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State Council of the People's Republic of China

State Council of the
People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国国务院
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guówùyuàn
Agency overview
Formed27 September 1954; 69 years ago (1954-09-27)
Preceding agency
TypeExecutive body of the National People's Congress
Highest organ of State administration
JurisdictionGovernment of the People's Republic of China
HeadquartersState Council Office Area, Zhongnanhai, Beijing
Agency executives
Child agencies
Websiteenglish.www.gov.cn Edit this at Wikidata
State Council of the People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese中华人民共和国国务院
Traditional Chinese中華人民共和國國務院
Literal meaning"People's Republic of China State Affairs Court"
State Council
(commonly used abbreviation)
Simplified Chinese国务院
Traditional Chinese國務院
Literal meaning"The Court of State Affairs"
Central People's Government
(Constitutional synonym[1])
Chinese中央人民政府
Literal meaningCentral People Government

The State Council of the People's Republic of China, also known as the Central People's Government, is the chief administrative authority and the national cabinet of China. It is constitutionally the highest administrative organ of the country and the executive organ of the National People's Congress, the highest organ of state power. It is composed of the premier, vice premiers, state councilors, ministers of ministries, directors of committees, the auditor general, and the secretary-general.

The premier is responsible for the State Council and exercises overall leadership of its work. The secretary-general of the State Council, under the leadership of the premier, is responsible for handling the daily work of the State Council and heads the General Office of the State Council. The executive meeting of the State Council, consisting of the premier, vice premiers, state councillors and the secretary-general, meets two to three times a month, while the plenary session, consisting of all members of the State Council, meets every six months.

The State Council directly oversees provincial-level People's Governments, and in practice maintains membership with top levels of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The State Council is legally required to implement the policies of the CCP. Aside from a few, members of the State Council are also members of the CCP's Central Committee.

Organization

The State Council is described by the Chinese constitution as the executive organ of the National People's Congress (NPC), as well as the "highest state administrative organ".[2] Constitutionally, the main functions of the State Council are to formulate administrative measures, issue decisions and orders, and monitor their implementation; draft legislative bills for submission to the NPC or its Standing Committee; and prepare the economic plan and the state budget for deliberation and approval by the NPC.[2] The State Council has flexibility in decision-making, especially with regard to economic matters, but the Politburo has ultimate authority.[3]

In 2024, during the second session of the 14th National People's Congress, the Organic Law of the State Council was amended to mandate the CCP Central Committee's leadership over the State Council.[4][5] The amended law also stipulates the State Council must follow the CCP's ideology and policies.[4]

Composition

The State Council is composed of the premier, several vice premiers, several state councillors, ministers of ministries, directors of committees, the auditor general, and the secretary-general. The premier leads the State Council[6]: 58  and is appointed by the NPC upon the nomination by the president,[2] though in practice the premier is chosen within the CCP leadership, including the Politburo Standing Committee.[7] The vice premiers (one executive and generally three others), state councillors, and a secretary-general (who normally also serves as a state councillor) all assist the premier.[8]

Each vice premier oversees certain areas of administration in support of the premier.[9] In practice, the vice premiers and State Councillors assume responsibility for one or more sectors or issues, and remain in contact with the various bodies responsible for policy related to that area. This allows the Standing Committee to oversee a wide range of government functions.[10] Each State Councillor performs duties as designated by the Premier. The secretary-general heads the General Office which handles the day-to-day work of the State Council.[8]

The State Council includes 26 constituent departments, and oversees the province-level governments throughout China.[3] Each ministry supervises one sector. Commissions outrank ministries and set policies for and coordinate the related activities of different administrative organs. Offices deal with matters of ongoing concern. The establishment, dissolution, or merger of the constituent departments are proposed by the premier and decided by the NPC or its Standing Committee.[8] Bureaus and administrations rank below ministries. In addition to the ministries, there are 38 centrally administered government organizations that report directly to the state council. The heads of these organizations attend full meetings of the state committee on an irregular basis.[citation needed]

The State Council controls the Ministry for National Defense but does not control the People's Liberation Army, which is instead controlled by the Central Military Commission (CMC).[11] The State Council previously had joint command over the People's Armed Police (PAP) together with the CMC, principally through the Ministry of Public Security, though 2018 reforms placed the PAP solely under CMC command.[12]: 15 

Meetings

The plenary session of the State Council meets every six months, composed of all members of the State Council. Between meetings it is guided by a Executive Meeting of the State Council [zh] which is held two to three times a month, and can be called at the discretion of the premier.[13] The Executive Meeting is composed of the premier, vice premiers, state councilors, and the secretary-general.[8]

Members

Executive Meeting

Members of the Executive Meeting of the 14th State Council (March 2023 – March 2028)
# Office Portrait Name Party Party memberships
1 Premier Li Qiang
李强
CCP Politburo Standing Committee
Secretary, State Council Party Group [zh]
2 Vice Premier

(first-ranked)

Ding Xuexiang
丁薛祥
CCP Politburo Standing Committee
Deputy Secretary, State Council Party Group [zh]
3 Vice Premier He Lifeng
何立峰
CCP Politburo
State Council Party Group [zh]
4 Vice Premier Zhang Guoqing
张国清
CCP Politburo
State Council Party Group [zh]
5 Vice Premier Liu Guozhong
刘国中
CCP Politburo
State Council Party Group [zh]
6 State Councillor
Minister of Public Security
Wang Xiaohong
王小洪
CCP Secretariat
Deputy Secretary, Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission
State Council Party Group [zh]
7 State Councillor
Secretary-General of the State Council
Wu Zhenglong
吴政隆
CCP State Council Party Group [zh]
Secretary, State Council Organs Party Group [zh]
8 State Councillor Shen Yiqin
谌贻琴
CCP State Council Party Group [zh]

Plenary Meeting

The Plenary Meeting of the State Council is hosted by the Premier, joined by Vice Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in charge of Ministries and Commissions, the Governor of the People's Bank, the Auditor-General, and the Secretary-General. It usually runs bi-annually and when necessary, non-members can be invited to participate.[14][non-primary source needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Article 85 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China
  2. ^ a b c "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". National People's Congress. Archived from the original on 2022-01-03. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  3. ^ a b Cheng, Li; Prytherch, Mallie (7 March 2023). "China's new State Council: What analysts might have missed". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 19 June 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  4. ^ a b Zheng, William (2024-03-06). "Xi's dominance in Chinese politics to grow with change to State Council: expert". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 2024-03-07. Retrieved 2024-03-10. It includes specific clauses saying the council will closely follow the Communist Party's ideology, leadership and instructions, further defining its role as faithful policy implementer of the ruling party.
  5. ^ "China passes law granting Communist Party more control over cabinet". Reuters. March 11, 2024. Retrieved March 11, 2024.
  6. ^ Li, David Daokui (2024). China's World View: Demystifying China to Prevent Global Conflict. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393292398.
  7. ^ "China's backroom power brokers block reform candidates". South China Morning Post. 21 November 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d Wei, Changhao (2024-03-11). "NPC 2024: Annotated Translation of the Revised State Council Organic Law". NPC Observer. Retrieved 2024-04-15.
  9. ^ He, Laura (4 March 2023). "Meet the 4 men tapped to run China's economy". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 June 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  10. ^ Thomas, Neil (5 April 2023). "What are the Policy Assignments of China's New State Council Leadership?". Asia Society. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  11. ^ Boswell, Matthew (2009). "Media Relations in China's Military: The Case of the Ministry of National Defense Information Office". Asia Policy (8): 97–120. ISSN 1559-0968. JSTOR 24904949. Archived from the original on 2023-11-03. Retrieved 2023-10-24.
  12. ^ Wuthnow, Joel (16 April 2019). China's Other Army: The People's Armed Police in an Era of Reform (PDF). Washington: Institute for National Strategic Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  13. ^ Zheng, William (28 March 2023). "New work rules for China's State Council put the party firmly in charge". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 19 June 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  14. ^ "State Council Meetings". www.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2023-11-15. Retrieved 2023-11-15.
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State Council of the People's Republic of China
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