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Satyrus II

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Satyrus II
King of the Bosporan Kingdom
Reign310 BC
PredecessorPaerisades I
SuccessorPrytanis
BornUnknown
Bosporan Kingdom
Died309 BC
Siracena, Sarmatia
IssuePaerisades
GreekΣάτυρος
HouseSpartocid
FatherPaerisades I
MotherComosarye
ReligionGreek Polytheism

Satyrus II (Ancient Greek: Σάτυρος, romanizedSatyros) was a son of Paerisades I and Spartocid king of the Bosporan Kingdom for 9 months in 310 BC.[1] He was the elder brother of Eumelus and Prytanis. He was challenged and ultimately overthrown by Eumelus in the Bosporan Civil War.

Reign and civil war

When his father Paerisades died in 310 BC, Satyrus inherited the throne and government as he was the eldest son.[2] Shortly after, his brother Eumelus fled to the lands of the Siraces, where he entered into an alliance with Aripharnes, king of the Siraces, and made a rival claim to the throne.[3] As soon as Satyrus learned of this, he set out against his brother Eumelus with his army thus starting the Spartocid civil war. Satyrus' army had a total of 34,000 troops, a mixture of Greeks, Thracians, and Scythians.[4] After cornering his younger brother, they fought the Battle of the River Thatis, which resulted in a strategic victory for Satyrus[5] and demonstrated his suitability for the throne of his father.[6]

Final battle and death

Satyrus pursued his brother and his ally, Ariphanes, who both retreated to the capital of the Siraces.[7] Upon approaching the city, he realised that it would be hard to take as the city was built on the river Thatis and surrounded by thick marshes.[8] There were also man-made defences including a fortified gate and a well-protected castle at the other entrance.[9] Knowing he would not be able to take the city, he plundered the countryside, gaining many prisoners and plunder.[10]

The Siege of Siracena ensued. However Satyrus died fighting Aripharnes while attempting to protect his mercenary captain, Meniscus.[11] His brother Prytanis became king shortly after his death, and fought Eumelus but shared the same fate.[12]

His brother Eumelus killed the families of his brothers, but Satyrus' son, Paerisades, survived[13] and fled to Scythia, where he was given asylum by its king, Agarus.[14]

References

  1. ^ Peck, Harry Thurston. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898). A king of Bosporus, who was the eldest of the sons of Paerisades I., whom he succeeded in B.C. 311, but reigned only nine months.
  2. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.23. Satyrus, since he was the eldest, had received the government from his father
  3. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.23. Eumelus, however, had as ally Aripharnes, the king of the Siraces
  4. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.23. Enrolled in his army were not more than two thousand Greek mercenaries and an equal number of Thracians, but all the rest were Scythian allies, more than twenty thousand foot-soldiers and not less than ten thousand horse
  5. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.23. Going to the aid of those who had been worsted and for the second time becoming the author of victory.
  6. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.23. he routed the entire army of the enemy, so that it became clear to all that, by reason both of his birth and of his valour, it was proper that he should succeed to the throne of his fathers
  7. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.23. Aripharnes and Eumelus, however, after having been defeated in the battle, escaped to the capital city.
  8. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.23. This was situated on the Thates River, which made the city rather difficult of access since the river encircled it and was of considerable depth.
  9. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.23. and had only two entrances, both artificial, of which one was within the royal castle itself and was strengthened with high towers and outworks, and the other was on the opposite side in swampy land, fortified by wooden palisades
  10. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.23. Satyrus at first plundered the country of the enemy and fired the villages, from which he collected prisoners and much booty.
  11. ^ Polyaenus. Strategems. Satyrus is killed while attacking Aripharnes, king of the Siraces
  12. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.24. he tried to recover his kingdom; but he was overpowered and fled to the so‑called Gardens,where he was slain
  13. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.24. he only one to escape him was Parysades, the son of Satyrus, who was very young
  14. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Book 22.24. he, riding out of the city on horseback, took refuge with Agarus, the king of the Scythians
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Satyrus II
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