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Sanandaj Jewish Neo-Aramaic

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Sanandaj Neo-Aramaic
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Sanandaj Jewish Neo-Aramaic is a variety of Northeastern Neo-Aramaic originally spoken by Jews in the city of Sanandaj, Iran. It is much more closely related to other Trans-Zab Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects than the Neo-Aramaic dialect spoken by Christians in the same town.[1]


Labial Dental / Alveolar Palato-alveolar Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Laryngeal
Stops / affricates Unvoiced p t k q ʔ
Voiced b d g
Emphatic (ṭ)
Fricatives Unvoiced f s ʃ x ħ h
Voiced w z ʒ ɣ ʕ
Emphatic (ṣ), (ż)
Nasal m n
Lateral l ()
Rhotic ɾ, r, ()
Approximant j

The historically pharyngealized consonants /ṭ/ and /ṣ/ in the current language have merged with /t/ and /s/ in many environments but sometimes affect the pronunciation of surrounding vowels.[3] /lˤ/ and /rˤ/ are consistently pharyngealized.[4]


  1. ^ Khan 2009, pp. 3–4.
  2. ^ Khan 2009, pp. 15–16.
  3. ^ Khan 2009, pp. 17–18.
  4. ^ Khan 2009, pp. 18–20.


  • Khan, Geoffrey (2009). The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Sanandaj. Gorgias Press. ISBN 978-1-60724-134-8.
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Sanandaj Jewish Neo-Aramaic
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