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South Station

South Station
South Station and South Station Tower construction in 2023
General information
Location700 Atlantic Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts
United States
Owned byMassachusetts Department of Transportation[1]
Line(s)Attleboro Line (Northeast Corridor)
Dorchester Branch
Old Colony Mainline
Platforms6 island platforms, 2 side platforms
Tracks13
ConnectionsBus transport Intercity buses at bus terminal
Red Line, Silver Line at subway station
Bus transport MBTA bus: 4, 7, 11
Construction
Bicycle facilitiesBike lockers (Currently closed due to construction)[2]
AccessibleYes
Other information
Station codeAmtrak: BOS
IATA codeZTO
Fare zone1A (MBTA Commuter Rail)
History
Opened1899
Rebuilt1985
Passengers
201828,416 daily boardings[3] (MBTA Commuter Rail)
FY 20221,216,560[4] (Amtrak only)
Services
Preceding station Amtrak Following station
Boston Back Bay Acela Terminus
Boston Back Bay
toward Chicago
Lake Shore Limited
Boston Back Bay Northeast Regional
Preceding station MBTA Following station
Back Bay
toward Worcester
Framingham/​Worcester Line Terminus
Back Bay Needham Line
Back Bay Franklin/​Foxboro Line
Newmarket
(limited service)
Back Bay
(special events)
toward Foxboro
Back Bay Providence/​Stoughton Line
Newmarket
toward Readville
Fairmount Line
Terminus Greenbush Line JFK/UMass
toward Greenbush
Kingston Line JFK/UMass
toward Kingston
Middleborough/​Lakeville Line JFK/UMass
CapeFLYER Braintree
toward Hyannis
Former services
Preceding station MBTA Following station
Back Bay
toward Dedham
Dedham Branch
Closed 1967
Terminus
Back Bay
toward Millis
Millis Branch
Closed 1967
Preceding station New York Central Railroad Following station
Trinity Place / Huntington Avenue
toward Albany
Boston and Albany Railroad
Main Line
Terminus
Trinity Place / Huntington Avenue
toward Riverside
Highland branch
Preceding station New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Following station
Boston Back Bay
toward New Haven
Shore Line Terminus
Terminus South Shore Line Atlantic
toward Greenbush
Future services
Preceding station MBTA Following station
Terminus South Coast Rail
Phase 1 (2024)
JFK/UMass
Back Bay South Coast Rail
Phase 2 (2030)
Terminus
South Station Headhouse
Coordinates42°21′07″N 71°03′19″W / 42.35194°N 71.05528°W / 42.35194; -71.05528
Area0.5 acres (0.2 ha)
ArchitectShepley, Rutan & Coolidge; Norcross Bros.
Architectural styleClassical Revival
NRHP reference No.75000299[5]
Added to NRHPFebruary 13, 1975
Location
Map

South Station, officially The Governor Michael S. Dukakis Transportation Center at South Station, is the largest railroad station and intercity bus terminal in Greater Boston and New England's second-largest transportation center after Logan International Airport.[6] Located at the intersection of Atlantic Avenue and Summer Street in Dewey Square, Boston, Massachusetts, the historic station building was constructed in 1899 to replace the downtown terminals of several railroads. Today, it serves as a major intermodal domestic transportation hub, with service to the Greater Boston region and the Northeastern and Midwestern United States. It is used by thousands of commuter rail and intercity rail passengers daily. Connections to the rapid transit Red Line and bus rapid transit Silver Line are made through the adjacent subway station.

The station was renamed for former Massachusetts governor Michael S. Dukakis in November 2014, though maps and station signs continue to use the shorter "South Station".[7]

History

Map showing Boston railroad terminals in 1880, before the construction of South Station
A 1930s view of the Atlantic Avenue Elevated in front of South Station
Looking north at the merge of the two approaches, with the two pair of tracks approaching the lower-level loop at right; the terminal is in the background. (c. 1904)

Need for a combined station

When the railroads serving Boston were first laid out and built, each one stopped at its own terminal. The four terminals serving the south-side railroads were as follows:

By the late 19th century, the New England, Old Colony, and Boston & Providence had been acquired by the New York & New Haven Railroad, while the B&A was acquired by the New York Central Railroad. However, the four separate terminals remained. The Boston Terminal Company, established in 1897, was charged with the task of consolidating service from the four terminals at a single terminal (a union station).

Early years

South Station opened in 1899 at a cost of $3.6 million (1899 dollars). The architects were Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge of Boston, and the construction was undertaken by the engineering firm of Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co. The station opened on January 1 for use by Old Colony Division and Midland Division trains, the latter of which had been using the Old Colony terminal since August 22, 1896 to allow for construction. B&A trains began using South Station on July 23, followed by Providence Division trains on September 10 (along with the opening of Back Bay station).[8]

It became the busiest station in New England by 1913.[9] A stop on the Atlantic Avenue Elevated served South Station from 1901 to 1938; what is now the Red Line subway was extended from Park Street to South Station in 1913. The train shed, originally one of the largest in the world, was eliminated in a 1930 renovation due to corrosion caused by the nearby ocean's salt air.[10]

In the original configuration, two tracks came off each approach to join into a four-track line and then run under the main platforms in a two-track loop. These tracks were never put into service, and later became a parking lot and bowling alley for employees.[11]

While the station handled 125,000 passengers each day during World War II, post-war passenger rail traffic declined in the US. In 1959, the New Haven's Old Colony Division–successor of the Old Colony Railroad–which had served the South Shore and Cape Cod, stopped passenger service. The New Haven itself went bankrupt in 1961. South Station was sold to the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) in 1965.[12] Portions of the station were demolished and the land was used to build the Boston South Postal Annex and the Stone and Webster building.

In the early 1970s, the BRA developed plans to demolish the rest of the station and replace it with a multi-use development including a new train station, a bus station, a parking garage, and commercial structures.[13] The plan was never realized, and South Station was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.[5][14]

Renovations

South Station in 1985 during reconstruction

In 1978, the BRA sold what was left of the station to the MBTA, though the BRA retained air rights over the station. Funding was obtained for a major renovation of the station that was completed in 1989. A total of 13 tracks became available, all with high level platforms and some capable of handling 12-car trains. Piers were installed for the eventual construction of an office building and bus station above the tracks. This renovation also added direct access to the Red Line subway station from inside the surface station lobby; previously, the only access was via street stairwells.[15] The Central Artery/Tunnel Project (Big Dig) occupied almost all of the building's office space beginning in July 1988.[16]

After some delays, an inter-city bus terminal opened in October 1995, replacing one on top of the I-93 Dewey Square Tunnel diagonally across from the station between Summer Street and Congress Street. The new bus terminal has direct ramp connections to I-93 and the Massachusetts Turnpike. The renovations, including the bus terminal, cost $195 million in 2001 dollars.

In September 2017, the Ashkenazy Acquisition Corporation, which also owns the Faneuil Hall Marketplace, purchased the 98-year lease on the office space and concourse areas of the station from the Blackstone Group for $123.2 million.[17][18][1][19]

In August 2019, the Federal Railroad Administration awarded MassDOT up to $41.2 million to replace much of the Tower 1 interlocking outside South Station.[20] The remaining $41 million of the $82 million project will be funded by Amtrak and the MBTA.[21] As of January 2021, completion is expected in 2026.[22] Bidding for the $68.7 million main construction contract opened in September 2022.[23] The MBTA awarded the contract at a higher cost of $99 million in March 2023.[24][25]

South Station Tower

South Station Tower construction in 2022

When the Boston Redevelopment Authority sold South Station to the MBTA in 1977, the BRA retained the air rights over the tracks.[26] The South Station Tower complex, which is being built on the air rights, will include a 51-story, 678-foot (207 m) skyscraper and an expansion of the bus terminal. Construction began in January 2020 and is expected to take four years.[26] The tower is being built on foundations put in place when the station was last renovated.[27] The project will include an expansion of the outdoor waiting area with a new arched roof, a roof covering the entire platform area, a new entrance from Dorchester Avenue, and a more direct connection to the bus terminal.[26]

Architecture

The Boston Terminal Company 1897 commemorative plaque in South Station

The South Station head house and wings incorporate Neoclassical architecture. The building's symmetry and stone façade are common to the style. The granite came from nearby quarries in New England. The main doorways are located in a section that protrudes from the curving shape of the building. The doors are housed under tall arches that give the impression of grandeur while also making the building appear smaller from far away. This visual trick is common in classical buildings and is further amplified by the oversized windows and large balustrade on the third floor and roof.[28]

Above the doorways are classical Ionic order columns that ostensibly hold up the frieze and pediment. Uncommon for Ionic order columns is the lack of fluting, which is usually used to draw the eye upward, increasing the grandeur of the facade. The numerous projections and recessions on the façade attribute to the planar quality of the building, while also creating interesting shading and lighting patterns on the stone and within the building.[28] Inside, a coffered ceiling adorns the terminal and protects travelers from the rain and snow.[28]

Constructed over 100 years ago, the clock on top of the main head house is the largest operating hand-wound clock mechanism in New England. The clock is styled after London's Big Ben, and has a 12-foot (3.7 m) wide face. The mechanism weighs over 400 pounds (180 kg). In 2008, the clock underwent a six-week restoration and repair. The clock mechanism was completely disassembled and transported to a nearby workshop, where replacement pieces had to be fabricated by hand. The clock, once one of many in the city, is a hallmark of a bygone era—something that commuters rely on to make their trains, and which visitors admire for its historical presence. The stone eagle that sits atop the clock is 8 feet (2.4 m) wide and weighs over eight tons. The eagle imitates the figurines commonly placed atop classically styled buildings.[29]

The curved shape of the building facade pushes its presence into the surrounding area, making it much more prominent. This also gives the building a more distinctive and accessible main entrance from Atlantic Avenue, Summer Street, and Dewey Square. A similar concept is also seen in the Santa Maria della Pace in Rome, Italy. This church did not directly influence South Station, but the designs clearly share the same effects on the immediate area.[28]

In the 1980s, with South Station in disrepair, a great effort began to revitalize the station using Federal funding. The revitalization included addition of two wings that extend from each side of the head house, constructed with granite from the same quarries to provide a consistent appearance. Renovation and expansion was completed in 1989, reinvigorating the area with a vital transportation link and a strong focal point. Office buildings began rising nearby, expanding the downtown area. With the completion of the Big Dig and the Rose Kennedy Greenway, South Station has become an even more important feature in the area. The Greenway provides a pedestrian-friendly connection between South Station and North Station.[30]

Two works of public art, installed as part of the Arts on the Line program, are located inside South Station:[31]

  • Destinations (1995) by Jeffrey Schiff consists of 25 cast iron spindles hanging from the ceiling of the entrance foyer. Schiff was originally commissioned in 1980 for an artwork that would have consisted of granite columns in the main waiting room.[32]
  • Musclebound for Miami (1991) by Mayer Spivack is a 4,000-pound (1,800 kg) sculpture made from Type H railroad couplers located near the information desk. It was originally commissioned in 1981.[33]

Services

South Station is served by heavy rail, rapid transit, and bus. It is the northern terminus of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and is served by the Acela Express, the Northeast Regional, and the Boston section of the Lake Shore Limited. It is also the downtown terminus of the nine southern lines of the MBTA Commuter Rail system. An underground subway station serves the Red Line and the Silver Line bus rapid transit system's Waterfront routes (SL1, SL2, and SL3). Local bus service on lines 4, 7, and 11 and rapid service to Nubian on Silver Line route SL4 also stop at South Station.

South Station's amenities include:

The commuter rail and Amtrak platforms are fully accessible, with level access from the main station entrance and the waiting area onto the high-level platforms. Elevators are provided for step free access to the subway station. The bus station can be reached via the track 1 platform.

Bus terminal

Boston's main inter-city bus terminal, the South Station Bus Terminal, is housed in a separate building built over the train platforms along Atlantic Avenue. The bus terminal hosts service by Greyhound, Peter Pan, and other bus companies; to all of New England, New York City, upstate New York, Atlantic City (New Jersey), Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., the mid-Atlantic states, and Montreal, Canada. The bus terminal has its own concession area, and can be entered from the railway platform area or directly from Atlantic Avenue.

South Station Expansion Project

Wide view of the concourse in 2020
MBTA and Amtrak trains on the station tracks.

As a major transfer station offering connections to multiple modes, South Station is expected to see additional passenger throughput as a result of system improvements and a general increase in ridership. The existing underground Red Line and Silver Line stations are adequate for the near future, but the surface-level commuter rail and Amtrak platforms are at capacity.

A proposed relocation of the Boston General Mail Facility, which is located on Dorchester Avenue next to the station tracks, would allow for increased capacity at South Station. Seven more tracks are planned to be added to the existing thirteen tracks, allowing increased use by both MBTA Commuter Rail and Amtrak trains.

In October 2010, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was awarded a $32.5 million grant from the federal government to begin planning for this expansion.[39][40][41] After deliberations, a $43 million contract (including $10.5 million in state funds) was awarded in August 2012.[42] The planning project will advance the new station area, including a possible passenger mezzanine over the platforms, to the 30% design level. Other elements include a redesign of the South Station interlocking, new commuter rail layover facilities, and the restoration of public access to the adjacent section of Dorchester Avenue and the Fort Point Channel, filling in a missing half-mile segment of the Boston Harborwalk. The station expansion is intended to allow for increases in commuter rail service on the Fairmount Line and Framingham/Worcester Line, addition of South Coast Rail service, and increased Amtrak frequencies.[42]

As of October 2014, purchasing of the postal facility is in limbo, as the Postal Service is not willing to accept the amount offered by the state. Part of this deal would include moving the facility to South Boston, with MassPort taking some of the Post Office's parking lot located across Fort Point Channel.[43]

The Final Environmental Impact Report for the South Station Expansion Project was released on June 30, 2016. The project would begin with the demolition of the postal facility and take 5 years to complete.[44] The Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs approved the FEIR on August 12, 2016.[45]

The South Station Expansion Project has been opposed by a number of transportation advocates, community groups, and environmental groups, many of which instead advocate building a North–South Rail Link (NSRL) through connection to North Station and points beyond, rather than expanding the dead-end storage capacity for trains at South Station.[46] Prominent NSRL supporters include former Governor Michael S. Dukakis (Democrat) and former Governor William F. Weld (Republican), who have made joint public appearances regarding this issue. Based on their advocacy, MassDOT agreed to fund a $2 million study in February 2016.[47] The NSRL reevaluation report was released in June 2018. Its tunnel options included a four-track maximum-service plan, estimated to cost $21.5 billion and three double-track routes ranging in cost from $12.3 to 14.7 billion. South Station expansion was estimated to cost $4.7 billion. These costs are in 2018 dollars and include purchasing additional rolling stock, other required infrastructure improvements and a 3.5% annual inflation rate.[48]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Logan, Tim (June 30, 2017). "Operator of Faneuil Hall to take over South Station". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  2. ^ https://www.mbta.com/stops/place-sstat
  3. ^ Central Transportation Planning Staff (2019). "2018 Commuter Rail Counts". Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.
  4. ^ "Amtrak Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year 2022: Commonwealth of Massachusetts" (PDF). Amtrak. June 2023. Retrieved August 30, 2023.
  5. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  6. ^ "South Station – Great Public Spaces | Project for Public Spaces". PPS. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013.
  7. ^ Levenson, Eric (November 10, 2014). "South Station Renamed 'Dukakis Transportation Center' Over The Duke's Objections". Boston Globe. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  8. ^ Jacobs, Warren (October 1928). "Dates of Some of the Principal Events in the History of 100 Years of the Railroad in New England. 1826-1926". Railway and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin. 17 (17). Railway and Locomotive Historical Society: 15–28. JSTOR 43504499.
  9. ^ "South Station Train Terminal: a building with history". South Station Boston. Archived from the original on July 16, 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  10. ^ "Razing Rail Depot Tests Skill of Engineers" Popular Mechanics, December 1930. Hearst Magazines. December 1930.
  11. ^ "South Station in Boston". Southstation.org. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  12. ^ Great American Stations: South Station
  13. ^ Brody, Daniel (January 23, 1972). "Terminal Illness". Boston Globe Magazine. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  14. ^ "South Station Head House". Massachusetts Cultural Resource Information System.
  15. ^ Alexander French; William Fowler (May 13, 2003). "The Renovation of Boston's South Station / 1.011 Project Evaluation" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2013. (MIT class project)
  16. ^ "Tunnel-artery staff getting new digs". Boston Globe. July 4, 1988. p. 22 – via Newspapers.com. Open access icon
  17. ^ "Ashkenazy Pays $123.2Mln for Boston's South Station Retail/Office Component". Archived from the original on November 30, 2019.
  18. ^ "NYC-Based Ashkenazy Purchases South Station Lease in Boston". GlobeSt. August 23, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
  19. ^ "Ashkenazy Acquisition Corp. purchases Boston's South Station". NEREJ.
  20. ^ "U.S. Transportation Secretary Elaine L. Chao Announces $272 Million in 'State of Good Repair' Program Grants" (Press release). Federal Railroad Administration. August 21, 2019.
  21. ^ Lovato, Maria (August 27, 2019). "DOT receives $41 million federal grant to modernize South Station signaling infrastructure". Boston Globe.
  22. ^ Aalto, Joanna; Dogra, Vikram (January 11, 2021). "Capital Program Update: FY21 Update through November 30, 2020" (PDF). Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. p. 17.
  23. ^ "Public Announcement: South Station Tower 1 Interlocking Project". Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. September 15, 2022.
  24. ^ Beaulieu, Sr., Dan (February 24, 2023). "MBTA South Station Tower 1/Cove Interlocking Improvements: Request for G49CN01 Approval" (PDF). Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.
  25. ^ "MBTA Board of Directors Awards Contract for Major Track and Signal Upgrades at South Station" (Press release). Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. March 23, 2023.
  26. ^ a b c "South Station Transportation Center Improvements". Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.
  27. ^ Logan, Tim (December 27, 2019). "A skyscraper is headed for South Station in downtown Boston. Work starts next month". The Boston Globe.
  28. ^ a b c d * "History of the Station". South Station LLC. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  29. ^ Bierman, Noah (October 14, 2008). "Station Clock Takes Timeout". The Boston Globe. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  30. ^ "French & Fowler, The Renovation of Boston's South Station, 2003" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2006.
  31. ^ "On the Commuter Line" (PDF). Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. 2017. p. 1.
  32. ^ Temin, Christine (May 28, 1995). "An artist's long journey: After 15 years, Jeffrey Schiff's 'Destination' reaches South Station, but is it lost in 'commercial chaos'?". The Boston Globe. pp. B17, B21 – via Newspapers.com.
  33. ^ Temin, Christine (April 24, 1991). "The work of the Superiors: Sweet and weird". The Boston Globe. p. 44 – via Newspapers.com.
  34. ^ "Eateries". South Station. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  35. ^ "Shopping". South Station. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  36. ^ "CVS pharmacy 700 Atlantic Avenue, South Station, Boston, MA 02111". www.cvs.com. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  37. ^ Grillo, Thomas. "South Station bar, Clarke's, to become a CVS". Boston Business Journal. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  38. ^ "South Station Gets Free WiFi". WBUR. May 2, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  39. ^ Ross, Casey; Bierman, Noah (January 8, 2010). "Mass. Will Try to Buy Postal Annex to Save Rail Expansion". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
  40. ^ "Mass. Receives Funds to Upgrade South Station". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. October 25, 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
  41. ^ Finucane, Martin (October 25, 2010). "State Wins $32.5M Grant to Plan South Station Expansion". The Boston Globe. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
  42. ^ a b Rocheleau, Matt (August 20, 2012). "State to Soon Launch $43m Planning Effort for Project to Expand South Station". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
  43. ^ Leung, Shirley (October 3, 2014). "On Fort Point property, a classic standoff between bureaucracies". Boston Globe. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
  44. ^ "South Station Expansion Project – EEA No. 15028: Final Environmental Impact Report". Massachusetts Department of Transportation. June 2016.
  45. ^ Beaton, Matthew A. (August 12, 2016). "Certificate of the Secretary of Energy and Environmental Affairs on the Final Environmental Impact Report" (PDF). Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 20, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  46. ^ "Capacity". North South Rail Link. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
  47. ^ Leung, Shirley (February 23, 2016). "North-South Rail Link gets another look". Boston Globe. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  48. ^ "North South Rail Link Feasibility Reassessment" (PDF). MassDOT. June 2018. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
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South Station
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