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Owlet-nightjar

Owlet-nightjars
Temporal range: Early Miocene to present
Barred owlet-nightjar (Aegotheles bennettii)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Clade: Strisores
Clade: Daedalornithes
Order: Aegotheliformes
Worthy et al., 2007
Family: Aegothelidae
Bonaparte, 1853
Genus: Aegotheles
Vigors & Horsfield, 1827
Type species
Caprimulgus novaehollandiae[1]
Latham, 1790
Synonyms
  • Euaegotheles Mathews, 1918
  • Megaegotheles Scarlett, 1968

Owlet-nightjars are small crepuscular birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. Most are native to New Guinea, but some species extend to Australia, the Moluccas, and New Caledonia. A flightless species from New Zealand is extinct. There is a single monotypic family Aegothelidae with the genus Aegotheles.

Owlet-nightjars are insectivores which hunt mostly in the air but sometimes on the ground; their soft plumage is a cryptic mixture of browns and paler shades, they have fairly small, weak feet (but larger and stronger than those of a frogmouth or a nightjar), a tiny bill that opens extraordinarily wide, surrounded by prominent whiskers. The wings are short, with 10 primaries and about 11 secondaries; the tail long and rounded.

Systematics

A comprehensive 2003 study[2] analyzing mtDNA sequences Cytochrome b and ATPase subunit 8 suggests that 11 living species of owlet-nightjar should be recognized, as well as another that became extinct early in the second millennium AD.

The relationship between the owlet-nightjars and the (traditional) Caprimulgiformes has long been controversial and obscure and remains so today: in the 19th century they were regarded as a subfamily of the frogmouths, and they are still generally considered to be related to the frogmouths and/or the nightjars. It appears though that they are not as closely related to either as previously thought, and that the owlet-nightjars share a more recent common ancestor with the Apodiformes.[3] As has been suggested on occasion since morphological studies of the cranium in the 1960s,[4] they are thus considered a distinct order, Aegotheliformes. This, the caprimulgiform lineage(s), and the Apodiformes, are postulated to form a clade called Cypselomorphae, with the owlet-nightjars and the Apodiformes forming the clade Daedalornithes.

In form and habits, however, they are very similar to both caprimulgiform group – or, at first glance, to small owls with huge eyes. The ancestors of the swifts and hummingbirds, two groups of birds which are morphologically very specialized, seem to have looked very similar to a small owlet-nightjar, possessing strong legs and a wide gape, while the legs and feet are very reduced in today's swifts and hummingbirds, and the bill is narrow in the latter.

Owlet-nightjars are an exclusively Australasian group, but close relatives apparently thrived all over Eurasia in the late Paleogene.

Taxonomy

Phylogeny of Aegothelidae[5]
Aegotheles

Family Aegothelidae[6]

  • Genus Quipollornis Rich & McEvey 1977 (Early/Middle Miocene of New South Wales)
    • Quipollornis koniberi Rich & McEvey 1977
  • Genus Aegotheles

A fossil proximal right tarsometatarsus (MNZ S42800) was found at the Bannockburn Formation of the Manuherikia Group near the Manuherikia River in Otago, New Zealand. Dating from the Early to Middle Miocene (Altonian, 19-16 million years ago), it seems to represent an owlet-nightjar ancestral to A. novaezealandiae.[7] In 2022, an additional specimen from the same locality was described by Worthy et al. as a new extinct species of Aeotheles, A. zealandivetus. The holotype specimen is NMNZ S.52917, a distal right tarsometatarsus.[8]

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Apodidae". aviansystematics.org. The Trust for Avian Systematics. Retrieved 2023-08-05.
  2. ^ Dumbacher et al. (2003)
  3. ^ Mayr (2002)
  4. ^ Simonetta (1967)
  5. ^ Boyd, John (2007). "STRISORES II- Apodiformes". John Boyd's website. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  6. ^ "Comparison of IOC 8.1 with other world lists". IOC World Bird List. v8.1. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  7. ^ Worthy et al. (2007)
  8. ^ Worthy, Trevor H.; Scofield, R. Paul; Salisbury, Steven W.; Hand, Suzanne J.; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Archer, Michael (2022-04-05). "Two new neoavian taxa with contrasting palaeobiogeographical implications from the early Miocene St Bathans Fauna, New Zealand". Journal of Ornithology. 163 (3): 643–658. doi:10.1007/s10336-022-01981-6. ISSN 2193-7206. S2CID 247993690.

References

  • Dumbacher, John P. ; Pratt, Thane K. & Fleischer, Robert C. (2003): Phylogeny of the owlet-nightjars (Aves: Aegothelidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 29(3): 540–549. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00135-0 PDF fulltext
  • Mayr, Gerald (2002): Osteological evidence for paraphyly of the avian order Caprimulgiformes (nightjars and allies). J. Ornithol. 143(1): 82–97. doi:10.1007/BF02465461 PDF fulltext
  • Simonetta, A.M. (1967): Cinesi e morfologia del cranio negli Uccelli non passeriformi. Studio su varie tendenze evolutive. Part II – Striges, Caprimulgiformes ed Apodiformes ["Cranial kinesis and morphology of non-passerine birds. Study of various evolutionary tendencies. Part II – Striges, Caprimulgiformes and Apodiformes"]. [In Italian[verification needed]] Archivio Zoologico Italiano 52: 1–35.
  • Worthy, Trevor H.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Jones, C.; McNamara, J.A. & Douglas, B.J. (2007): Miocene waterfowl and other birds from central Otago, New Zealand. J. Syst. Palaeontol. 5(1): 1–39. doi:10.1017/S1477201906001957 (HTML abstract)
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Owlet-nightjar
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