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Project 211

Project 211
Formation1995; 29 years ago (1995)
Defunct2014; 10 years ago (2014)
Region
China (115 universities nationwide)

Project 211 (Chinese: 211工程) was a higher education development and sponsorship scheme of the Chinese central government for preparing approximately 100 universities for the 21st century, initiated in November 1995. There were 115 universities and colleges selected to be part of this program.[1][2][3][4]

Project 211 and Project 985 were both initiated by the Jiang Zemin Administration in 1990s. They were nullified in 2016 and replaced by the Double First-Class Construction in 2017, under the Xi Jinping Administration.[5][6]

Etymology

Project 211 was a project of developing comprehensive universities and colleges initiated in 1995 by the then National Education Commission of China, with the intent of raising the research standards of comprehensive universities and cultivating strategies for socio-economic development.[7]

The name for the project comes from an abbreviation of the slogan "In preparation for the 21st century, successfully running 100 higher education institutions" (面向21世纪,办好100所高校). One hundred was the approximate number of participating universities.[8]

History

In November 1995, with the approval of the State Council, the then State Planning Commission, the then State Education Commission, and the Ministry of Finance jointly issued the "Project 211 Overall Construction Plan" document. This document officially started Project 211.[9]

In October 2015, the State Council of China published the "Overall Plan for Promoting the Construction of World First Class Universities and First Class Disciplines" (Double First-Class Construction), which made new arrangements for the development of higher education in China, replacing previous higher education projects.[10]

On June 7, 2016, the Ministry of Education of China under Xi Jinping nullified the two projects by invalidating the fundamental documents "Measures for the Implementation and Management of Project 211 Construction" and "Opinions on the Continued Implementation of Project 985 Construction Projects."[11][12][13]

On June 27, 2016, the Ministry of Education said in response to The Beijing News reporters’ questions that the two projects faced the issues such as lack of competition, redundant overlaps, and uneven distribution of resources.[14] The ministry believed there was a need to amend the plan and strengthen the integration of resources.[15]

List of Project-211 universities and colleges

By 2008, China had some 116 public universities and colleges selected as part of Project 211.[8]

Province/Municipality City University
Beijing (26) Beijing (26)
Jiangsu (11) Nanjing (8)
Suzhou
Wuxi
Xuzhou
Shanghai (10) Shanghai (10)
Shaanxi (8) Xi'an (7)
Xianyang
Hubei (7) Wuhan (7)
Sichuan (5) Chengdu (4)
Ya'an
Guangdong (4) Guangzhou (4)
Hunan (4) Changsha (4)
Heilongjiang (4) Harbin (4)
Liaoning (4) Shenyang (2)
Dalian (2)
Tianjin (4) Tianjin (4)
Anhui (3) Hefei (3)
Jilin (3) Changchun (2)
Yanji
Shandong (3) Qingdao (2)
Jinan
Chongqing (2) Chongqing (2)
Fujian (2) Xiamen
Fuzhou
Xinjiang (2) Shihezi
Ürümqi
Guizhou Guiyang
Gansu Lanzhou
Hainan Haikou
Henan Zhengzhou
Jiangxi Nanchang
Qinghai Xining
Shanxi Taiyuan
Yunnan Kunming
Zhejiang Hangzhou
Guangxi Nanning
Inner Mongolia Hohhot
Ningxia Yinchuan
Tibet Lhasa

See also

References

  1. ^ "全国多少所211 —中国教育在线". gaokao.eol.cn. Archived from the original on October 16, 2023. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  2. ^ ""985"、"211"和"双一流"有什么区别? —中国教育在线". gaokao.eol.cn. Archived from the original on October 16, 2023. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  3. ^ "科学网—公众迷恋大学"帽子"本质是期待高质量教育". news.sciencenet.cn. Archived from the original on October 16, 2023. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  4. ^ "211工程简介". korea.lxgz.org.cn. Archived from the original on October 16, 2023. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  5. ^ "教育部国务院学位委员会国家语委关于宣布失效一批规范性文件的通知 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Archived from the original on March 7, 2019. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  6. ^ ""985""211"工程将废除 教育部:年内启动"双一流"_新闻频道_中华网". news.china.com. Archived from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  7. ^ Li Lixu (2004). "China's Higher Education Reform 1998-2003: A Summary" (PDF). Asia Pacific Education Review. V (1): 14–22. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2010.
  8. ^ a b ""211工程"大事记". Ministry of Education, PRC (in Chinese). Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  9. ^ "关于印发《"211工程"总体建设规划》的通知". www.elinklaw.com. Retrieved October 30, 2023.
  10. ^ 马娟. "国务院关于印发统筹推进世界一流大学和一流学科建设总体方案的通知_教育_中国政府网". www.gov.cn. Retrieved December 17, 2023.
  11. ^ "教育部国务院学位委员会国家语委关于宣布失效一批规范性文件的通知 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved October 30, 2023.
  12. ^ "涉及985和211工程,教育部宣布失效一批规范性文件-东北农业大学". wwwold.neau.edu.cn. Retrieved October 30, 2023.
  13. ^ "教育部宣布211、985工程多份文件失效!(附全国211、985工程大学清单)_生物探索". www.biodiscover.com. Retrieved October 30, 2023.
  14. ^ "985、211时代或终结 高校发展如何破除身份壁垒?" (in Simplified Chinese). 中国新闻网. June 30, 2016. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  15. ^ 韩雪枫 (June 29, 2016). "985、211不再继续?教育部回应:年内启动双一流" (in Simplified Chinese). 新京报. Archived from the original on October 21, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  16. ^ "浙江大学中文系百年学脉的传承与拓展". The Paper. Archived from the original on June 4, 2022. Retrieved June 4, 2022.
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Project 211
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