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Portal:Eritrea

The Eritrea Portal

Eritrean Coat of Arms
Eritrean Coat of Arms
Flag of Eritrea
Flag of Eritrea
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Eritrea (/ˌɛrɪˈtrə/ ERR-ih-TREE or /-ˈtr-/ -⁠TRAY-; Tigrinya: ኤርትራ, romanized: Ertra, pronounced [ʔer(ɨ)trä] ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of Eastern Africa, with its capital and largest city at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands.

Human remains found in Eritrea have been dated to 1 million years old and anthropological research indicates that the area may contain significant records related to the evolution of humans. The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second century AD. It adopted Christianity around the middle of the fourth century. Beginning in the 12th century, the Ethiopian Zagwe and Solomonid dynasties held sway to a fluctuating extent over the entire plateau and the Red Sea coast. Eritrea's central highlands, known as Mereb Melash ("Beyond the Mereb"), were the northern frontier region of the Ethiopian kingdoms and were ruled by a governor titled the Bahr Negash ("lord of the sea"). In the 16th century, the Ottomans conquered the Eritrean coastline. Beginning in 1882–1885, Italian troops systematically spread out from Massawa toward the highland, eventually resulting in the formation of the colony of Italian Eritrea in 1889. After World War II, Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952. Following the UN General Assembly decision in 1952, Eritrea would govern itself with a local Eritrean parliament, but for foreign affairs and defense, it would enter into a federal status with Ethiopia for ten years. However, in 1962, the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean parliament and formally annexed Eritrea. The Eritrean secessionist movement organised the Eritrean Liberation Front in 1961 and fought the Eritrean War of Independence until Eritrea gained de facto independence in 1991. Eritrea gained de jure independence in 1993 after an independence referendum.

Eritrea is one of the least developed countries. It is a unitary one-party presidential republic in which national legislative and presidential elections have never been held. Isaias Afwerki has served as president since its official independence in 1993. According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean government's human rights record is among the worst in the world. The Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated. Freedom of the press in Eritrea is extremely limited; the Press Freedom Index consistently ranks it as one of the least free countries. As of 2022 Reporters Without Borders considers the country to be among those with the least press freedom. Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and is an observer state in the Arab League alongside Brazil and Venezuela. (Full article...)

Debub Region in Eritrea
Debub Region, also known as the South Region (Tigrinya: ዞባ ደቡብ, Italian: Regione del Sud) is an administrative region of Eritrea. The region was formed on 15 April 1996, from the historical provinces of Serae and Akele Guzai. It lies along a portion of the national border with Ethiopia. As of 2005, the region had a population of 952,100 compared to a population of 839,700 in 2001. The net growth rate was 11.81 per cent. The total area of the province was 8000.00 km2 and the density was 119.01 persons per km2. The highest point in Eritrea, is Mount Soira 3,018 m (9,902 ft), is located in the region, situated east of Senafe. It shares borders with Central Region in the north, Zoba Northern Red Sea in the east, Gash Barka in the west and Ethiopia in the south. It is the largest region in the country by population. (Full article...)

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Credit: Optimist on the run
Eritrean Railway, showing mountainous terrain traversed between Arbaroba and Asmara

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Mountains
Credit: Hansueli Krapf
Mountains between the Eritrean capital city of Asmara and the city of Massawa

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