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Scouts Australia

The Scout Association of Australia
HeadquartersChatswood, New South Wales
CountryAustralia
Founded1958
incorporated 1967
FounderThe Boy Scouts Association (United Kingdom)
Membership48,796 children & youths
2,792 young adult Rovers
15,147 adults (2022)[1]
Chief commissionerPhil Harrison
Chief Scout of AustraliaDavid Hurley
Website
scouts.com.au
Cub Scout
Scout
Venturer Scout
 Scouting portal

Scouts Australia is a trading name of The Scout Association of Australia, which is the largest scouting organisation in Australia, claiming 48,796 children and youths and 2,792 young adult participants in 2022, and is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement.[2] It was formed in 1958 and incorporated in 1967.[3] It operates personal development programs for children and young adults from 5 to 25 years of age with programs successively opened to girls after 1971.

The organisation's current stated purpose is to "contribute to the development of young people in achieving their full physical, intellectual, emotional, social and spiritual potentials as individuals, as responsible citizens and as members of their local, national and international communities".[4]

Participation in the organisation's programs declined in the late 20th and early 21st centuries despite opening participation to girls and ever younger children and Australia having a high population growth rate, well above the world average. According to a 2014 media article, "Scouts Australia is hoping [to] arrest a steady decline in membership. In 1979 the organisation had 114,500 youth members, today there are 52,000."[5] According to its own annual reports[6] participation decreased from 84,502 in 2,126 groups in 2001 to 63,200 in 1,836 groups in 2005, while in 2012 there were 49,181 children and youth, 2,587 young adult Rovers and 14,113 adult leaders and support roles in 1,486 groups[7] and, in 2022, there were 48,796 children and youths, 2,792 young adult Rovers and 15,147 adult leaders and support roles in 1,321 groups. The organisation has an exceptionally high number of adults compared to its number of youth participants with a ratio of more than one adult for every three youths.[1]

Structure

Scouts Australia is a council which is not elected by, representative of or accountable to the Scouts, the adults in Scouting or Scout groups. The council consists of a majority of members elected by the council itself, office bearers appointed by the council or its national executive committee, state and territory office bearers appointed by the national executive committee and a smaller number of representatives from state and territory branch councils which are similarly not elected by, representative of or accountable to the Scouts, the adults in Scouting or Scout groups.[3][8] The council usually meets just once a year. Real control lays with its national executive committee. Its national executive committee sets policy and programs and coordinates its state and territory branches.

The New South Wales, Victorian and Tasmanian state branches are incorporated under special Acts of the state parliaments.[9] while the Western Australian, South Australian, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Australian Capital Territory branches are incorporated by registration under the ordinary Associations Incorporation Acts. Each state or territory branch maintains its distinct structure, operational methods, and rules. However, all branches operate the same programs for children and young adults under a common uniform and common award scheme structure set by the national executive committee.

The national executive committee appoints the organisation's Chief Scout, currently David Hurley, the Governor-General of Australia.[10] In the past, the organisation's positions of chief scouts and state branch chief scouts had usually been held, respectively, by the governor-general or governor of the state. When he was the governor-general from 1989 to 1996, Bill Hayden declined to be the organisation's chief scout.[11] In 2015, the actor Shane Jacobson was appointed as the Chief Scout of the Victorian branch. The organisations position of Chief Scout of its Australian Capital Territory branch was allowed to lapse and has been left vacant. In 1942, Sir Leslie Orme Wilson, the Governor of Queensland, resigned as the Boy Scouts Association's Chief Scout of Queensland because of the failure of the Queensland branch to respond to his call for reforms to its centralisation effort that led to the severance of the Mount Morgan Blue Boy Scouts.[12]

History

Boy Scouts being reviewed in Canberra in 1927

For the history of Boy Scouts and the Scout Movement in Australia generally, see Scouting and Guiding in Australia.

The organisation was formed in 1958 under the name ' Australian Boy Scouts Association, as a branch of the Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom. Before its formation, branches of the Boy Scouts Association had been formed in each Australian state. Initially, each Australian state branch was directly responsible to the Imperial Headquarters of the Boy Scouts Association in London. In 1922, the Boy Scouts Association formed its Australian Federal Council, consisting of nominees of its Australian state branches, to achieve cooperation and coordination at a national level. The Boy Scouts Association later appointed an Australian commissioner. The Australian Federal Council functioned as a branch of the Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom, and the Australian commissioner was appointed by the Imperial Headquarters in London. The Australian Federal Council of the Boy Scouts Association became a member of the International Conference of the Boy Scout Movement in 1953, rather than being represented through the Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom. In 1958, when the Australian Boy Scouts Association was formed, it succeeded the Australian Federal Council of the Boy Scouts Association.

In 1967, the organisation was incorporated by royal charter as a branch of the Scout Association of the United Kingdom.[13] Each of the Australian state branches and the Papua New Guinea branch of the Scout Association became branches of the Australian Boy Scouts Association.[3] In 1975, the organisation's Papua New Guinea branch became an independent organisation.

In 1971, the organisation dropped the word "boy" from its name when it changed its name from the Australian Boy Scouts Association to the Scout Association of Australia. Until 1976, it admitted only British Subjects to membership and programs and other nationalities only on special conditions and approval.[14] After 1976, British subjects continued to be automatically admitted to membership while foreign subjects, including residents were still subject to special conditions and approval.[15]

In 1997, the organisation adopted the trading name Scouts Australia.[16][17]

Program reviews

The Scouts Australia emblem from 1997 to 2019 incorporated the national green-and-gold as well as the Southern Cross motif

In 1969 the organisation began a review of its youth programs under its Design for Tomorrow Committee and implemented its New Design program in 1971. The program involved a new name, new branding, new uniforms, and new award schemes. It failed to attract an increase in participants and led to considerable disaffection and loss of long-term leaders and supporters and the formation of Australian affiliates of the traditionalist Baden-Powell Scouts' Association while its decline in participation continued.

In 1979, following years of disaffection and concerns that the organisation, like its parent organisation in the United Kingdom, would disband Rovers, the organisation formed its national Rover council, composed of Rovers (ages 18 to 25), appointed by each of its seven branch Rover councils. The national Rover council elects an executive to represent Rovers in the organisation's affairs and the chairperson of the National Rover Council is a member of the organisation's national executive committee.[18]

In 1997, the organisation adopted the new trading name Scouts Australia, new logo, uniforms, and branding to be more appealing, but participation rates and numbers continued to decline.

In 2001, the organisation formed its National Youth Council in an attempt to engage youth and provide opportunities for youth leadership at its national level. It was composed of just 25 Scouts, Venturers, and Rovers, met face to face twice a year and online throughout the rest of the year.[19] Despite this, youth participation rates and numbers continued to decline. The National Youth Council was disbanded in 2018.

A further program review commenced in 2013. In 2019, at the 25th Australian Scout Jamboree a new program and logo and branding were launched, with the intention of modernising Scouts Australia's brand, and moving Scouting more in line with Australian curriculums.[20]

Religion

Youth participants at a Scouts' Own, an informal act of worship, at a Scout campsite

Scouts Australia is a non-religious organisation. To enrol with Scouts Australia you are required to make the Scout Promise. In 2017, with the launch of "The Adventure Begins", a new promise option allows Scouts to "do my best to be true to my spiritual beliefs",[21] to further open the promise to all religious faiths. The other more established option for the Australian Scout Promise includes the phrase "do my best to do my duty to my God", allowing some flexibility in the interpretation of "my God".

Historically, Scouting in Australia was rooted in Christianity as that was the world view of Scouts founder, Lord Baden-Powell.[22] Although Britain is now a majority non-religious nation[23] Christianity was the dominant faith in both Britain and Australia in Scouting's early days.

More recently,[clarification needed] participants have come from many faiths, although the majority of Scout groups promote an interfaith approach to religion. Many Scout groups have been formed within existing communities and specific religious traditions as "sponsored groups",[24] such as Coptic Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Islamic and Jewish.

Scout Promise and Law

Scout Promise

There are two versions of the Australian Scout Promise which individuals may choose to select:

Option One:

On my honour,

I promise to do my best,

To do my duty to my God and

To the King of Australia,

To help other people,

And to live by the Scout Law.

Option Two:

On my honour, I promise

To do my best,

To be true to my spiritual beliefs,

To contribute to my community and our world,

To help other people,

And to live by the Scout Law.

Scout Law

Be Respectful - Be friendly and considerate. Care for others and the environment.

Do What is Right - Be trustworthy, honest and fair. Use resources wisely.

Believe in Myself - Learn from my experiences. Face challenges with courage.[25]

Children and youth programs

Age sections

Youth development in the organisation's programs is divided into several age group stages. The age groups encourage movement through the sections as the youth matures. The sections are:

  • Joey Scouts (5–7 years): helping to develop a child's sense of personal identity. Motto: Discover Adventure
  • Cub Scouts (8–10 years): aims to develop a sense of adventure and achievement and a chance to grow their character. Motto: Create the Path
  • Scouts (11–14 years): promotes leadership and teamwork, as well as an appreciation of the outdoors. Motto: Explore the Unknown
  • Venturer Scouts (15–17 years): develops leadership and management skills, as well as an understanding of camping and the environment. Motto: Look Wide
  • Rover Scouts (18–25 years): continues to develop leadership skills, as well as placing a strong emphasis on service to the community and other parts of the organisation. Motto: Beyond the Horizon
Scouts hiking in the Blue Mountains National Park in New South Wales

Uniform

The core uniform is a navy blue shirt with the relevant youth section colour across the sleeves and collar, a scarf, and a woggle. The adult leader's shirt is only dark blue.

The section colours are:[26]

  • Tan for Joeys
  • Yellow for Cubs
  • Green for Scouts
  • Maroon for Venturers
  • Red for Rovers

Award scheme

The youth award scheme in Australian Scouting consists of awards for proficiency in an adventurous activity, participation in major events, recognition of service, gallantry and meritorious service, and for the practice of Scouting[27] (Queen's Scout, Baden-Powell Award, etc.).

The peak award for each section is the Joey Scout Promise Award, Grey Wolf Award, Australian Scout Award, Queen's Scout Award, and Baden-Powell Scout Award respectively. (The 'Queen's Scout Award' may be renamed as the 'King's Scout Award', if King Charles III accepts Royal Patronage of the Scout Association of Australia after May 2023.[28])

Lone Scouts

Lone Scout Groups are for youth unable to attend or find a local Scout group. Lones can include people with impairments that inhibit attending regular meetings, people who are constant travellers or go to places at which they are unable to attend a group i.e. boarding school or isolated communities.[29] Lone Scout Groups may hold camps or other gatherings to enable their members to come together but, between such events, deliver Scouting virtually via internet, radio and post.[30]

International connections

This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2023)

The organisation operates in the non-sovereign Australian Indian Ocean Territories of:

Two Scout troops in Singapore are affiliated with the organisation.[31]

The organisation is a founder member of the Asia-Pacific Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. In the field of support and co-operation with other national member organisations of the Asia Pacific region, the organisation has contributed to a number of international friendship and community development-oriented projects. Over the years, Australian Scouts have supported emerging Scout organisations in the South Pacific. A twinning project with the Bangladesh Scouts, known as the "Bangladesh-Australia Child Health" (BACH) project, made a dramatic impact on child health in project villages during its operation from 1986 to 1992.[32][33] The organisation has a twinning project with the Nepal Scouts known as NATURE Project and involves the reforestation of the Kristi Landslide.[34]

In 1988 the organisation hosted the 16th World Scout Jamboree and the 31st World Scout Conference. Some 15,000 Scouts from 94 countries attended the jamboree at Cataract Scout Park near Sydney. An Australian Scout Jamboree has been held every three years since 1934 except for the years of the Second World War. The Scout Jamboree is the organisation's largest event but an Australian Rover Moot and an Australian Venture are also held every three years.

Adult training and awards

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Training institute

In 1996 Scouts Australia became a registered training organisation (RTO), trading as the Scouts Australia Institute of Training (SAIT). Scouts Australia's adult leader training program now leads adults and Rover Scouts to a Certificate III in Business and a Certificate IV in Leadership and Management, as well as the Scouting Woodbadge qualification. Woodbadge Leaders and Rovers can then undertake the Diploma of Leadership and Management qualification through SAIT.[35]

In 2011, the institute added a number of the SIS10 qualifications to its scope, and changes are occurring in the individual state branches to allow Adventurous Activity Leader training to also lead to the Certificate IV in Outdoor Recreation.[36] Adventurous Activities Leaders are leaders who specialise in the running of advanced adventurous activities, such as abseiling, rock climbing, scuba diving and mountain biking, as opposed to the everyday running of a Scout group and more basic activities such as camping and hiking.[37]

Adult Recognition Awards

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Adult Recognition Awards (formerly Good Service Awards) are presented each year by the Chief Scout of each branch and are presented for service to Scouting over and above what is expected of someone who is simply carrying out the duties of their position. These awards can be nominated by anyone affiliated with Scouts Australia.

Adult Recognition Awards for adult leaders and supporters
Award Minimum Time in Service Description
Special Service Award 12 months Bronze Medallion depicting the logo of Scouts Australia on a white ribbon
Badge: White knot on blue background
Meritorious Service Award 6 years Silver Medallion depicting the logo of Scouts Australia on a yellow ribbon
Badge: Yellow knot on blue background
Silver Wattle 10 years Silver medallion depicting a wattle on a green ribbon
Badge: Green knot on blue background
Silver Koala 14 years Silver medallion depicting a koala on an orange ribbon
Badge: orange knot on blue background
Silver Emu 4–5 years since receiving Silver Koala Silver Medallion depicting an emu on a purple ribbon
Badge: Purple knot on blue background
Silver Kangaroo Not specified
Also presented to members of other WOSM organisations
Silver medallion depicting a kangaroo on a green and gold ribbon
Badge: Gold knot on blue background
Adult Recognition Awards for lay supporters
Award Minimum Time in Service Description
Special Service Award 12 months Bronze Medallion depicting the logo of Scouts Australia on a white ribbon
Badge: White knot on blue background
Meritorious Service Award 6 years Silver Medallion depicting the logo of Scouts Australia on a yellow ribbon
Badge: Yellow knot on blue background
Outstanding Service Award Not specified Silver medallion on a green ribbon
Distinguished Service Award Not specified Silver medallion on an orange ribbon
National President's Award Not specified
Also presented to members of other WOSM organisations
Silver medallion on a red ribbon
Adult Recognition Award for service to the Rover Scout Section
Award Minimum Time in Service Description
Rover Scout Service Award 5 years service to the Rover Section by a Rover
10 years service to the Rover Section by an Adult participant/leader / supporter
Silver and red medallion on a red and white ribbon
Badge: Red and White knot on blue background

[38][39]

Awards for gallantry and meritorious conduct

Awards for Gallantry are made by the Chief Scout of Australia for actions involving risk, for example for saving someone from a burning building to individual participants or groups.

Awards for Gallantry of Scouts Australia
Award For Description
Certificate of Gallantry Actions involving limited risk Certificate
Badge: Blue and White knot on blue background
Gilt Cross Gallantry involving limited risk A Gilt Cross on a Red and Blue ribbon
Badge: Blue and Red knot on blue background
Silver Cross Gallantry involving considerable risk A Silver Cross on a Blue ribbon
Badge: Blue knot on blue background
Bronze Cross Special heroism or extreme risk A Bronze Cross on Red ribbon
Badge: Red knot on blue background

Awards for meritorious conduct are awarded for actions that may not have involved risking of life but still display courage, endurance, initiative, or devotion to duty, often under suffering. As with Awards for Gallantry, these awards are made by the Chief Scout of Australia to individuals or groups depending on the circumstances.

Awards for Meritorious Service of Scouts Australia
Award For Description
Certificate of Meritorious Conduct Actions involving limited risk Certificate
Badge: Green and Blue knot on blue background
Medal for Meritorious Conduct Gallantry involving limited risk A medallion on a green ribbon with a vertical red stripe
Badge: Green and Red knot on blue background

Sexual abuse cases

Scouts Australia was called before the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse for its failures in handling complaints against its leaders.

In 2014, Darryl Rubiolo, a former Scout Association of Australia leader, publicity officer, leader trainer, St. George Area Commissioner and member of the New South Wales state branch council, was convicted of serial child sex offences against three boys aged 9, 13 and 14, between 1975 and 1987 while he was an official of the Scout Association of Australia. Rubiolo was sentenced to two-and-a-half years in prison with a non-parole period of one year.[40][41]

In 2012, Steven Larkins, a former leader in New South Wales, was imprisoned for offences he had committed 15 years earlier.[42]

In February 2000, Roderick Albert Joseph Corrie, a former NSW Branch Commissioner and scout leader of nearly thirty-two years was convicted of child sexual offences. "Corrie, one of the most senior and highly decorated Scouts in NSW, was jailed for seven years in February 2000 after pleading guilty in the District Court to eight most serious of 77 charges of sexually abusing children as young as 11, including rape and buggery, occurring 1969–1995. Two years earlier, Corrie had been convicted of eight charges of "aggravated indecent assault" and placed on a bond, given counselling and 70 hours of community service." The head of Scouts Australia, "Dr. Bruce Munro, apologised to the families of those abused after The Sydney Morning Herald obtained a copy of a 14-page report written by a senior Scout leader in 1981 that detailed serious allegations of Corrie abusing four boys, one aged 12 at the time. Munro admitted that those allegations were not properly investigated or referred to the police and that although Corrie was initially suspended, he was then simply allowed to transfer as a leader to a North Shore Scouting group. Even after police began investigating Corrie in 1994, he was allowed to continue having contact with, and sexually abusing, scouts until at least May 1995."[43]

Mark Geoffrey Fisher, the scoutmaster at 1st Hunters Hill troop in New South Wales from 1969 to 1988, pleaded guilty to charges of 35 sex offences involving eight boys aged between 11 and 15 between 1971 and 1988.[43]

In 2017, former scout leader Neville Budge was convicted of sexually abusing eight young boys between the years of 1995 and 2002, whilst working as a Scout leader in the Belmont and Geelong district, Victoria. The court referred to his manipulative and predatory actions, labelling his crimes as being "simply abhorrent".

In 2017, former scout leader Chris Edmondson was convicted of the sexual abuse of three young boys between 1975 and 1978 in Warrandyte. On one occasion he sexually abused a young boy for having not known a test answer. Edmondson was jailed in Queensland in 2006, released in 2012, then jailed in Victoria in 2015 again, had his sentence extended in 2016 and would have been eligible for parole in January 2019. The outcome of the proceedings is unclear to date.

Former scout leader Kim Richard Harvey was jailed for the sexual abuse of 15 teenage boys in Melbourne's South Eastern suburbs between the years of 1974 and 1989. Harvey's behaviour posed a uniquely disturbing pattern, whereby premeditated grooming was a natural part of his 'game', often plying his victims with alcohol, lollies, and pornography. Harvey's crimes were not just isolated to local scout halls but continued throughout various camping trips, and activities in his role as a leader with Scouts Victoria.[44]

Since then, Scouts Australia put child safety training and procedures in place to try to protect the children under their care.[45]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Scouts Australia: Annual Report to the nation 2022" (PDF). Scouts Australia.
  2. ^ "Scouting Worldwide | WOSM". www.scout.org. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  3. ^ a b c Royal Charter of Incorporation of The Australian Boy Scouts Association, 1967, Australian Boy Scouts Association, 1969
  4. ^ "The Adventure Begins – Purpose, Principles and Mission". Scouts Australia. 1 February 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  5. ^ Sinnerton, Jackie; Van den Broeke, Leigh (1 November 2014). "Be prepared for a Scout revolution to take the youth movement into the future". The Daily Telegraph.
  6. ^ "Scouts Australia Annual Reports". Scouts Australia. 18 December 2017.
  7. ^ "Scouts Australia: Annual Report to the nation 2013" (PDF). Scouts Australia.
  8. ^ By-laws of The Scouts Association of Australia
  9. ^ New South Wales: Scout Association of Australia (New South Wales Branch) Incorporation Act 1928; Victoria: Scout Association Act 1932
  10. ^ Chief Scout Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Accessed, 14 December 2006
  11. ^ "Brief Comments". Australian League of Rights. Archived from the original on 4 December 2007.
  12. ^ Young, Keith; Robert Campbell (1996). "Mt. Morgan Boy Scouts: Governor Resigns as Chief Scout". Scouts of Australia. The British Boy Scouts and British Girl Scouts Association. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  13. ^ Scout Association Act – amendments to 2003, Comlaw.gov.au, Accessed 14 December 2006
  14. ^ Policy, Organisation and Rules of The Boy Scouts Association, 1959 Rule 24; POR of The Australian Boy Scouts Association, 1969 Rules 2/3 & 2/4; POR of The Scout Association of Australia, 1976 Rules 2/3 & 2/4
  15. ^ Policy, Organisation and Rules of The Scout Association of Australia 1981 Rules 2/3 & 2/4; POR of The Scout Association of Australia 1993 (in effect until 1996), Rules 2/3/& 2/4
  16. ^ "Scouts Australia – SA Branch – About the logo". Sa.scouts.com.au.
  17. ^ "About the Scout Logo". Scouts Australia – Hunter & Coastal Region. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  18. ^ "National Rover Council". Rovers Australia. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  19. ^ "National Youth Council | Scouts Australia". nyc.scouts.com.au. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  20. ^ "The New Program Has Launched!". Scouts Australia. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  21. ^ "Promise and Law". Scouts.com.au. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  22. ^ "Leader Support Guide Number 35" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
  23. ^ "Religion: respecting the minority | Editorial". The Guardian. 24 December 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  24. ^ "Joining Scouts". Nsw.scouts.com.au. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  25. ^ "Promise and Law".
  26. ^ "Key resources: Policies: Policy and Rules". Scouts Australia. Scout Association of Australia. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  27. ^ Policy and Rules of the Scout Association of Australia 2008. (Rule 13)]
  28. ^ Harrison, Phil; Reece, Nigel (17 December 2022). "Venturer Peak Award Update". Scouts Australia - Youth Program. Scouts Australia. Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  29. ^ Lone Scouts South Australia, Lones.sa.scouts.com.au, Accessed 7 February 2007
  30. ^ "NSW Lone Scout Group – Scouts". Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  31. ^ "Anza.org.sg". Anza.org.sg. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  32. ^ Bangladesh Scouts website, Bangladeshscout.net.bd, Accessed 14 December 2006.
  33. ^ "Paper on Project", 202.136.7.26, Accessed 14 December 2006.
  34. ^ Submission to the inquiry into Charitable and Related Organisations by Scouts Australia, 2003.
  35. ^ Scouts Australia Institute of Training, Vicscouts.asn.au, Accessed 14 December 2006
  36. ^ "training.gov.au". Training.gov.au. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  37. ^ "Become a Leader". Nsw.scouts.com.au. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  38. ^ "Service Awards". Rovers Australia.
  39. ^ Policy and Rules of the Scout Association of Australia 2012. (Rule 9.5 and 13.5)
  40. ^ "Darryl Rubiolo". Aussiesexoffenders.wordpress.com. 23 August 2014.
  41. ^ Mutton, Sheree (19 February 2014). "Child sex assault accused appears in court". Theleader.com.au. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  42. ^ Report of Case Study No. 1 (PDF) (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia. March 2014. pp. 1–57. ISBN 978-1-925118-12-4. Retrieved 5 May 2014. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  43. ^ a b "Category: Institutional Pedophilia". Eurekaencyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  44. ^ "The grubby history of abuse at Scouts Victoria". Rctlaw.com.au. 24 April 2021.
  45. ^ Scouts Australia (August 2020). "Child Protection Policy – Scouts Australia". Scouts South Australia. South Australia: Scouts Australia. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
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