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S. Jaishankar

S. Jaishankar
Jaishankar in 2023
30th Minister of External Affairs
Assumed office
30 May 2019
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
Preceded bySushma Swaraj
Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha
Assumed office
5 July 2019
Preceded byAmit Shah
ConstituencyGujarat
31st Foreign Secretary of India
In office
28 January 2015 – 28 January 2018
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
Preceded bySujatha Singh
Succeeded byVijay Keshav Gokhale
Ambassador of India to the United States
In office
1 December 2013 – 28 January 2015
PresidentPranab Mukherjee
Prime MinisterManmohan Singh
Narendra Modi
Preceded byNirupama Rao
Succeeded byArun Kumar Singh
Ambassador of India to China
In office
1 June 2009 – 1 December 2013
PresidentPratibha Patil
Pranab Mukherjee
Prime MinisterManmohan Singh
Preceded byNirupama Rao
Succeeded byAshok Kantha
High Commissioner of India to Singapore
In office
1 January 2007 – 1 June 2009
PresidentA.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Pratibha Patil
Prime MinisterManmohan Singh
Succeeded byTCA Raghavan
Ambassador of India to the Czech Republic
In office
1 January 2001 – 1 January 2004
PresidentK.R. Narayanan
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Prime MinisterAtal Bihari Vajpayee
Succeeded byP.S. Raghavan
Personal details
Born
Subrahmanyam Jaishankar

(1955-01-09) 9 January 1955 (age 69)
New Delhi, India
Political partyBharatiya Janata Party
Spouse(s)Shobha Jaishankar (deceased)
Kyoko Jaishankar
Children3
Parent
RelativesSanjay Subrahmanyam (brother)
Alma materSt. Stephen's College, Delhi (BSc),
Jawaharlal Nehru University (MA, MPhil, PhD)
OccupationCivil servant, diplomat, politician, author
AwardsPadma Shri (2019)

Subrahmanyam Jaishankar (born 9 January 1955) is an Indian diplomat and politician serving as the Minister of External Affairs of the Government of India since 30 May 2019.[1] He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party and a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha since 5 July 2019. He previously served as the Foreign Secretary from January 2015[2][3] to January 2018.[4] He became the second ever diplomat to be appointed as India's External Affairs minister, after Natwar Singh.[5][6]

He joined the Indian Foreign Service (IFS) in 1977 and during his diplomatic career spanning over 38 years, he served in different capacities in India and abroad including as a High Commissioner to Singapore (2007–2009) and as Ambassador to the Czech Republic (2001–2004), China (2009–2013) and the US (2014–2015). Jaishankar played a key role in negotiating the Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement.

On retirement, Jaishankar joined Tata Sons as the President, Global Corporate Affairs.[7] In 2019, he was conferred with Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian honour.[8] On 30 May 2019, he was sworn in as a cabinet minister in the second Modi ministry.[9] He was made the Minister of External Affairs on 31 May 2019. He is the first former Foreign Secretary to head the Ministry of External Affairs as the Cabinet Minister.[10][11]

Early life and education

Jaishankar was born in Delhi, India to a prominent Indian civil servant Krishnaswamy Subrahmanyam[1][12] and Sulochana Subrahmanyam.[1] He was brought up in a Tamil Hindu family.[13] He has two brothers: the historian Sanjay Subrahmanyam and the IAS officer S. Vijay Kumar,[14] former Rural Development Secretary of India.[15][16]

Jaishankar did his schooling at The Air Force School, Delhi, and at Bangalore Military School, Bangalore. He then did his bachelor's degree in chemistry from St. Stephen's College, Delhi.[17] He has an MA in political science and an M.Phil. and PhD in international relations from Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), where he specialised in nuclear diplomacy.[18][19][20]

Diplomatic career

After joining the Indian Foreign Service in 1977, Jaishankar served as third secretary and second secretary in the Indian mission to the Soviet Union in Moscow from 1979 to 1981, where he studied Russian. He returned to New Delhi, where he worked as a special assistant to the diplomat Gopalaswami Parthasarathy and as undersecretary in the Americas division of India's Ministry of External Affairs, dealing with United States. He was part of the team that resolved the dispute over the supply of US nuclear fuel to the Tarapur Power Stations in India.[12] From 1985 to 1988 he was the first secretary at the Indian embassy in Washington, D.C.[21]

From 1988 to 1990, he served in Sri Lanka as First Secretary and political adviser to the Indian Peacekeeping Force (IPKF).[21][22] From 1990 to 1993, he was Counsellor (Commercial) at the Indian mission in Budapest. Returning to New Delhi, he served as Director (East Europe) in the Ministry of External Affairs and as press secretary and speechwriter for President of India Shankar Dayal Sharma.[23]

Jaishankar was then Deputy Chief of Mission at the Indian Embassy in Tokyo from 1996 to 2000.[21] This period saw a downturn in Indo-Japan relations following India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests as well as a recovery after a visit to India by then Japanese Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori.[24] Jaishankar is reported to have helped introduce future Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe to his Indian counterpart, Manmohan Singh.[25] In 2000, he was appointed India's ambassador to the Czech Republic.

From 2004 to 2007, Jaishankar was Joint Secretary (Americas) at the Ministry of External Affairs in New Delhi. In this capacity, he was involved in negotiating the US-India civil nuclear agreement and improving defence co-operation, including during relief operations following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.[26][27] Jaishankar was also involved with the conclusion of the 2005 New Defense Framework[28] and the Open Skies Agreement,[29] and he was associated with the launch of the US-India Energy Dialogue,[30] the India-US Economic Dialogue, and the India-US CEO's Forum.[31] In 2006–2007, Jaishankar led the Indian team during the negotiations on the 123 Agreement with United States.[32] He also represented the Indian government at the Carnegie Endowment International Non-proliferation Conference in June 2007.[33]

Jaishankar was reportedly considered for the post of India's Foreign Secretary in 2013.[34][35]

High Commissioner to Singapore

From 2007 to 2009, Jaishankar served as India's High Commissioner to Singapore.[36] During his tenure, he helped implement the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) that expanded the Indian business presence in Singapore,[37] and oversaw a defence arrangement by which Singapore keeps some of its military equipment in India on a permanent basis.[38] Jaishankar also promoted the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas,[39] and IIMPact[40] in Singapore.

Ambassador to China

Jaishankar was India's longest-serving ambassador to China, with a four-and-a-half-year term.[41] In Beijing, Jaishankar was involved in improving economic, trade and cultural relations between China and India, and in managing the Sino-Indian border dispute.[42][43]

Jaishankar's tenure as India's ambassador to China coincided with several major developments in relations between the two countries.[41] His 2010 briefing to the Indian Cabinet Committee on Security regarding China's refusal to issue a visa to the head of the Indian Army's Northern Command led to a suspension of Indian defence co-operation with China, before the situation was resolved in April 2011.[44] Also in 2010, Jaishankar negotiated an end to the Chinese policy of issuing stapled visas to Indians from Jammu and Kashmir.[45] In 2012, in response to Chinese passports showing Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin as parts of China, he ordered visas issued to Chinese nationals showing those territories as parts of India.[46] And in May 2013, he negotiated the end of a stand-off resulting from the encampment by China's People's Liberation Army on Ladakh's Depsang Plains, threatening to cancel Premier Li Keqiang's scheduled visit to India if Chinese forces did not withdraw[47][48] (See also 2013 Daulat Beg Oldi Incident). Jaishankar also briefed the media after the conclusion of Li's visit to New Delhi in May 2013.[49]

Jaishankar advocated deeper Indian co-operation with China as long as India's "core interests" were respected,[50] and argued for better market access for Indian businesses operating in China on the grounds that more balanced trade was necessary for the bilateral economic relationship to be sustainable.[51] He was also involved in improving people-to-people contacts between India and China, promoting events that showcased Indian culture in 30 Chinese cities.[52]

Ambassador to United States

A 2014 photo of Jaishankar with US Secretary of State John Kerry in Washington DC.

Jaishankar was appointed as India's Ambassador to United States in September 2013. He took charge on 23 December 2013 succeeding Nirupama Rao.[41][53] He arrived in United States amid the Devyani Khobragade incident, and was involved in negotiating the Indian diplomat's departure from United States.[54] On 29 January 2014, Jaishankar addressed the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he argued that "the grand strategy underwriting [Indian-American] ties is fundamentally sound" but that ties suffered from a "problem of sentiment."[55][56]

On 10 March 2014, he formally presented his credentials to US President Barack Obama at the Oval Office.[57]

Jaishankar was involved in planning of the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's maiden visit to United States in September 2014, welcoming him upon his arrival and hosting a dinner in his honour for members of the Indian-American community.[58][59]

Foreign Secretary

Jaishankar was appointed as Foreign Secretary of India on 29 January 2015. The announcement of his appointment was made following a 28 January 2015 meeting of the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi.[2][3] Jaishankar is widely criticised by Nepalese analysts for being the "original planner of 2015 Nepal blockade".[60][61]

Political career

Minister of External Affairs

External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar with Chinese Foreign Minister, Wang Yi at Hyderabad House, New Delhi, 25 March 2022.

On 31 May 2019, he was appointed to the Office of Minister of External Affairs.[62] Jaishankar was sworn in as Cabinet minister on 30 May 2019.[63]

On 5 July 2019, he was elected as Member of Parliament from Bharatiya Janata Party to the Rajya Sabha from Gujarat state.[64] He succeeded late Sushma Swaraj who was the External Affairs Minister in Narendra Modi's Government in his first stint.

Meeting of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) foreign ministers in New York City on 22 September 2022

In October 2020, Jaishankar and the Indian Minister of Defence, Rajnath Singh met with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and US Secretary of Defense Mark T. Esper to sign the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement on Geospatial Cooperation (BECA), which facilitates the sharing of sensitive information and intelligence—including access to highly-accurate nautical, aeronautical, topographical, and geospatial data—between United States and India. The agreement had been under discussion for over a decade, but previous concerns over information security impelled the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) coalition government to block it.[65] In response to the dialogue, Chinese spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Wang Wenbin criticised the move and advised Pompeo to "abandon his Cold War mentality, zero-sum mindset, and stop harping on the 'China threat.'"[66]

In November 2022, during a joint press conference along with Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov, Jaishankar praised Russia as "exceptionally steady" and "time-tested" partner of India and advocated a return to dialogue and peace between Russia and Ukraine.[67] In June 2023, the Associated Press (AP) reported that Jaishankar had announced that India will remain committed in its stance on not inviting Ukraine to the 2023 G20 summit that is to be held in New Delhi, India.[68]

He condemned the Hamas-led attack on Israel on 7 October 2023.[69] Jaishankar said that "We have always supported a negotiated two-State solution, towards establishment of a sovereign, independent and viable State of Palestine within secure and recognised borders, living side by side in peace with Israel."[70]

Personal life

Jaishankar and Kyoko (His wife, standing LS) with Antony Blinken in Washington DC

Jaishankar was married to his first wife Shobha until she succumbed to cancer. The two had met while studying at JNU.[71] Later, he married Kyoko, who is of Japanese origin[72] and has two sons, Dhruva and Arjun, and a daughter, Medha.[73] He speaks Russian, English, Tamil, Hindi, conversational Japanese, Chinese and some Hungarian.[12]

Honours

The Government of India honoured Padma Shri, fourth highest civilian award in 2019 for his contributions to Indian diplomacy and leading role in restructuring India's global conversations.[74]

Bibliography

  • Jaishankar, S. (2020). The India Way: Strategies for an Uncertain World. Harper Collins. p. 240. ISBN 978-9390163878.
  • Jaishankar, S. (2024). Why Bharat Matters. Rupa Publications. ISBN 978-9357026406.

References

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  2. ^ a b ACC Appointment, Press Information Bureau, 29 January 2015.
  3. ^ a b S Jaishankar, is the new foreign secretary, Hindustan Times, 29 January 2015.
  4. ^ "MEA | About MEA : Profiles : Foreign Secretary". www.mea.gov.in. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  5. ^ "S Jaishankar Becomes First Career Diplomat To Be Appointed External Affairs Minister". Outlook. 31 May 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  6. ^ The Indian Express (17 July 2023). "Jaishankar, O'Brien among 11 elected to Rajya Sabha uncontested". Archived from the original on 18 July 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  7. ^ "Tata Sons announces appointment of new president, Global Corporate Affairs". Tata. 23 April 2018. Archived from the original on 25 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  8. ^ "Former Indian foreign secretary Subrahmanyam Jaishankar to be conferred with Padma Shri". Times Now. 25 January 2019. Archived from the original on 3 May 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  9. ^ Roche, Elizabeth (30 May 2019). "S Jaishankar: Modi's 'crisis manager' sworn-in as union minister". Mint. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  10. ^ "S. Jaishankar: From Backroom to Corner Office, the Rise of Modi's Favourite Diplomat". The Wire. 1 June 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
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  13. ^ "A gentleman Brahmin". Hindustan Times. 6 February 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2023. he was like all displaced Tamil Brahmins
  14. ^ "Mr S Vijay Kumar". www.teriin.org. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  15. ^ Manager (14 March 2017). "S. Vijay Kumar". Resource Panel. Retrieved 4 June 2019 – via www.resourcepanel.org.
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  19. ^ C.Raja Mohan and S. Jaishankar, "Nuclear Cartelisation Theory and Practice" Archived 22 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 12, No. 20, 14 May 1977.
  20. ^ "ANI Podcast with Smitha Prakash". ANI News. 21 February 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
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  69. ^ Ghosh, Paulomi (3 November 2023). "What happened on October 7 is a big act of terrorism: Jaishankar on Israel, Palestine". The Hindustan Times. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  70. ^ ""Concerned Over Deteriorating Situation": Centre On Israel-Hamas War". NDTV. PTI. 8 December 2023. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
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  72. ^ "S Jaishankar, Surprise Pick in Modi's Cabinet, May Play Key Role On Foreign Affairs". Pranay Sharma. Outlook. 30 May 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
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  74. ^ "Former Diplomat Jaishankar, Akali Leader Among Recipients of Padma Awards".
Diplomatic posts Preceded byNirupama Rao Indian Ambassador to China 2009–2013 Succeeded byAshok Kantha Indian Ambassador to the United States 2013–2015 Succeeded byArun Kumar Singh Preceded bySujatha Singh Foreign Secretary of India 2015–2018 Succeeded byVijay Keshav Gokhale Political offices Preceded bySushma Swaraj Minister of External Affairs 30 May 2019 – present Incumbent
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S. Jaishankar
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