - September, 1938)
  • Zarzecki-Peleg, Anabel, "Reexamining Area DD at Megiddo", The Fire Signals of Lachish: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Israel in the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period in Honor of David Ussishkin, edited by Israel Finkelstein and Nadav Na’aman, University Park, USA: Penn State University Press, pp. 373–386, 2011
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Tel Megiddo
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