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Oswald Spengler

Oswald Spengler
Born
Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler

(1880-05-29)29 May 1880
Died8 May 1936(1936-05-08) (aged 55)
Alma materUniversity of Munich
University of Berlin
University of Halle
Notable workThe Decline of the West (1918, 1922)
Era20th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolContinental philosophy
Goethean science[1][2]
Conservative Revolution
ThesisDer metaphysische Grundgedanke der heraklitischen Philosophie (1904)
Doctoral advisorAlois Riehl
Main interests
Aesthetics
Philosophy of history
Philosophy of science
Political philosophy
Signature

Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (German: [ˈɔsvalt ˈʃpɛŋlɐ]; 29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a German polymath, whose areas of interest included history, philosophy, mathematics, science, and art, as well as their relation to his organic theory of history. He is best known for his two-volume work The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes), published in 1918 and 1922, covering human history. Spengler's model of history postulates that human cultures and civilizations are akin to biological entities, each with a limited, predictable, and deterministic lifespan.

Spengler predicted that about the year 2000, Western civilization would enter the period of pre‑death emergency whose countering would lead to 200 years of Caesarism (extra-constitutional omnipotence of the executive branch of government) before Western civilization's final collapse.[5]

Spengler is regarded as a German nationalist and a critic of republicanism, and he was a prominent member of the Weimar-era Conservative Revolution. The Nazis had viewed his writings as a means to provide a "respectable pedigree" to their ideology,[6] Spengler later criticized Nazism due to its excessive racialist elements. He saw Benito Mussolini, and entrepreneurial types, like the mining magnate Cecil Rhodes,[7] as examples of the impending Caesars of Western culture—later showcasing his disappointment of Mussolini's colonialist adventures.[8]

Biography

Early life and family

Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was born on 29 May 1880 in Blankenburg, Duchy of Brunswick, German Empire, the oldest surviving child of Bernhard Spengler (1844–1901) and Pauline Spengler (1840–1910), née Grantzow, the descendant of an artistic family.[9][10] Oswald's elder brother was born prematurely in 1879, when his mother tried to move a heavy laundry basket, and died at the age of three weeks. Oswald was born ten months after his brother's death.[11] His younger sisters were Adele (1881–1917), Gertrud (1882–1957), and Hildegard (1885–1942).[9] Oswald's paternal grandfather, Theodor Spengler (1806–1876), was a metallurgical inspector (Hütteninspektor) in Altenbrak.[12]

Spengler's maternal great-grandfather, Friedrich Wilhelm Grantzow, a tailor's apprentice in Berlin, had three children out of wedlock with a Jewish woman named Bräunchen Moses (c. 1769–1849) whom he later married, on 26 May 1799.[13] Shortly before the wedding, Moses was baptized as Johanna Elisabeth Anspachin; the surname was chosen after her birthplace—Anspach.[14] Her parents, Abraham and Reile Moses, were both deceased by then. The couple had another five children,[13] one of whom was Spengler's maternal grandfather, Gustav Adolf Grantzow (1811–1883)—a solo dancer and ballet master in Berlin, who in 1837 married Katharina Kirchner (1813–1873), a solo dancer from a Munich Catholic family;[14] the second of their four daughters was Oswald Spengler's mother Pauline Grantzow.[15] Like the Grantzows in general, Pauline was of a Bohemian disposition, and, before marrying Bernhard Spengler, accompanied her dancer sisters on tours. In appearance, she was plump. Her temperament, which Oswald inherited, was moody, irritable, and morose.[16]

Education

When Oswald was ten years of age, his family moved to the university city of Halle. Here he received a classical education at the local Gymnasium (academically oriented secondary school), studying Greek, Latin, mathematics and sciences. Here, too, he developed his propensity for the arts—especially poetry, drama, and music—and came under the influence of the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Nietzsche.[1] At 17, he wrote a drama titled Montezuma.[10]

After his father's death in 1901, Spengler attended several universities (Munich, Berlin, and Halle) as a private scholar, taking courses in a wide range of subjects. His studies were undirected. In 1903, he failed his doctoral thesis on Heraclitus—titled Der metaphysische Grundgedanke der heraklitischen Philosophie (The Fundamental Metaphysical Thought of the Heraclitean Philosophy) and conducted under the direction of Alois Riehl—because of insufficient references. He took the doctoral oral exam again and received his PhD from Halle on 6 April 1904. In December 1904, he began to write the secondary dissertation (Staatsexamensarbeit) necessary to qualify as a high school teacher. This became The Development of the Organ of Sight in the Higher Realms of the Animal Kingdom (Die Entwicklung des Sehorgans bei den Hauptstufen des Tierreiches), a text now lost.[17] It was approved and he received his teaching certificate. In 1905, Spengler suffered a nervous breakdown.

Career

Spengler briefly served as a teacher in Saarbrücken then in Düsseldorf. From 1908 to 1911 he worked at a grammar school (Realgymnasium) in Hamburg, where he taught science, German history, and mathematics. Biographers report that his life as a teacher was uneventful.[citation needed]

In 1911, following his mother's death, he moved to Munich, where he would live for the rest of his life. He lived as a cloistered scholar, supported by his modest inheritance. Spengler survived on very limited means and was marked by loneliness. He owned no books, and took work as a tutor or wrote for magazines to earn additional income. Due to a severe heart problem, Spengler was exempted from military service.[10] During the war, his inheritance was useless because it was invested overseas; thus, he lived in genuine poverty for this period.[citation needed]

He began work on the first volume of The Decline of the West intending to focus on Germany within Europe. The Agadir Crisis of 1911 affected him deeply, though, so he widened the scope of his study. According to Spengler the book was completed in 1914, but the first edition was published in the summer of 1918, shortly before the end of World War I.[18] Spengler wrote about the years immediately prior to World War I in Decline:

At that time the World-War appeared to me both as imminent and also as the inevitable outward manifestation of the historical crisis, and my endeavor was to comprehend it from an examination of the spirit of the preceding centuries—not years. ... Thereafter I saw the present—the approaching World-War—in a quite other light. It was no longer a momentary constellation of casual facts due to national sentiments, personal influences, or economic tendencies endowed with an appearance of unity and necessity by some historian's scheme of political or social cause-and-effect, but the type of historical change of phase occurring within a great historical organism of definable compass at the point preordained for it hundreds of years ago.[19]

When the first volume of The Decline of the West was published, it was a wild success.[a] Spengler became an instant celebrity.[18] The national humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles (1919), followed by economic depression in 1923 and hyperinflation, seemed to prove Spengler right. Decline comforted Germans because it could be used as a rationale for their diminished pre-eminence, i.e. due to larger world-historical processes. The book met with wide success outside of Germany as well, and by 1919 had been translated into several other languages.[citation needed]

The second volume of Decline was published in 1922. In the second volume, Spengler argued that German socialism differed from Marxism; instead, he said it was more compatible with traditional German conservatism. Spengler declined an appointment as Professor of Philosophy at the University of Göttingen, saying he needed time to focus on writing.[citation needed]

The book was widely discussed, even by those who had not read it. Historians took umbrage at his unapologetically non-scientific approach. Novelist Thomas Mann compared reading Spengler's book to reading Schopenhauer for the first time. Academics gave it a mixed reception. Sociologist Max Weber described Spengler as a "very ingenious and learned dilettante", while philosopher Karl Popper called the thesis "pointless". Both volumes of Decline were published in English by Alfred A. Knopf in 1926.[citation needed]

Aftermath

In 1924, following the social-economic upheaval and hyperinflation, Spengler entered politics in an effort to bring Reichswehr General Hans von Seeckt to power as the country's leader. The attempt failed and Spengler proved ineffective in practical politics.[citation needed]

A 1928 Time review of the second volume of Decline described the immense influence and controversy Spengler's ideas enjoyed during the 1920s: "When the first volume of The Decline of the West appeared in Germany a few years ago, thousands of copies were sold. Cultivated European discourse quickly became Spengler-saturated. Spenglerism spurted from the pens of countless disciples. It was imperative to read Spengler, to sympathize or revolt. It still remains so".[20]

Spengler in 1929

In 1931, he published Man and Technics, which warned against the dangers of technology and industrialism to culture. He especially pointed to the tendency of Western technology to spread to hostile "Colored races" which would then use the weapons against the West.[21] It was poorly received because of its anti-industrialism.[citation needed] This book contains the well-known Spengler quote "Optimism is cowardice".[22]

Despite voting for Hitler over Hindenburg in 1932, Spengler found the Führer vulgar. He met Hitler in 1933 and after a lengthy discussion remained unimpressed, saying that Germany did not need a "heroic tenor" [: one of several conventional tenor classifications] but a real hero ". He quarreled publicly with Alfred Rosenberg, and his pessimism and remarks about the Führer resulted in isolation and public silence. He further rejected offers from Joseph Goebbels to give public speeches. However, Spengler did become a member of the German Academy that year.[citation needed]

The Hour of Decision, published in 1934, was a bestseller, but was later banned for its critique of National Socialism. Spengler's criticisms of liberalism[23] were welcomed by the Nazis, but Spengler disagreed with their biological ideology and anti-Semitism.[24] While racial mysticism played a key role in his own worldview, Spengler had always been an outspoken critic of the racial theories professed by the Nazis and many others in his time, and was not inclined to change his views during and after Hitler's rise to power.[25] Although a German nationalist, Spengler viewed the Nazis as too narrowly German, and not occidental enough to lead the fight against other peoples. The book also warned of a coming world war in which Western Civilization risked being destroyed, and was widely distributed abroad before eventually being banned by the National Socialist German Workers Party in Germany. A Time review of The Hour of Decision noted Spengler's international popularity as a polemicist, observing that "When Oswald Spengler speaks, many a Western Worldling stops to listen". The review recommended the book for "readers who enjoy vigorous writing", who "will be glad to be rubbed the wrong way by Spengler's harsh aphorisms" and his pessimistic predictions.[26]

Later life and death

On 13 October 1933, Spengler became one of the hundred senators of the German Academy.[27][28]

Spengler spent his final years in Munich, listening to Beethoven, reading Molière and Shakespeare, buying several thousand books, and collecting ancient Turkish, Persian and Indian weapons. He made occasional trips to the Harz mountains and to Italy.

Spengler died of a heart attack on 8 May 1936, in Munich, at age 55.[29]

Views

Influences

In the introduction to The Decline of the West, Spengler cites Johann W. von Goethe and Friedrich Nietzsche as his major influences. Goethe's vitalism and Nietzsche's cultural criticism, in particular, are highlighted in his works.[30]

I feel urged to name once more those to whom I owe practically everything: Goethe and Nietzsche. Goethe gave me method, Nietzsche the questioning faculty…[31]

Spengler was also influenced by the universal and cyclical vision of world history proposed by the German historian Eduard Meyer.[30] The belief in the progression of civilizations through an evolutionary process comparable with living beings can be traced back to classical antiquity, although it is difficult to assess the extent of the influence those thinkers had on Spengler: Cato the Elder, Cicero, Seneca, Florus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and later, Francis Bacon, who compared different empires with each other with the help of biological analogies.[32]

The Decline of the West (1918)

The concept of historical philosophy developed by Spengler is founded upon two assumptions:

  • the existence of social entities called 'Cultures' (Kulturen) and regarded as the largest possible actors in human history, which itself had no metaphysical sense,
  • the parallelism between the evolution of those Cultures and the evolution of living beings.

Spengler enumerates nine Cultures: Ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Indian, Chinese, Greco-Roman or 'Apollonian', 'Magian' or 'Arabic' (including early and Byzantine Christianity and Islam), Mexican, Western or 'Faustian', and Russian. They interacted with each other in time and space but were distinctive due to 'internal' attributes. According to Spengler, "Cultures are organisms, and world-history is their collective biography."[33]

'Mankind'… has no aim, no idea, no plan, any more than the family of butterflies or orchids. 'Mankind' is a zoological expression, or an empty word. … I see, in place of that empty figment of one linear history which can only be kept up by shutting one’s eyes to the overwhelming multitude of the facts, the drama of a number of mighty Cultures, each springing with primitive strength from the soil of a mother region to which it remains firmly bound throughout its whole life-cycle; each stamping its material, its mankind, in its own image; each having its own idea, its own passions, its own life, will and feeling, its own death.[34]

Spengler also compares the evolution of Cultures to the different ages of human life, "Every Culture passes through the age-phases of the individual man. Each has its childhood, youth, manhood and old age." When a Culture enters its late stage, Spengler argues, it becomes a 'Civilization' (Zivilisation), a petrified body characterized in the modern age by technology, imperialism, and mass society, which he expected to fossilize and decline from the 2000s onward.[35] The first-millennium Near East was, in his view, not a transition between Classical Antiquity, Western Christianity, and Islam, but rather an emerging new Culture he named 'Arabian' or 'Magian', explaining messianic Judaism, early Christianity, Gnosticism, Mandaeism, Zoroastrianism, and Islam as different expressions of a single Culture sharing a unique worldview.[36]

The great historian of antiquity Eduard Meyer thought highly of Spengler, although he also had some criticisms of him. Spengler's obscurity, intuitiveness, and mysticism were easy targets, especially for the positivists and neo-Kantians who rejected the possibility that there was meaning in world history. The critic and aesthete Count Harry Kessler thought him unoriginal and rather inane, especially in regard to his opinion on Nietzsche. Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, however, shared Spengler's cultural pessimism. Spengler's work became an important foundation for social cycle theory.[37]

Prussianism and Socialism (1919)

In late 1919, Spengler published Prussianism and Socialism (Preußentum und Sozialismus), an essay based on notes intended for the second volume of The Decline of the West in which he argues that German socialism is the correct socialism in contrast to English socialism.[38] In his view, correct socialism has a much more "national" spirit.[39]

According to Spengler, the West will spend the next and last several hundred years of its existence in a state of Caesarian socialism, when all humans will be synergized into a harmonious and happy totality by a dictator, like an orchestra is synergized into a harmonious totality by its conductor.[40]

According to some recent critics such as Ishay Landa, "Prussian socialism" has some decidedly capitalistic traits.[41] Spengler declares himself resolutely opposed to labor strikes (Spengler describes them as "the unsocialistic earmark of Marxism"), trade unions ("wage-Bolshevism" in Spengler's terms), progressive taxation or any imposition of taxes on the rich ("dry Bolshevism"), any shortening of the working day (he argues that workers should work even on Sundays), as well as any form of government insurance for sickness, old age, accidents, or unemployment.[41]

Nazism and Fascism

Spengler was an important influence on Nazi ideology. He "provided skeletal Nazi ideas" to the early Nazi movement "and gave them a respectable pedigree".[42] Key parts of his writings were incorporated into Nazi Party ideology.[42]

Spengler's criticism of the Nazi Party was taken seriously by Hitler, and Carl Deher credited him for inspiring Hitler to carry out the Night of the Long Knives in which Ernst Röhm and other leaders of the Sturmabteilung (SA) were executed.[42] In 1934, Spengler pronounced the funeral oration for one of the victims of the Night of the Long Knives and retired in 1935 from the board of the highly influential Nietzsche Archive which was viewed as opposition to the regime.[25]

Spengler considered Judaism to be a "disintegrating element" (zersetzendes Element) that acts destructively "wherever it intervenes" (wo es auch eingreift). In his view, Jews are characterized by a "cynical intelligence" (zynische Intelligenz) and their "money thinking" (Gelddenken).[43] Therefore, they were incapable of adapting to Western culture and represented a foreign body in Europe. He also clarifies in The Decline of the West that this is a pattern shared in all civilizations: He mentions how the ancient Jew would have seen the cynical, atheistic Romans of the late Roman empire the same way Westerners today see Jews. Alexander Bein argues that with these characterizations Spengler contributed significantly to the enforcement of Jewish stereotypes in pre-WW2 German circles.[44]

Spengler viewed Nazi anti-Semitism as self-defeating, and personally took an ethnological view of race and culture.[42] In his private papers, he remarked upon "how much envy of the capability of other people in view of one's lack of it lies hidden in anti-Semitism!", and arguing that "when one would rather destroy business and scholarship than see Jews in them, one is an ideologue, i.e., a danger for the nation. Idiotic."[24]

Spengler, however, regarded the transformation of ultra-capitalist mass democracies into dictatorial regimes as inevitable, and he had expressed some sympathy for Benito Mussolini and the Italian Fascist movement as a first symptom of this development.[25]

Legacy

Spengler influenced other academics, including historians Arnold J. Toynbee,[45] Carroll Quigley, and Samuel P. Huntington.[citation needed] Others include fascist ideologues Francis Parker Yockey and Oswald Mosley.[46] John Calvert notes that Oswald Spengler's criticism of Western civilisation remains popular among Islamists.[47]

Works

  • Der metaphysische Grundgedanke der heraklitischen Philosophie [The Fundamental Metaphysical Idea of the Philosophy of Heraclitus] (in German), 1904
  • Der Untergang des Abendlandes: Umrisse einer Morphologie der Weltgeschichte [The Decline of the West: Outlines of a Morphology of world history], Gestalt und Wirklichkeit; Welthistorische Perspektiven (in German), 1918–22, 2 vols. – The Decline of the West; an Abridged Edition by Helmut Werner (tr. by C.F. Atkinson).[48][49]
  • Preussentum und Sozialismus, 1920, Translated 1922 as Prussianism And Socialism by C.F. Atkinson (Prussianism and Socialism).
  • Pessimismus?, G. Stilke, 1921.
  • Neubau des deutschen Reiches, 1924.
  • Die Revolution ist nicht zu Ende, 1924.
  • Politische Pflichten der deutschen Jugend; Rede gehalten am 26. Februar 1924 vor dem Hochschulring deutscher Art in Würzburg, 1925.
  • Der Mensch und die Technik, 1931 (Man and Technics: A Contribution to a Philosophy of Life, tr. C.F. Atkinson, Knopf, 1932).[50][51][52]
  • Politische Schriften, 1932.
  • Jahre der Entscheidung, 1934 (The Hour of Decision tr. C.F. Atkinson)(The Hour of Decision).[53]
  • Reden und Aufsätze, 1937 (ed. by Hildegard Kornhardt) – Selected Essays (tr. Donald O. White).
  • Gedanken, c. 1941 (ed. by Hildegard Kornhardt) – Aphorisms (translated by Gisela Koch-Weser O’Brien).
  • Briefe, 1913–1936, 1963 [The Letters of Oswald Spengler, 1913–1936] (ed. and tr. by A. Helps).
  • Urfragen; Fragmente aus dem Nachlass, 1965 (ed. by Anton Mirko Koktanek and Manfred Schröter).
  • Frühzeit der Weltgeschichte: Fragmente aus dem Nachlass, 1966 (ed. by A. M. Koktanek and Manfred Schröter).
  • Der Briefwechsel zwischen Oswald Spengler und Wolfgang E. Groeger. Über russische Literatur, Zeitgeschichte und soziale Fragen, 1987 (ed. by Xenia Werner).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The original Preface is dated December 1917 and ends with Spengler expressing hope that "his book would not be unworthy of German military achievements".

References

  1. ^ a b Hughes 1991, p. 59.
  2. ^ Peter E. Gordon, John P. McCormick (eds.), Weimar Thought: A Contested Legacy, Princeton University Press, 2013, p. 136.
  3. ^ Coogan, Kevin (1999). Dreamer of the Day: Franis Parker Yockey and the Fascist International. Brooklyn, New York.: Autonomedia. p. 168. ISBN 1-57027-039-2.
  4. ^ Dreher (12 February 2020). "Burroughs and Ginsberg Q & A Berlin 1976 – 3". allenginsberg.org. Allen Ginsberg Project. Archived from the original on 26 May 2023. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  5. ^ Holton, Gerald James (2000). Einstein, History, and Other Passions: The Rebellion Against Science at the End of the Twentieth Century. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00433-7.
  6. ^ Dreher, Carl. "Spengler and the Third Reich". VQR. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  7. ^ The Decline of the West, Alfred A. Knopf. Volume 1, page 37, Atkinson's Translation.
  8. ^ Letters of Oswald Spengler page 305, Alfred A. Knopf, 1966, Translation Arthur Helps. Here Spengler is quite critical of Mussolini's involvement in Abyssinia, saying: "Mussolini has lost the calm statesmanlike superiority of his first years...".
  9. ^ a b Naeher 1984, p. 19.
  10. ^ a b c Engels 2019, p. 4.
  11. ^ Koktanek, Anton Mirko, Oswald Spengler in seiner Zeit, Beck, 1968, p. 10
  12. ^ Koktanek, Anton Mirko, Oswald Spengler in seiner Zeit. Beck, 1968, p. 3, 517
  13. ^ a b Awerbuch, Marianne; Jersch-Wenzel, Stefi (1992). Bild und Selbstbild der Juden Berlins zwischen Aufklärung und Romantik [Image and self-image of the Jews of Berlin between the Enlightenment and Romanticism] (in German). Berlin: Colloquium. p. 91. ISBN 9783767808058.
  14. ^ a b Koktanek, Anton Mirko, Oswald Spengler in seiner Zeit. Beck, 1968, p. 5
  15. ^ Spengler, Oswald (2007). Ich beneide jeden, der lebt [I envy anyone who lives] (in German). Lilienfeld. p. 126. ISBN 9783940357021.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  16. ^ Fischer, Klaus P., History and Prophecy: Oswald Spengler and The Decline of the West. P. Lang, 1989, p. 27
  17. ^ Mark Sedgwick (ed.), Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy, Oxford University Press, 2019, p. 17.
  18. ^ a b Engels 2019, p. 5.
  19. ^ Spengler, Oswald. The Decline of the West. V. 1, Alfred A. Knopf, 1926, pp. 46–47.
  20. ^ "Patterns in Chaos". Time Magazine. 10 December 1928. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  21. ^ Hughes 1991.
  22. ^ Spengler, Oswald; Atkinson, Charles Francis (1932). Man and technics; a contribution to a philosophy of life; translated from the German by Charles Francis Atkinson. A.A. Knopf.
  23. ^ Tate, Allen (1934). "Spengler's Tract Against Liberalism," The American Review April 1934.
  24. ^ a b Farrenkopf 2001, pp. 237–38.
  25. ^ a b c Engels 2019, p. 6.
  26. ^ "Spengler Speaks". Time Magazine. 12 February 1934. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  27. ^ Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Karl-Marx-Universität Leipzig. V. 17, 1968, p. 71
  28. ^ Mitteilungen Archived 5 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine. Deutsche Akademie, 1936, p. 571. "Dr. Oswald Spengler, München, Senator der Deutschen Akademie"
  29. ^ Hughes 1991, p. 136.
  30. ^ a b Engels 2019, p. 7.
  31. ^ Spengler, Oswald. The Decline of the West. V. 1, Alfred A. Knopf, 1926, p. xiv.
  32. ^ Engels 2019, pp. 7–8.
  33. ^ Engels 2019, pp. 8–9.
  34. ^ Spengler, Oswald. The Decline of the West. V. 1, Alfred A. Knopf, 1926, p. 21.
  35. ^ Engels 2019, p. 10.
  36. ^ Engels 2019, pp. 11–12.
  37. ^ Losev, Alexander (2012). "Morphological Investigations: Wittgenstein and Spengler". Philosophia: e-Journal of Philosophy and Culture. 4. Sophia, Bulgaria: Sophia University: 79–82. ISSN 1314-5606. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  38. ^ Lewis, B.J. (2017) Spengler's Prussian Socialism Archived 28 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine. European Review, Academia Europaea,25 (3). pp. 479–93. ISSN 1062-7987, University of Sheffield
  39. ^ Campbell, Joan (14 July 2014). Joy in Work, German Work: The National Debate, 1800-1945. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400860371.
  40. ^ Spengler, Oswald. Prussianism and Socialism. 1919. Translated by Donald O. White
  41. ^ a b Landa, Ishay (2012). The Apprentice's Sorcerer: Liberal Tradition and Fascism. Haymarket Books. pp. 60–65.
  42. ^ a b c d Dreher, Carl. "Spengler and the Third Reich". VQR. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  43. ^ Ulrich Wyrwa: Spengler, Oswald. In: Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus. Bd. 2: Personen. De Gruyter Saur, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-44159-2
  44. ^ Alexander Bein: „Der jüdische Parasit“ Archived 9 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine. In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, 13 (1965), Heft 2, p. 150.
  45. ^ Joll, James (1985). "Two Prophets of the Twentieth Century: Spengler and Toynbee". Review of International Studies. 11 (2): 91–104. doi:10.1017/S026021050011424X. ISSN 0260-2105. JSTOR 20097037. S2CID 145705005.
  46. ^ Richard, Thurlow (2006). Fascism in Britain: Oswald Mosley's Blackshirts to the National Front. I. B. Tauris. p. 28. ISBN 978-1860643378.
  47. ^ Calvert, John (2008). Islamism : a documentary and reference guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-313-33856-4. OCLC 145396710.
  48. ^ Falke, Konrad. "A Historian's Forecast," The Living Age, Vol. 314, September 1922.
  49. ^ Stewart, W. K. (1924). "The Decline of Western Culture," The Century Magazine, Vol. CVIII, No. 5.
  50. ^ Mumford, Lewis (1932). "The Decline of Spengler," The New Republic, 9 March.
  51. ^ Dewey, John (1932). "Instrument or Frankenstein?," The Saturday Review, 12 March.
  52. ^ Vasilkovsky, G. "Oswald Spengler's 'Philosophy of Life'," The Communist, April 1932.
  53. ^ Reis, Lincoln (1934). "Spengler Declines the West," The Nation, 28 February.

Sources

Further reading

In foreign languages

  • Baltzer, Armin. Philosoph oder Prophet? Oswald Spenglers Vermächtnis und Voraussagen [Philosopher or Prophet?], Verlag für Kulturwissenschaften, 1962.
  • Caruso, Sergio. La politica del Destino. Relativismo storico e irrazionalismo politico nel pensiero di Oswald Spengler [Destiny's politics. Historical relativism & political irrationalism in Oswald Spengler's thought]. Firenze: Cultura 1979.
  • Caruso, Sergio. "Minoranze, caste e partiti nel pensiero di Oswald Spengler". In Politica e società. Scritti in onore di Luciano Cavalli, ed. by G. Bettin. Cedam: Padova 1997, pp. 214–82.
  • Felken, Detlef. Oswald Spengler; Konservativer Denker zwischen Kaiserreich und Diktatur. Munich: CH Beck, 1988.
  • Messer, August. Oswald Spengler als Philosoph, Strecker und Schröder, 1922.
  • Reichelt, Stefan G. "Oswald Spengler". In: Nikolaj A. Berdjaev in Deutschland 1920–1950. Eine rezeptionshistorische Studie. Universitätsverlag: Leipzig 1999, pp. 71–73. ISBN 3-933240-88-3.
  • Schroeter, Manfred. Metaphysik des Untergangs: eine kulturkritische Studie über Oswald Spengler, Leibniz Verlag, 1949.
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