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State Assembly of Estonia

XV Riigikogu
Coat of arms or logo
Founded23 April 1919; 104 years ago (1919-04-23)
Lauri Hussar, Estonia 200
since 10 April 2023
First Vice-Chairman
Toomas Kivimägi, Reform
since 10 April 2023
Second Vice-Chairman
Jüri Ratas, Isamaa
since 10 April 2023
Political groups
Government (65)
  Reform (38)
  E200 (14)
  SDE (13)

Opposition (36)

  EKRE (16)
  Isamaa (10)
  Centre (6)
  Independents (4)
11 Committees
  • Constitutional
  • Cultural Affairs
  • Economic Affairs
  • Environment
  • European Union Affairs
  • Finance
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Legal Affairs
  • National Defence
  • Rural Affairs
  • Social Affairs
Party-list proportional representation
Modified D'Hondt method
Last election
5 March 2023
Next election
By 7 March 2027
Meeting place
Parliament building in Toompea Castle, Tallinn

The Riigikogu (from Estonian riigi-, "of the state", and kogu, "assembly") is the unicameral parliament of Estonia. In addition to approving legislation, the Parliament appoints high officials, including the prime minister and chief justice of the Supreme Court, and elects (either alone or, if necessary, together with representatives of local government within a broader electoral college) the president. Among its other tasks, the Riigikogu also ratifies significant foreign treaties that impose military and proprietary obligations and bring about changes in law, as well as approves the budget presented by the government as law, and monitors the executive power.



23 April 1919, the opening session of the Estonian Constituent Assembly is considered the founding date of the Parliament of Estonia.[1] Established under the 1920 constitution, the Riigikogu had 100 members elected for a three-year term on the basis of proportional representation. Elections were fixed for the first Sunday in May of the third year of parliament.[2] The first elections to the Riigikogu took place in 1920. From 1923 to 1932, there were four more elections to the Riigikogu. The elections were on a regional basis, without any threshold in the first two elections, but from 1926 a moderate threshold (2%) was used. The sessions of the Riigikogu take place in the Toompea Castle, where a new building in an unusual Expressionist style was erected in the former courtyard of the medieval castle in 1920–1922.

In 1933 amendments to the first Constitution was approved by referendum, where more power was given to an executive President. The following year, the President used these new powers to adjourn parliament and declared martial law to avert an alleged coup.[3] In 1937, a second constitution was approved by referendum which saw the introduction of a two chambered legislature, the Chamber of Deputies (Riigivolikogu) and the National Council (Riiginõukogu). Elections were subsequently held in 1938 where only individual candidates were allowed to run.

During the subsequent periods of Soviet occupation (1940–41), German occupation (1941–44), and the second Soviet occupation (1944–1991) the Parliament was disbanded. The premises of the Riigikogu were used by the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR during the second Soviet occupation.

Restitution of independence

In September 1992, a year after Estonia had regained its independence from the Soviet Union, elections to the Parliament took place on the basis of the third Constitution of Estonia adopted in a referendum in the summer of the same year. The 1992 constitution, which incorporates elements of the 1920 and 1938 Constitutions and explicitly asserts its continuity with the Estonian state as it existed between 1918 and 1940, sees the return of a unicameral parliament with 101 members. The most recent parliamentary elections were held on 5 March 2023. The main differences between the current system and a pure political representation, or proportional representation, system are the established 5% national threshold, and the use of a modified D'Hondt formula (the divisor is raised to the power 0.9). This modification makes for more disproportionality than does the usual form of the formula.

Latest election

Estonian Reform Party190,63231.24+2.3137+3
Conservative People's Party of Estonia97,96616.05−1.7117−2
Estonian Centre Party93,25415.28−7.8216−10
Estonia 20081,32913.33+8.9714+14
Social Democratic Party56,5849.27−0.569−1
Estonian United Left Party14,6052.39+2.3000
Estonian Greens5,8860.96−0.8600
Valid votes610,29999.43
Invalid/blank votes3,5020.57
Total votes613,801100.00
Registered voters/turnout966,12963.53
Source: National Electoral Committee[4]

Current seat allocation

Session hall.

The seat allocation refers to de facto allocation, as defectors from fractions are not allowed to join other ones between elections.

Structure of former legislatures

Estonian Parliament 1992–1995

29 17 15 12 10 8 8 1 1
Isamaa Safe Home Popular Front Moderates Independence ERP Citizen Greens EEE

Estonian Parliament 1995–1999

41 19 16 8 6 6 5
Coalition/Country Reform Centre RKEI and ERSP Moderates Home Right

Estonian Parliament 1999–2003

28 18 18 17 7 7 6
Centre Pro Patria Reform Moderates Coalition Country United

Estonian Parliament 2003–2007

28 28 19 13 7 6
Centre Res Publica Reform People's Union Pro Patria Moderates

Estonian Parliament 2007–2011

31 29 19 10 6 6
Reform Centre IRL SDE Greens People's Union

Estonian Parliament 2011–2015

33 26 23 19
Reform Centre IRL SDE

Estonian Parliament 2015–2019

30 27 15 14 8 7
Reform Centre SDE IRL EVA EKRE

Estonian Parliament 2019–2023

34 26 19 12 10
Reform Centre EKRE Isamaa SDE

Estonian Parliament 2023–present

37 17 16 14 9 8
Reform EKRE Centre E200 SDE Isamaa

Speakers of the Riigikogu

The salary of the speaker is €8318.19 per month.[5]


Name Period Legislature
Otto Strandman 4 January 1921 – 18 November 1921 I Riigikogu[6]
Juhan Kukk 18 November 1921 – 20 November 1922 I Riigikogu[6]
Konstantin Päts 20 November 1922 – 7 June 1923 I Riigikogu[6]
Jaan Tõnisson 7 June 1923 – 27 May 1925 II Riigikogu[6]
August Rei 9 June 1925 – 22 June 1926 II Riigikogu[6]
Karl Einbund 22 June 1926 – 19 July 1932 III Riigikogu, IV Riigikogu, V Riigikogu[6]
Jaan Tõnisson 19 July 1932 – 18 May 1933 V Riigikogu[6]
Karl Einbund 18 May 1933 – 29 August 1934 V Riigikogu[6]
Rudolf Penno 28 September 1934 – 31 December 1937 V Riigikogu[6]

Speakers of the Riigivolikogu (lower chamber)

Name Period Legislature
Jüri Uluots 21 April 1938 – 12 October 1939 VI Riigikogu[6]
Otto Pukk 17 October 1939 – 5 July 1940 VI Riigikogu[6]
Arnold Veimer 21 July 1940 – 25 August 1940

Speaker of the Riiginõukogu (upper chamber)

Name Period Legislature
Mihkel Pung 21 April 1938 – 5 July 1940 VI Riigikogu[6]

Chairman of the Supreme Council (1990–1992)

Name Period
Arnold Rüütel 29 March 1990 – 5 October 1992

Speaker of the Supreme Council (1990–1992)

Name Period
Ülo Nugis 29 March 1990 – 5 October 1992

Since 1992

Name Period Legislature
Ülo Nugis 21 October 1992 – 21 March 1995 VII Riigikogu[6]
Toomas Savi 21 March 1995 – 31 March 2003 VIII Riigikogu, IX Riigikogu[6]
Ene Ergma 31 March 2003 – 23 March 2006 X Riigikogu[6]
Toomas Varek 23 March 2006 – 2 April 2007 X Riigikogu[6]
Ene Ergma 2 April 2007 – 20 March 2014 XI Riigikogu, XII Riigikogu[6]
Eiki Nestor 20 March 2014 – 4 April 2019 XII Riigikogu, XIII Riigikogu[6]
Henn Põlluaas 4 April 2019 – 18 March 2021 XIV Riigikogu[6]
Jüri Ratas 18 March 2021 – 10 April 2023 XIV Riigikogu[6]
Lauri Hussar 10 April 2023 – present XV Riigikogu[7]


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2020)

Established on October 5 of 1992, the Chancellery of the Riigikogu (Estonian: Riigikogu Kantselei) is the administration supporting the Riigikogu in the performance of its constitutional functions.[8] The departments of the Chancellery perform the daily functions.

See also

Citations and references

  1. ^ "Riigikogu". Riigikogu. Archived from the original on 5 December 1998. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  2. ^ Miljan 2004, p. 413.
  3. ^ Miljan 2004, p. 414.
  4. ^ "Eesti Vabariik kokku". Valimised. Archived from the original on 5 March 2023. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  5. ^ "Salaries of MPS".
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Riigikogu juhatus". Riigikogu. Archived from the original on 6 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  7. ^ "Eesti 200 leader Lauri Hussar elected Riigikogu speaker". ERR. 10 April 2023.
  8. ^ "Chancellery of the Riigikogu". Riigikogu (in Estonian). Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.

Cited sources

  • Miljan, Toivo (2004). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Maryland, US: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4904-6.

59°26′09″N 24°44′14″E / 59.43583°N 24.73722°E / 59.43583; 24.73722

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