For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Song control system.

Song control system

A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.


Based on lesion studies in the zebra finch, the song system can be broken into two general pathways. The direct/descending motor pathway is both necessary and sufficient for normal song production, while the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP)is necessary for song learning but not production. Juvenile birds who have not yet fully learned their songs and that have lesions of the AFP never learn to make normal songs. Adult birds who experience these same lesions continue to sing normally for some time. The song system is sexually dimorphic in many species of songbirds, especially in species in which the male primarily sings.

System model

The song system has emerged as leading model of adult neural plasticity. The song system is the first neural circuit in which it was conclusively demonstrated that newly generated neurons are incorporated into the brains of adults vertebrates. Some seasonally-breeding songbird brains vary in volume, neuron number, and density depending on the time of year, and these changes in the brain are driven by changes in circulating levels of testosterone.

See also

{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Song control system
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!

Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.


Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?