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Quercus virginiana

Southern live oak
The Volusia Oak on the St. Johns River in Volusia, Florida.
1812 illustration[1]
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Subgenus: Quercus subg. Quercus
Section: Quercus sect. Virentes
Q. virginiana
Binomial name
Quercus virginiana
  • Dryopsila virens (Aiton) Raf.
  • Quercus andromeda Riddell
  • Quercus hemisphaerica Endl.
  • Quercus phellos var. obtusifolia Lam.
  • Quercus phellos var. sempervirens Marshall
  • Quercus sempervirens Walter
  • Quercus virens Aiton
  • Quercus virginiana var. eximea Sarg.
  • Quercus virginiana var. virescens Sarg.

Quercus virginiana, also known as the southern live oak, is an evergreen oak tree endemic to the Southeastern United States.[5] Though many other species are loosely called live oak, the southern live oak is particularly iconic of the Old South. Many very large and old specimens of live oak can be found today in the Deep South region of the United States.[6]


Although live oaks retain their leaves nearly year-round, they are not true evergreens. Live oaks drop their leaves immediately before new leaves emerge in the spring. Occasionally, senescing leaves may turn yellow or contain brown spots in the winter, leading to the mistaken belief that the tree has oak wilt, whose symptoms typically occur in the summer.[7] A live oak's defoliation may occur sooner in marginal climates or in dry or cold winters.[8]

The bark is dark, thick, and furrowed longitudinally. The leaves are stiff and leathery, with the tops shiny dark green and the bottoms pale gray and very tightly tomentose, simple and typically flattish with bony-opaque margins, with a length of 2–15 centimetres (34–6 inches) and a width of 1–5 cm (38–2 in), borne alternately. The male flowers are green hanging catkins with lengths of 7.5–10 cm (3–4 in). The acorns are small, 1–2.5 cm (38–1 in), oblong in shape (ovoid or oblong-ellipsoid), shiny and tan-brown to nearly black, often black at the tips, and borne singly or in clusters.[9][8]

The avenue of live oaks at Boone Hall in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, planted in 1743.
A specimen at the former Protestant Children's Home in Mobile, Alabama. It has a trunk circumference of 7.0 m (23 ft), height of 19 m (63 ft) and limb spread of 43 m (141 ft).

Depending on the growing conditions, live oaks vary from a shrub-size to large and spreading tree-size: typical open-grown trees reach 20 m (66 ft) in height, with a limb spread of nearly 27 m (89 ft).[10] Their lower limbs often sweep down towards the ground before curving up again. They can grow at severe angles; Native Americans used to bend saplings over so that they would grow at extreme angles, to serve as trail markers.[citation needed]

The southern live oak has a deep taproot that anchors it when young and eventually develops into an extensive and widespread root system. This, along with its low center of gravity and other factors, makes the southern live oak extremely resistant to strong sustained winds, such as those seen in hurricanes.[11]


Quercus virginiana is placed in the southern live oaks section of the genus Quercus (section Virentes).[12]

A large number of common names are used for this tree, including "Virginia live oak", "bay live oak", "scrub live oak", "plateau oak", "plateau live oak", "escarpment live oak", and (in Spanish) "roble". It is also often just called "live oak" within its native area, but the full name "southern live oak" helps to distinguish it from other live oaks, a general term for any evergreen species of oak.[13]

This profusion of common names partly reflects an ongoing controversy about the classification of various live oaks, in particular its near relatives. Some authors recognize as distinct species the forms others consider to be varieties of Quercus virginiana. Notably, the following two taxa, treated as species in the Flora of North America, are treated as varieties of southern live oak by the United States Forest Service: the escarpment live oak, Quercus fusiformis (Q. virginiana var. fusiformis) and the sand live oak, Quercus geminata (Q. virginiana var. geminata).

Matters are further complicated by southern live oaks hybridizing with both of the above two species, and also with the dwarf live oak (Q. minima), swamp white oak (Q. bicolor), Durand oak (Q. durandii), overcup oak (Q. lyrata), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa), and post oak (Q. stellata).

Distribution and habitat

A young Live Oak in Washington, DC at Smithsonian Institution Building

Live oak can be found in the wild growing and reproducing on the lower coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico and lower East Coast of the United States. Its native range begins in southeast Virginia, and then continues south in a narrow band through North Carolina along the coast to the interior South Carolina coast, where its range begins to expand farther inland. The range of live oak continues to expand inland as it moves south, growing across southern Georgia and covering all of Florida south to the northernmost Florida Keys. Live oak grows along the Florida panhandle to Mobile Bay, then westward across the southernmost two tiers of counties in Mississippi. Live oak grows across the southern third of Louisiana, except for some barrier islands and scattered parts of the most southern parishes. Live oak's range continues into Texas and narrows to hug the coast until just past Port Lavaca, Texas.[9]

There is a misconception that the southern live oak reaches its northwestern limit in the granite massifs and canyons in Southwestern Oklahoma.[citation needed] However, this actually belongs to the closely related and much more cold-hardy Escarpment Live Oak, a rare remnant from the last glaciation also found around Norman, Oklahoma.[14]

Along the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico and south Atlantic United States, live oak is found in both single and mixed species forests, dotting the savannas, and as occasional clumps in the grasslands along the lower coastal plain. Live oak grows in soils ranging from heavy textures (clay loams), to sands with layers of organic materials or fine particles. Live oak can be found dominating some maritime forests, especially where fire periodicity and duration are limited. Live oak is found on higher topographic sites as well as hammocks in marshes and swamps. In general, southern live oak hugs the coastline and is rarely found more than 90 m (300 ft) above sea level. Live oaks grow across a wide range of sites with many moisture regimes – ranging from dry to moist. Live oak will survive well on both dry sites and in wet areas, effectively handling short duration flooding if water is moving and drainage is good. Good soil drainage is a key resource component for sustained live oak growth. The usual precipitation range is 650–1,650 millimetres (25–65 in) of water per year, preferably in spring and summer. Soil is usually acidic, ranging between pH of 5.5 and 6.5. A live oak on Tyler Avenue in Annapolis, Maryland or one on Cherrywood Lane in Bowie, Maryland is the northernmost known mature specimen, although a number of saplings can be found growing around nearby Towson. Multiple healthy young examples can be found in the Bolton Hill neighborhood of Baltimore.[15]


One source states that the southern live oak responds "with vigorous growth to plentiful moisture on well-drained soil."[8][16] They tend to survive fire, because often a fire will not reach their crowns. Even if a tree is burned, its crowns and roots usually survive the fire and sprout vigorously. Furthermore, live oak forests discourage entry of fire from adjacent communities because they provide dense cover that discourages the growth of a flammable understory.[citation needed] They can withstand occasional floods and hurricanes, and are resistant to salt spray and moderate soil salinity. Although they grow best in well-drained sandy soils and loams, they will also grow in clay.[17]

The branches frequently support other plant species such as rounded clumps of ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata), thick drapings of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), resurrection fern (Pleopeltis polypodioides), and parasitic mistletoe.


Southern live oak is cultivated in warmer climates as a specimen tree or for shade in the southern United States (zone 8 and south), Nuevo León and Tamaulipas states in Mexico, and in the warmer parts of the United States, Europe, and Australia. Cultivation is relatively simple, as southern live oak seedlings grow fast with ample soil moisture. Planting depth has little effect on the success of the tree.[18] After a few years live oak needs only occasional supplemental water. Southern live oak is very long lived, and there are many specimens that are more than 400 years old in the deep southern United States. The southern live oak is reliably hardy to USDA Hardiness Zone 8a, which places its northern limit for long-term cultivation inland around Atlanta and Memphis.


The avenue of live oaks at Oak Alley Plantation in Vacherie, Louisiana, planted in the early 18th century.

Live oak wood is hard, heavy, and difficult to work with, but very strong. In the days of wooden ships, live oaks were the preferred source of the framework timbers of the ship, using the natural trunk and branch angles for their strength. The frame of USS Constitution was constructed from southern live oak wood harvested from St. Simons Island, Georgia, and the density of the wood grain allowed it to survive cannon fire, thus earning her the nickname "Old Ironsides". Even today, the U.S. Navy continues to own extensive live oak tracts.[19]

The primary uses for southern live oaks today are providing food and shelter for wildlife. Among the animals for which live oak acorns are an important food source are the bobwhite quail, the threatened Florida scrub jay, the wood duck, yellow-bellied sapsucker, wild turkey, black bear, various species of squirrel, and the white-tailed deer. The tree crown is very dense, making it valuable for shade, and the species provides nest sites for many mammal species. Native Americans extracted a cooking oil from the acorns, used all parts of live oak for medicinal purposes, leaves for making rugs, and bark for dyes.[20] The roots of seedlings sometimes form starchy, edible tubers. People in past centuries harvested and fried these tubers for human consumption much as one might use a potato.[13]

In 1937, the southern live oak was designated the official state tree of Georgia (U.S. state).[21]

Famous specimens

The Angel Oak on Johns Island, South Carolina. The man under the tree is 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) tall.
The Emancipation Oak in Hampton, Virginia

See also


  1. ^ illustration from Histoire des arbres forestiers de l'Amérique septentrionale, considérés principalement sous les rapports de leur usages dans les arts et de leur introduction dans le commerce ... Par F.s André-Michaux. Paris, L. Haussmann,1812-13. François André Michaux (book author), Henri-Joseph Redouté (illustrator), Gabriel (engraver)
  2. ^ Kenny, L.; Wenzell , K. (2015). "Quercus virginiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T194245A2305868. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T194245A2305868.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  3. ^ Q. virginiana was first described and published in the Gardeners Dictionary, Edition 8. London. Quercus no. 16. 1768. "Quercus virginiana". International Plant Names Index (IPNI). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Harvard University Herbaria & Libraries; Australian National Botanic Gardens. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
  4. ^ "Quercus virginiana Mill.". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List. Note that this website has been superseded by World Flora Online
  5. ^ Goldman, D.H. (2017). "Plant Guide for live oak" (PDF). Plant Guide for live oak (USDA PLANTS Database).
  6. ^ Bender, Steve, ed. (January 2004). "Quercus virginiana". The Southern Living Garden Book (2nd ed.). Birmingham, Alabama: Oxmoor House. ISBN 978-0-376-03910-1.
  7. ^ "Live oak dropping leaves in early spring". Texas A&M AgriLife Extension. Texas A&M University. 2010-09-08. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  8. ^ a b c Kurz, Herman; Godfrey, Robert K. (1962), Trees of Northern Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA: University Press of Florida, pp. 103–104, ISBN 978-0-8130-0666-6
  9. ^ a b Nelson, Gil (1994), The Trees of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide, Sarasota, Florida, USA: Pineapple Press, p. 84, ISBN 978-1-56164-055-3
  10. ^ "Quercus virginiana: southern live oak". University of Florida IFAS Extension. University of Florida. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  11. ^ "Selecting Tropical and Subtropical Tree Species For Wind Resistance" (PDF). University of Florida IFAS Extension. University of Florida. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
  12. ^ Denk, Thomas; Grimm, Guido W.; Manos, Paul S.; Deng, Min & Hipp, Andrew L. (2017). "Appendix 2.1: An updated infrageneric classification of the oaks" (xls). figshare. doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.5547622.v1. Retrieved 2023-02-18.
  13. ^ a b Nixon, Kevin C. (1997). "Quercus virginiana". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 3. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2008-11-01 – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  14. ^ "USDA Plants Database".
  15. ^ "ArcGIS Web Application". Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  16. ^ "Quercus virginiana Mill. live oak". Natural Resources Conservation Service. US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  17. ^ [1] "The USA National Phenology Network — Quercus virginiana", Retrieved 2011-07-06
  18. ^ Gilman, Edward F.; Grabosky, Jason (2011-01-01). "Quercus virginiana root attributes and lateral stability after planting at different depths". Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 10 (1): 3–9. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2010.09.005. ISSN 1618-8667.
  19. ^ "Landowner Fact Sheets - live oak Quercus virginiana". Virginia Tech Dendrology. Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources and Environment. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  20. ^ John C. Gifford (1946). "Some Reflections on the Florida of Long Ago" (PDF). Tequesta: The Journal of the Historical Association of Southern Florida (6). University of Miami: 42. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  21. ^ "52 Georgia Facts". Meet The USA. 2022.
  22. ^ "History of the Angel Oak".
  23. ^ Sledge, John S. (1982). Cities of Silence. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press. pp. 15, 19. ISBN 978-0-8173-1140-7.
  24. ^ Pruitt, Paul M.; Higgins, Robert Bond (1963). "Crime and Punishment in Antebellum Mobile: The Long Story of Charles R. S. Boyington". Gulf Coast Historical Review. 11 (Spring 1996): 6–40.
  25. ^ "Fun 4 Gator Kids". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011. "Fun 4 Gator Kids — Cellon Live Oak", Retrieved 2011-07-06
  26. ^ [2] "Cellon Oak Park", Retrieved 2011-07-06
  27. ^ Borland, Timothy (July 22, 2011). "Treehugger 4: Duffie Live Oak". Mobile Bay Magazine. PMT Publishing. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
  28. ^ Owen, Sue. "Find Pushes Century Tree's Planting Back To 125 Years Ago". Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  29. ^ "Century Tree". Famous Trees of Texas. Texus A&M Forest Service. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  30. ^ "Evangeline Oak". Stopping Points Historical Markers & Points of Interest. Retrieved 2019-12-14.
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Quercus virginiana
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