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Mountain-ash tortricid
Choristoneura hebenstreitella
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Tortricidae
Subfamily: Tortricinae
Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Choristoneura
Lederer, 1859

Several, see text

  • Cornicacoecia Obraztsov, 1954
  • Hoshinoa Kawabe, 1965

Choristoneura is a genus of moths in the family Tortricidae. Several species are serious pests of conifers, such as spruce and are known as spruce budworms.


Western spruce budworm (Choristoneura freemani) attacking Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) on Blewett Pass in Washington State



  • Brown, J.W., 2005: World Catalogue of Insects volume 5 Tortricidae.
  • Ginzburg, L.R.; Taneyhill, D.E. (1994). "Population cycles of forest Lepidoptera: a maternal effect hypothesis" (PDF). Journal of Animal Ecology. 63 (1): 79–92. Bibcode:1994JAnEc..63...79G. CiteSeerX doi:10.2307/5585. JSTOR 5585. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-20. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  • Hudak, J. (1991). "Integrated pest management and the eastern spruce budworm". Forest Ecology and Management. 39: 313. doi:10.1016/0378-1127(91)90188-2.
  • Kawabe, A., 1965: A revision of the genus Archips from Japan. Tyô to Ga 16 (1/2): 13–40. Abstract and Full article: [1].
  • Patrick M. A. James; Louis-Etienne Robert; B. Mike Wotton; David L. Martell; Richard A. Fleming (2017). "Lagged cumulative spruce budworm defoliation affects the risk of fire ignition in Ontario, Canada". Ecological Applications. 27 (2): 532–544. Bibcode:2017EcoAp..27..532J. doi:10.1002/eap.1463. PMID 27809401.
  • Lederer, 1859, Wien. ent. Monatschr. 3: 426.
  • Liu Y.-q., 1983: A new species of Choristoneura injurious to Metasequoia in Hubei province (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Entomotaxonomia 5 (4): 289–291. Full article: [2].
  • William J. Mattson; Gary A. Simmons; John A. Witter (1988), Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations, Springer, pp. 309–330, doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-0789-9_16, ISBN 978-1-4899-0791-2
  • Neilson, M.M. (1963). "Disease and the spruce budworm". Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada. 95 (31): 272–287. doi:10.4039/entm9531272-1.
  • Nedoshivina, S.V., 2007: On the type specimens of the Tortricidae described by Eduard Friedrich Eversmann from the Volgo-Ural Region. Nota Lepidopterologica, 30 (1): 93–114. Full article: [3].
  • Julia Rauchfuss; Susy Svatek Ziegler (2011). "The Geography of Spruce Budworm in Eastern North America". Geography Compass. 5 (8): 564–580. Bibcode:2011GComp...5..564R. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8198.2011.00441.x.
  • Razowski, Józef (30 September 2008). "Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from South Africa. 6: Choristoneura Hübner and Procrica Diakonoff" (PDF). Polish Journal of Entomology. 77 (3): 245–254. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-03-31. Retrieved 2023-02-03.
  • Razowski, J. & M. Krüger, 2013: An illustrated catalogue of the specimens of Tortricidae in the Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Shilap Revista de Lepidopterologia 41 (162): 213–240.
  • Razowski, J. & P. Trematerra, 2010: Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research Serie II, 42 (2): 47–79. Abstract: [4] Archived 2013-10-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  • T. Royama (1984). "Population Dynamics of the Spruce Budworm Choristoneura Fumiferana". Ecological Monographs. 54 (4): 429–462. Bibcode:1984EcoM...54..429R. doi:10.2307/1942595. JSTOR 1942595. S2CID 52209394.
  • Daniel T Jennings; Hewlette S Crawford Jr (1985). Spruce Budworms Handbook: Predators of the Spruce Budworm. Agriculture Handbook. USDA.
  • Martha H. Brookes; Robert W. Campbell; J. J. Colbert; Russel G. Mitchell; R. W. Stark (1987). Western Spruce Budworm. Technical Bulletin No. 1694; Canada/United States Spruce Budworms Program-West. USDA.
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