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Tecoma stans

Tecoma stans
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Bignoniaceae
Genus: Tecoma
Species:
T. stans
Binomial name
Tecoma stans
Synonyms[2]
  • Bignonia frutescens Mill. Synonym
  • Bignonia incisa DC. [Invalid] Synonym
  • Bignonia sorbifolia Salisb. Synonym
  • Bignonia stans L. Synonym
  • Bignonia tecoma Wehmer Synonym
  • Bignonia tecomoides DC. Synonym
  • Gelseminum stans (L.) Kuntze Synonym
  • Stenolobium incisum Rose & Standl. Synonym
  • Stenolobium quinquejugum Loes. Synonym
  • Stenolobium stans (L.) Seem. Synonym
  • Stenolobium stans var. apiifolium (DC.) Seem. Synonym
  • Stenolobium stans var. multijugum R.E.Fr. Synonym
  • Stenolobium stans var. pinnatum Seem. Synonym
  • Stenolobium tronadora Loes. Synonym
  • Tecoma incisa (Rose & Standl.) I.M.Johnst. Synonym
  • Tecoma molle Kunth Synonym
  • Tecoma stans var. angustatum Rehder Synonym
  • Tecoma stans var. apiifolia DC. Synonym
  • Tecoma stans var. stans Synonym
  • Tecoma tronadora (Loes.) I.M.Johnst. Synonym
  • Tecoma velutina Lindl. Synonym

Tecoma stans is a species of flowering perennial shrub in the trumpet vine family, Bignoniaceae, that is native to the Americas. Common names include yellow trumpetbush,[3] yellow bells,[3] yellow elder,[3] ginger Thomas.[4] Tecoma stans is the official flower of the United States Virgin Islands and the floral emblem of The Bahamas.

Description

Tecoma stans is a semi-evergreen shrub or small tree, growing up to 10 m (30 ft) tall.[1] It features opposite odd-pinnate green leaves, with 3 to 13 serrate, 8- to 10-cm-long leaflets. The leaflets, glabrous on both sides, have a lanceolate blade 2–10 cm long and 1–4 cm wide, with a long acuminate apex and a wedge-shaped base.

The large, showy, golden yellow, trumpet-shaped flowers are in clusters at the ends of branches. The corolla of the flower is bell- to funnel-shaped, five-lobed (weakly two-lipped), often reddish-veined in the throat and is 3.5 to 8.5 cm long. Flowering takes place from spring to fall, but more profusely from spring to summer.[5][6]

The fruits, narrow capsules, arise from two carpels and are up to 25 cm long. A fruit contains many yellow seeds with membranopus wings; when the fruit opens upon ripening, these seed are spread by the wind (anemochory). The flowers attract bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds.[7] Apart from sexually by seed, Tecoma stans can also be reproduced asexually by stem cuttings.

Habitat

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Tecoma stans is native to the Americas. It extends from the southern United States through Mexico, Central America, and the Antilles to northern Venezuela, and through the Andes mountain range to northern Argentina. It was introduced in southern Africa, India, and Hawaii.

Yellow trumpetbush is a ruderal species, readily colonizing disturbed, rocky, sandy, and cleared land and occasionally becoming an invasive weed. It thrives in a wide variety of ecosystems, from high altitude temperate forests and tropical deciduous and evergreen forests, to xerophilous scrub and the intertropical littoral. It quickly colonizes disturbed, rocky, sandy, and cleared fields. The species prefers dry and sunny regions of the coast.

Cultivation

Flowers

Tecoma stans is drought-tolerant and grows well in warm climates. It is cultivated as an ornamental. They are grown in many parts of the world for their beautiful flowering, to adorn streets and gardens. It can be easily propagated by stem cuttings.

Uses

The wood of Tecoma stans is used in rustic architecture like bahareque, for the construction of furniture and canoes, or as firewood or charcoal. It is a medicinal plant used against diabetes and against diseases of the digestive system, among other uses. The plant is desirable fodder when it grows in fields grazed by livestock.

It is a very potent anti-venom against cobra venom, used by Pakistani old medicine. It is proved to be better than antiserum, the paste of this plant's leaves are applied topically on the cobra bite. Its bio-chemicals bind with the cobra venom enzymes thus effectively inhibiting the venom.[8]

Honey production

Tecoma stans is unique in that although it is nontoxic itself, the honey from its flowers is poisonous nonetheless.[9][10]

Invasiveness

Tecoma stans has invasive potential and occasionally becomes a weed. The species is considered invasive in Africa (especially South Africa), South America, Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands. It now presents a significant danger for biodiversity. It competes with local species and can form thick, almost monospecific thickets.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) & IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group (2019). "Tecoma stans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T82858855A149060597. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T82858855A149060597.en. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  2. ^ theplantlist.org
  3. ^ a b c "Tecoma stans". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  4. ^ "Plants – Buck Island Reef". National Park Service (US). Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  5. ^ Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth NEW SOUTH WALES FLORA ONLINE. PlantNet. Retrieved 26 July 2023.
  6. ^ Tecoma Stans (Yellow Bells) Gardenia.net. Retrieved 26 July 2023.
  7. ^ Mendonça, Luciana Baza; Anjos, Luiz dos (March 2005). "Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae) e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil" [Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae) and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil]. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia (in Portuguese). 22 (1): 51–59. doi:10.1590/S0101-81752005000100007.
  8. ^ Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Murtaza, Ghulam; Ubaid, Muhammad; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Rubada; Mahmood, Qaisar; Ansari, Muhammad Muzzmil; Karim, Sabiha; Mehmood, Zahid; Hussain, Izhar; Hussain, I (2014). "Naja naja karachiensis Envenomation: Biochemical Parameters for Cardiac, Liver, and Renal Damage along with Their Neutralization by Medicinal Plants". BioMed Research International. 2014: 970540. doi:10.1155/2014/970540. PMC 4022246. PMID 24877153.
  9. ^ Anand, Mukul; Basavaraju, R. (January 2021). "A review on phytochemistry and pharmacological uses of Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 265: 113270. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2020.113270. PMID 32822823.
  10. ^ Pallavi, K; Vishnavi, B; Mamatha; Prakash, K Vanitha; Amruthapriyanka, A (2014). "Phytochemical investigation and anti-microbial activity of Tecoma stans". World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 3 (2): 2070–2083.
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Tecoma stans
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