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Over rate

Scoreboard showing the bowling team's over rate achieved compared to the required minimum ('MINUS ONE').
Scoreboard showing the bowling team's over rate achieved compared to the required minimum ('MINUS ONE').

An over rate is the average number of overs bowled per hour by the bowling team in cricket.[1][2] When calculated by Test match officials, allowances are made for wickets taken (2 mins per wicket), drinks breaks (4 mins each), DRS reviews, treatment for injuries, and other reasons,[3] which means the figure is higher than if calculated simply as the number of overs bowled divided by the number of hours of play.

In the highest levels of cricket, bowling sides are expected to achieve a minimum over rate. Bowling teams that have failed to achieve the minimum over rate have had points deducted,[4][5] the players fined,[6] or the captain suspended for future matches.[7] In international cricket and some leagues, the over rate penalty is that the fielding team is restricted to having fewer fielders in the outfield, making it easier for the batting team to hit boundaries.[8][9] It has been suggested that penalty runs could be imposed.[10]

Minimum levels

In Test cricket, bowling sides are expected to bowl a minimum of 15 overs per hour.[2]

In ODIs, bowling sides are expected to bowl the 50 overs in 3.5 hours, equivalent to a minimum over rate of 14.28 overs per hour.[11]

In T20Is, bowling sides are expected to bowl the 20 overs in 1 hour 25 minutes, equivalent to a minimum over rate of 14.11 overs per hour.[12]

In The Hundred, innings of 100 balls are scheduled to take no more than 65 minutes, with fielding restrictions in place as a penalty for exceeding this time;[13] this translates to 39 seconds per ball, or 15.38 "traditional" six-ball overs per hour. Unlike other formats of cricket, overs consist of 5 balls each, and 50 seconds are allowed to change ends between overs.

Notable over rate penalties

In the 2017 County Championship, Middlesex were relegated by 1 point after a deduction of 2 points for a slow over rate.[14] The minimum over rate requirement was 16 overs per hour.[5]

In the World Cup 1999, India were fined four overs due to a slow over rate. However, Zimbabwe clinched the victory by 3 runs as India were bowled out in 45 overs.[15]

In the 2019–21 ICC World Test Championship, Australia were deducted 4 points for a slow over rate in the second Test against India on 29 December 2020. This ended up resulting in Australia not qualifying for the final, as it reduced their final percentage of points won from 70% (336/480) to 69.2% (332/480). This put them below New Zealand, who achieved 70%. Australia would have finished above New Zealand, in 2nd place, and thus qualified for the final, if the two countries had tied on 70%, due to Australia's superior Runs Per Wicket Ratio.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Over-rate definitions". yourdictionary.com. Retrieved 8 August 2020. (cricket) The average number of overs completed per hour
  2. ^ a b "ICC Men's Test Match Playing Conditions Effective 1 September 2019". International Cricket Council. Retrieved 2 August 2020. 12.9.1 The minimum over rate to be achieved in Test Matches shall be 15 overs per hour.
  3. ^ "ICC Men's Test Match Playing Conditions Effective 1 September 2019". International Cricket Council. Section 12.9 Minimum Over Rates. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  4. ^ "South Africa docked six WTC points, fined 60% match fees for slow over rate". ESPN. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Cricket Discipline Commission upholds Middlesex's two-point penalty". ECB. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2020. The two-point deduction from Middlesex CCC for a slow over rate will stand... it is noted that the requirement of 16 overs per hour is a minimum rate
  6. ^ "India cop over-rate fine for the second time in two matches". ESPN. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 2 August 2020. After picking up a first over-rate offence in nearly six years, India have got two in two games, with the team fined 20 percent of their match fees for a slow over-rate in the fifth and final T20I against New Zealand.
  7. ^ "Cook handed one-match suspension". ESPN. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2020. Alastair Cook will miss the fourth one-day international against Sri Lanka after being handed a one-match suspension for England's slow over-rate in Hambantota on Wednesday.
  8. ^ "Slow over-rate penalty - extra fielder inside circle to be introduced in ODIs too". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  9. ^ "Four, not five fielders allowed outside inner circle for slow over rate in T20Is". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  10. ^ "World Cricket Committee endorses run penalties to keep over-rates in check". Wisden. 12 August 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2020. "The committee feels that in-match five-run penalties would be the best deterrent to slow over rates," a statement said.
  11. ^ "ICC Men's One Day International Playing Conditions Effective 1 August 2019" (PDF). International Cricket Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 2 August 2020. 12.7.1 To be determined by the Home Board subject to there being 2 sessions of 3.5 hours each... 12.8.1 The minimum over rate to be achieved in ODI Matches shall be 14.28 overs per hour.
  12. ^ "ICC Men's Twenty20 International Playing Conditions Effective 28 October 2019". International Cricket Council. Retrieved 2 August 2020. 12.7.1 To be determined by the Home Board subject to there being 2 sessions of 1 hour 25 minutes each... 12.8.1 The minimum over rate to be achieved in T20I Matches shall be 14.11 overs per hour.
  13. ^ "Register". inews.co.uk. Retrieved 16 September 2023.
  14. ^ "Middlesex: Somerset 'preparing legal case' against ECB if points deduction reversed". BBC Sport. 12 October 2017.
  15. ^ "India vs Zimbabwe, 8th Match, Leicester, May 19 1999, ICC World Cup". ESPNcricinfo. 19 May 1999.
  16. ^ "How Australia can reach World Test Championship final". cricket.com.au. 3 February 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2021. Australia's tardy over rate against India in this summer's Boxing Day Test has come back to bite them and could well cost them a spot in the World Test Championship (WTC) final... Had Australia not lost those four WTC points for their over rate offences, their PCT rises to 70 and they would be tied with New Zealand. However, the Australians hold a better "runs per wicket" ratio which the ICC uses as its first tiebreaker, putting Australia into second spot – and a place in the WTC final.
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Over rate
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