For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Oromo people.

Oromo people

Oromoo (Oromo)
Karrayyu Oromo in a traditional attire.
Regions with significant populations
 Ethiopia25,489,000 (2007)[1]
 Kenya656,636 (2019)[2]
 Sudan105,000 (2022)[3]
 Somalia41,600 (2000)[4]
 United States40,000[5]
 Australia4,310 (2021)[6]
 Canada3,350 (2016)[7]
Islam (55–60%), Christianity (40–45%), Traditional religion (Waaqeffanna) (up to 3%)[8]
Related ethnic groups
SomaliSidamaGabraRendille • other Cushitic peoples[9][10]

The Oromo people (pron. /ˈɒrəm/ ORR-əm-oh[11] Oromo: Oromoo) are a Cushitic ethnic group native to the Oromia region of Ethiopia and parts of Northern Kenya.[12] They speak the Oromo language (also called Afaan Oromoo), which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family.[12] They are one of the largest ethnic groups in Ethiopia.[13] According to the last Ethiopian census of 2007, the Oromo numbered 25,488,344 people or 34.5% of the Ethiopian population.[14] Recent estimates have the Oromo comprising 45,000,000 people, or 35.8% of the total Ethiopian population estimated at 116,000,000.[15]

The Oromo were originally nomadic, semi-pastoralist people who later would conquer large swaths of land during their expansions.[16][17] After the settlement, they would establish kingdoms in the Gibe regions[18][19] and dynasties in Abyssinia.[20][21] The Oromo people traditionally used the gadaa system as the primary form of governance.[22][23] A leader is elected by the gadaa system and their term lasts eight years, with an election taking place at the end of those eight years.[24][25][26] Although most modern Oromos are Muslims and Christians, about 3% practice Waaqeffanna, the native ancient Cushitic monotheistic religion of Oromos.[27]

Origins and nomenclature

Historical linguistics and comparative ethnology studies suggest that the Oromo people probably originated around the lakes Lake Chew Bahir and Lake Chamo.[28][29] They are a Cushitic people and prior to their expansions, they inhabited only the region of what is now modern-day north Kenya and southern Ethiopia.[30] The aftermath of the sixteenth century Ethiopian–Adal war led Oromos to move to the north.[31][32] While Oromo people have lived in the region for a long time, the ethnic mixture of peoples who have lived here is unclear.[33] The Oromos increased their numbers through assimilation (Meedhicca, Mogasa and Gudifacha), as well as the inclusion of mixed peoples (Gabbaro).[33] The native names of the territories were replaced by the name of the Oromo clans who settled on it while the indigenous people were assimilated.[33][34][35][36]

Sketched during the British Expedition to Abyssinia of 1867–68, Queen of the "Galla" and Son.

Subsequent colonial era documents mention and refer to the Oromo people as Galla,[37] which has now developed derogatory connotations, but these documents were generally written by members of other ethnic groups.[38][39][29] According to Herbert S. Lewis, both the Oromo and the Somali people originated in southern Ethiopia but the Somali expanded to the east and north much earlier than the Oromo, and the Oromo lived only in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya until the Oromo expansion began about 1530.[29] Historical evidence suggests that the Oromo people were already established in the southern highlands in or before the 15th century and that at least some Oromo people were interacting with other Ethiopian ethnic groups.[40] According to Alessandro Triulzi, the interactions and encounters between Oromos and Nilo-Saharan groups likely began very early.[33] The term Galla was in use for Oromo people by the Abyssinians, Arabs, and Nilotic people.[41] The original meaning of the term is heavily disputed. An outdated but popular theory among European historians during the 19th century regarding the origin of the term was the belief that it derives from the Hebrew (חלב) and Greek (Gála), milk, due to the outdated belief that the Oromos were lost white men.[42][43] This name theory was especially popular among German historians who once believed that the Oromo were related to the ancient Gallic tribe in France.[44] Another outdated theory of its origin comes from the belief that the Oromos rejected the offer to convert to Islam by Muhammad as their official religion, thus the prophet giving them the name Qal la or هو قال لا meaning "he said no".[45][42] Some sources claim it was a term for a river and a forest, as well as for the pastoral people established in the highlands of southern Ethiopia.[40] This historical information, according to Mohammed Hassen, is consistent with the written and oral traditions of the Somalis.[41] Others, such as the International African Institute, suggests that it is an Oromo word (adopted by neighbors), for there is a word, gala, meaning 'wandering' or 'to go home' in their language.[46][47] Canadian philosophical professor, Claude Sumner, stated that the French explorer and Ethiopian traveler, Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie, claimed that the term had derived from an Oromo war cry whilst the Oromos were fighting on battlefields.[47] The word Oromo is derived from Ilm Orma meaning '[The] Children of Orma',[48] or 'Sons of Strangers',[49] or 'Man, stranger'.[50] The first known use of the word Oromo to refer to the ethnic group is traceable to 1893.[51][28][52]

A sketch of Eduard Zander's wife and her son.


The earliest recorded mention of the Oromos comes from the Italian (Venetian) cartographer Fra Mauro, who notes a Galla River south of the Awash River, in his famous Mappomondo, or map of the world, completed in 1460. This reference indicates that the Oromos inhabited this area of southern Ethiopia for at least a century and a half before their expansion north. As early as the 12th century, all aspects of Oromo life was governed by the Gadaa system, a political and ritual system based on an egalitarian ethos, age grade social organization and highly structured institutions. Under Gadaa, every eight years, the Oromo would choose by consensus nine leaders known as Salgan ya’ii Borana (the nine Borana assemblies).[53][54] A leader elected by the gadaa system remains in power only for 8 years, with an election taking place at the end of those 8 years.[24][25][26] Whenever an Abbaa Gadaa dies while exercising his functions, the bokkuu (the symbol of power) passes to his wife and she keeps the bokkuu and proclaims the laws.[55][56]

The first detailed history of the Oromo people comes from the Ethiopian monk Bahrey who wrote Zenahu la Galla, or "History of the Galla" in 1593.[57][58] They are also mentioned in the records left by Abba Paulos, Joao Bermudes, Jerónimo Lobo, Galawdewos, Sarsa Dengel and others. These records suggest that the Oromo were a pastoralist people who began to move in large numbers into the central highlands of Ethiopia from their cradleland in the plains of southern Ethiopia during the 14th - 16th century. This large scale expansion is referred to as the "Great Oromo Migrations". Prior to this movement, the Oromos were divided into two major confederations, the Boorana and the Barento, who lived in the west and east of the Rift Valley respectively.[57] The Barento moved in a eastern direction, eventually settling in today's Arsi, Bale, Hararghe and Wollo regions. Whereas the Boorana trekked northwest, settling in the regions of Shewa, Illubabor and Welega.[57][59][60]

According to Richard Pankhurst, a British-born Ethiopian historian, this expansion is linked to the attempted conquest of the Ethiopian Empire by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim, which created a political and military vacuum that allowed the Oromo to move relatively unhindered into both the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate.[61] Further, they acquired horses and their gada system helped coordinate Oromo cavalry warriors which enabled them to fight very effectively. Bahrey argues the success of the Oromos in battle was because all Oromo men were trained as warriors, while in Ethiopia only a small section of the population were warriors, the rest uninvolved in the defense of their country. The military discipline of the Oromos was noted by the Portuguese chronicler Joao Bermudes, who observed that during the invasion of Dawaro, the Oromos "did not come on without order like barbarians, but advanced collected in bodies, like squadrons."[62][63]

The early 16th and 17th century witnessed the gradual integration of the Oromo into the Ethiopian Empire. Emperor Susenyos I, who came to power with Oromo support, did much to integrate them into the political establishment of the Christian state. Having grown up among the Oromo, he was fluent in their language and admired their way of life. He employed Oromo warriors, military tactics and combat formations against his rivals for the throne. Once in power, he filled high level offices with his Oromo supporters and settled various Oromo groups throughout much of Gojjam and Begemder. Under Susenyos's successors, many Oromos would continue to rise to positions of prominence in imperial service, and for a period even change the official language of the empire from Amharic to Oromiffa during the rule of the half-Oromo emperor Iyoas I. They would establish dynasties such as the Yejju dynasty that would be de facto rulers of Ethiopian Empire from 1784 to 1853 during the Zemene Mesafint, they would particularly have control over the provinces of Begemder and Gojjam. Another Oromo dynasty that would rise in the northern Ethiopian highlands was the Islamic Warra Himano (1580–1916), which transformed Wollo into a veritable Islamic state in the heartland of Christian Ethiopia. The Warra Himano would convert many Amhara Christians to Islam during its rule, and at the zenith of its power, the Warra Himano had their hegemony accepted in the various parts of Wollo: Ambasel, Qallu, Borena, Wore-Illu and Amhara Sayint. Notable rulers such as Ras Mikael of Wollo and the uncrowned emperor of Ethiopia, Lij Iyasu (1913–1916), descend from this ruling family.[64][62]

Map showing the location of the five Oromo kingdoms in the Gibe region.

In the late 16th century the Oromos had settled in the territories south of the Abay river in western Ethiopia. Within 60 years of their arrival, five Oromo states would emerge in the Gibe region, such as Gera, Gomma, Gumma, Jimma and Limmu-Ennarea. These states arose through the transformation of pastoralism to agriculture due to the fertile and adequately watered land of the region. This increased the importance of agriculture and led to the subsequent rise of a land owning class. The rich natural environment produced commodities that were in high demand and lead to the rise of a strong merchant class. These changes allowed the gadaa officials to acquire more authority and convert their elective offices into permeant monarchical institutions. In the eastern part of the country, especially in Arsi, Bale and Hararghe, The Oromo who lived within the immediate periphery of the city of Harar adopted agriculture as their primary occupation, mostly to engage in trade with the inhabitants of the walled city. According to oral and literary evidence, certain Somali and Oromo clans fought each other throughout the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, particularly near their eastern borders.[18][65][66][67]

A sketch by Charles-Xavier Rochet d'Héricourt depicting an Oromo horse riding warrior, 1841.

The French traveler, Charles-Xavier Rochet d'Héricourt, visited Ethiopia in 1863,[68] and was greeted by Sahle Selassie, the ruler of Shewa. During his time there, he observed the different ethnicities within Ethiopia, which one of them were the Oromo people.[69] He described them as such:

"[The] Galla breed is the most beautiful in Africa; it is not originally from Abyssinia; she came there by invasion, as we will see below in the history that I will give of the Kingdom of Choa (Shewa). The Gallas are, in general, well built, they have a tall figure, a broad and raised forehead, an aquiline nose, a well-cut mouth, a copper complexion rather than black; their hair is braided into small braids which float around their heads, and mix something graceful with the expressive and noble character of their physiognomy: accustomed, from their most tender youth, to ride horses, to carry the butcher and the spear, they are excellent horsemen and insensitive to the harshest fatigue; full of courage and valor in combat, they showed themselves, in their fields, skillful and laborious farmers: this great nation, because we can call it that could led by an enterprising leader, make itself master of the whole of Africa."[70]

In the last quarter of the 19th century, the Oromo tribes and kingdoms fell under the rule of Menelik II of Shewa. Beginning in the 1870s, the Kingdom of Shewa annexed one Oromo territory after the other with unpreceded speed owing to the modern weapons acquired from the international arms trade and the disunity among various Oromo groups. The manner this conquest was carried out determined the form of administrations that was subsequently set up in the newly conquered areas. In areas where the Shewans encountered resistance, such as Arsi, the conquering generals were installed as governors and the Amhara soldiers or neftenya settled the region in military garrisons known as katamas which later become the administrative centers for Shewan rule. These officials and soldier-settlers lived off the land of the locals, who soon became serfs to the Shewan aristocrats. In the areas were the Oromos submitted peacefully, such as the Kingdom of Jimma, the indigenous rulers were made tributaries to the crown but were allowed to self-govern themselves with minimal interference from the central government. During Haile Selassie's rule, many Oromos lost their autonomous status granted to them by Menelik, Haile Selassie abolished the semi-independent status of many Oromo states and began to undergo a period of centralization. Pastoralists were evicted to make way for mechanized farming and the few members of the educated Oromo class were prevented from holding powerful positions, instead being held by assimilated or Amharized Oromo notables. Despite the great contribution of the Oromo regions to the Ethiopian economy, Oromos areas were left out of the modernization projects during the reign of Haile Selassie.[67]

This discontent emanating from the political marginalization, economic exploitation and the cultural domination of the Oromo led to the rise of the Mecha and Tulama Self-Help Association in 1963, ostensibly for organizing Oromo self-help, but in fact to promote Oromo identity and fight the marginalization of the Oromo. The Mecha and Tulama Association was soon disbanded by the government, but its impact was significant. The movement raised the consciousness of the Oromo regrading the significance of their own cultural and historical contributions and their status as a people within the Ethiopian state.[67]


The Oromos are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia (35.8% of the population),[13] numbering about 40 million.[13] They are predominantly concentrated in the Oromia Region in central Ethiopia, the largest region in the country by both population and area. They speak Afaan Oromoo, the official language of Oromia.[71] Oromos constitute the third most populous ethnic group among Africans as a whole and the most populous among Horners specifically.[72]

Oromo also have a notable presence in northern Kenya in the Marsabit County, Isiolo County and Tana River County totaling to about 656,636: 276,236 Borana, 141,200 Gabra, 158,000 Orma, 45,200 Sakuye, 20,000 Waata, and 16,000 Munyo Yaya. There are also Oromo in the former Wollo and Tigray provinces of Ethiopia.[73]


The Oromo consist of two major branches that break down into an assortment of clan families. From west to east: the Borana Oromo, also called the Booranaa, are a semi-pastoralist group living in southern Oromia and northern Kenya.[74][75] The Borana inhabit the Borena Zone of the Oromia Region of Ethiopia and the former Northern Frontier District (now northern Kenya) of Northern Kenya.[74][76] They speak a dialect of Afaan Oromo, the Oromo language.[76] Barentu/Barentoo or (older) Baraytuma is the other moiety of the Oromo people. The Barentu Oromo inhabit the eastern parts of the Oromia Region in the Zones of West Hararghe, Arsi Zone, Bale Zone, Dire Dawa city, the Jijiga Zone of the Somali Region, Administrative Zone 3 of the Afar Region, Oromia Zone of the Amhara Region, and are also found in the Raya Azebo Aanaas in the Tigray Region.


Oromo is written with Latin characters known as Qubee. The Sapalo script was invented by the Oromo scholar Sheikh Bakri Sapalo (also known by his birth name, Abubaker Usman Odaa) during the 1950s.[77] Oromo serves as one of the official languages of Ethiopia[78] and is also the working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system including Oromia,[79] Harari and Dire Dawa regional states and of the Oromia Zone in the Amhara Region. It is a language of primary education in Oromia, Harari, Dire Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz and of the Oromia Zone in the Amhara Region. It is used as an internet language for federal websites along with Tigrinya.[80][81]

More than 35% of Ethiopia's population are Oromo mother-tongue speakers, which makes it the most widely spoken primary language in Ethiopia.[79][82] It is also the most widely spoken Cushitic language and the fourth-most widely spoken language of Africa, after Arabic, Hausa and Swahili.[83] Oromo is spoken as a first language by more than 40 million Oromo people in Ethiopia and by an additional half-million in parts of northern and eastern Kenya.[84] It is also spoken by smaller numbers of emigrants in other African countries, such as South Africa, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Besides first language speakers, a number of members of other ethnicities who are in contact with the Oromo speak it as a second language, such as the Omotic-speaking Bambassi[85] and the Nilo-Saharan-speaking Kwama[86] in western Ethiopia.


The Oromo followed their traditional religion, Waaqeffanna, and were resistant to religious conversion before assimilation in sultanates and Christian kingdoms.[28][27][35][36] The influential 30-year war from 1529 to 1559 between the three parties – the Oromo who followed Waaqeffanna, the Christians and the Muslims – dissipated the political strengths of all three. The religious beliefs of the Oromo people evolved in this socio-political environment.[35] In the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, Protestant or Catholic missionaries' efforts spread Christianity among the Oromo. Organizations included the Sudan Interior Mission, the Bible Churchmen's Missionary Society, the Seventh-Day Adventists, the United Presbyterian Mission of the USA, the Church Mission to the Jews, Evangeliska Fosterlands-Stiftelsen, Bibeltrogna Vänner, and the Hermannsburg Mission.[87]

An Arsi Oromo attending an Irreechaa celebration

In the mid and late 19th century, the Ethiopian emperors were faced with widespread rifts and disputes in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and crippling ethnic and religious divisions that plagued the empire and exposed it to the intervention and meddling of neighboring Muslims (especially Egypt and the Ottoman Empire) and European powers. The emperors that ruled in that period, Tewodros II, Yohannes IV, and Menelik II, thus strove to suppress disunion and schism both within and without the Ethiopian Church and were often intolerant towards other religions. The Wollo Oromo, the Arsi Oromo, and the Tulama Oromo were among those who violently clashed with the Ethiopian expansion in the region in the 19th century and the empire's attempts at enforcing unity through the propagation of Orthodox Christianity, as the majority of these groups were not Christian but Muslims.[88][89]

In the 2007 Ethiopian census for Oromia region, which included Oromo and some non-Oromo residents, there was a total of 13,107,963 followers of Christianity (8,204,908 Orthodox, 4,780,917 Protestant, 122,138 Catholic), 12,835,410 followers of Islam, 887,773 followers of traditional religions, and 162,787 followers of other religions. Accordingly, the Oromia region is approximately 40% to 45% Christian (8,204,908 or 30.4% Orthodox, 4,780,917 or 17.7% Protestant, 122,138 Catholic), 55% to 60% Muslim and 3.3% followers of traditional religions.[90]

According to a 2016 estimate by James Minahan, about half of the Oromo people are Sunni Muslim, a third are Ethiopian Orthodox, and the rest are mostly Protestants or follow their traditional religious beliefs.[91] The traditional religion is more common in southern Oromo populations and Christianity more common in and near the urban centers, while Islam is more common near the Somali border and in the north.[73]


Oromo dishes

The Oromos' cuisine consists of various vegetable and meat side dishes and entrées. Pork is typically not in Oromo cuisine, as it's considered taboo for Orthodox Oromos and Muslim Oromos who make up over 90% of the population combined, unlike with Catholics among others. Oromo people are believed to be one of the first to have cultivated Coffee in Ethiopia and recognise it's energizing effect.[92]

Typical Oromo cuisine: Biddena (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of sauce, stew (slow cooked beef, lamb, goat, chicken) and on top of entrees.
A Foon Akaawwii: Foon Akaawwii looks like this at a restaurant in Addis Ababa
  • Foon Akaawwii – Minced roasted meat; specially seasoned.
  • Waaddii – Outdoor grilled meat on heat bead or wood fire.
  • Anchotte – A common dish in the western part of Oromia (Wallaga), made from a tuber crop rich in starch.
  • Baduu – Liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained (cheese)
  • MaarqaaPorridge made from wheat, honey, milk, chili and spices.
  • Chechebsaa – Shredded Injera stir-fried with chili powder and cheese.
  • Qoocco – Also known as kocho, it is not the Gurage type of kocho but a different kind; a common dish in the western part of Oromia.
  • Itto – Comprises all sorts of vegetables (tomato, potato, ginger, garlic), meat (lamb)
  • Chukkoo – Also known as Micira; a sweet flavor of whole grain, seasoned with butter and spices.[93]
  • Chororsaa – A spiced mixture of cheeses, butter, and yogurt, topped on a bread made from black teff known as 'Chumboo'. A common dish in western parts of Oromia such as Welega Province, typically used in weddings or other celebrations.
  • Ukkaamssa (Affaanyii) – Stewed ground beef with spices, minced onion, garlic, green chili pepper, and clarified butter.[94]
  • Dokkee – A common dish throughout Oromia state.
  • Qince – Similar to Maarqaa but made from shredded grains as opposed to flour.
  • Qorso (Akaayii) – A snack made by roasting barley seeds[95]
  • Dadhii – A drink made from honey.
  • Farsho – Beer-like Beverage, made from barley.
  • BunaEthiopian Coffee[96]



Gadaa flag

Oromo people have governed themselves in accordance with the Gadaa system long before the 16th century. The system regulates the political, economic, social and religious activities of the community.[97] Oromo were traditionally a culturally homogeneous society with genealogical ties.[98] A male born in the Oromo clan went through five stages of eight years, where his life established his role and status for consideration to a Gadaa office.[98] Every eight years, the Oromo would choose by consensus nine leaders for the office.[53][54] A leader elected by the Gadaa system remains in power only for eight years, with an election taking place at the end of those eight years.[24][25][26]

There are three Gadaa organs of governance: Gadaa Council, Gadaa General Assembly (gumi gayo), and the Qallu Assembly. The Gadaa Council is considered the collective achievement of the members of the Gadaa class. It is responsible for coordinating irreecha. The Gadaa General Assembly is the legislative body of the Gadaa government, while the Qallu Assembly is the religious institution.[99]


The Oromo people developed a lunisolar calendar; different geographically and religiously distinct Oromo communities use the same calendar. This calendar is sophisticated and similar to ones found among the Chinese, the Hindus and the Mayans. It was tied to the traditional religion of the Oromos, and used to schedule the Gadaa system of elections and power transfer.[100]

Previous 5000 m world record holder Tirunesh Dibaba of Ethiopia running the London marathon

The Borana Oromo calendar system was once thought to be based upon an earlier Cushitic calendar developed around 300 BC found at Namoratunga. Reconsideration of the Namoratunga site led astronomer and archaeologist Clive Ruggles to conclude that there is no relationship.[101] The new year of the Oromo people, according to this calendar, falls in the month of October.[102] The calendar has no weeks but a name for each day of the month. It is a lunar-stellar calendar system.[103][104]


Some modern authors such as Gemetchu Megerssa have proposed the concept of Oromumma, or 'Oromoness' as a cultural common between Oromo people.[105] The word is derived by combining Oromo with the Arabic term ummah (community). However, according to Terje Østebø and other scholars, this term is a neologism from the late 1990s and its link Oromo ethno-nationalism and Salafi Islamic discourse has been questioned, in their disagreement with Christian Amhara and other ethnic groups.[106]

The Oromo people, depending on their geographical location and historical events, have variously converted to Islam, to Christianity, or remained with their traditional religion (Waaqeffanna). According to Gemetchu Megerssa, the subjective reality is that "neither traditional Oromo rituals nor traditional Oromo beliefs function any longer as a cohesive and integral symbol system" for the Oromo people, not just regionally but even locally.[105] The cultural and ideological divergence within the Oromo people, in part from their religious differences, is apparent from the constant impetus for negotiations between broader Oromo spokespersons and those Oromo who are Ahl al-Sunna followers, states Terje Østebø.[107] The internally evolving cultural differences within the Oromos have led some scholars such as Mario Aguilar and Abdullahi Shongolo to conclude that "a common identity acknowledged by all Oromo in general does not exist".[108]

Social stratification

This photo represents the varieties of dress and hairstyle of the Oromo culture.The child sitting in front of the group is dressed in Guji Oromo clothing. The four girls at the back, from left to right, are dressed in Harar, Kamise, Borena and Shewa styles and all are Oromo style

Like other ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa and East Africa, Oromo people regionally developed social stratification consisting of four hierarchical strata. The highest strata were the nobles called the Borana; below them were the Gabbaro (some 17th- to 19th-century Ethiopian texts refer them as the dhalatta). Below these two upper castes were the despised castes of artisans, and at the lowest level were the slaves.[109]

In the Islamic Kingdom of Jimma, the Oromo society's caste strata predominantly consisted of endogamous, inherited artisanal occupations.[110][111][112][113] Each caste group has specialized in a particular occupation such as iron working, carpentry, weapon making, pottery, weaving, leather-working and hunting.[114][111]

Each caste in the Oromo society had a designated name. For example, Tumtu were smiths, Fuga were potters, Faqi were tanners and leatherworkers, Semmano were weavers, Gagurtu were beekeepers and honey-makers, and Watta were hunters and foragers.[110][115][116] While slaves were a stratum within the society, many Oromos, regardless of caste, were sold into slavery elsewhere. By the 19th century, Oromo slaves were sought after and a major part of slaves sold in Gondar and Gallabat slave markets at Ethiopia-Sudan border, as well as the Massawa and Tajura markets on the Red Sea.[117][118] There was also a large slave market at al Hudaydah on the coast of Yemen.[119]


Oromo villagers in the Oromia Region

The Oromo people are engaged in many occupations. The southern Oromo (specifically the Borana Oromo) are largely pastoralists who raise goats and cattle. Other Oromo groups have a more diverse economy which includes agriculture and work in urban centers. Some Oromo also sell many products and food items like coffee beans (coffee being a favorite beverage among the Oromo) at local markets.[120]

Contemporary era

Human rights issues

In December 2009, a 96-page report titled "Human Rights in Ethiopia: Through the Eyes of the Oromo Diaspora", compiled by the Advocates for Human Rights, documented human rights violations against the Oromo in Ethiopia under three successive regimes: the Ethiopian Empire under Haile Selassie, Marxist Derg and the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), dominated by members of the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) and which was accused to have arrested approximately 20,000 suspected OLF members, to have driven most OLF leadership into exile, and to have effectively neutralized the OLF as a political force in Ethiopia.[121]

According to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the Oromia Support Group (OSG) recorded 594 extrajudicial killings of Oromos by Ethiopian government security forces and 43 disappearances in custody between 2005 and August 2008.[122]

Starting in November 2015, during a wave of mass protests, mainly by Oromos, over the expansion of the municipal boundary of the city of Addis Ababa into Oromia, over 500 people have been killed and many more have been injured, according to human-rights advocates and independent monitors.[123][124] The protests have since spread to other ethnic groups and encompass wider social grievances.[124] Ethiopia declared a state of emergency in response to Oromo and Amhara protests in October 2016.

With the rising political unrest, there was ethnic violence involving the Oromo such as the Oromo–Somali clashes between the Oromo and the ethnic Somalis, leading to up to 400,000 displaced in 2017.[125] Gedeo–Oromo clashes between the Oromo and the Gedeo people in the south of the country and continued violence in the Oromia-Somali border region led to Ethiopia having the largest number of people in the world fleeing their homes in 2018, with 1.4 million newly displaced people.[126] In September 2018, in the minority protest that took place in Oromia near Addis Ababa, 23 people were killed following the deaths of 43 Oromos in the Addis Ababa neighborhood of Saris Abo.[127] Some have blamed the rise in ethnic violence in the Oromia Special Zone Surrounding Finfinne on the Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed for giving space to groups formerly banned by previous Tigrayan-led governments, such as the Oromo Liberation Front and Ginbot 7.[128]

Protests broke out across Ethiopia, chiefly in the Oromia region, following the assassination of musician Hachalu Hundessa on 29 June 2020, leading to the deaths of at least 200 people.[129] On 30 June 2020, a statue of former Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie in London was destroyed by Oromo protestors[130] in response to the killing of popular singer Hachalu Hundessa and grievances of the Oromo language being banned from education, and the use in administration under the Haile Selassie regime.[131][132][133]

Political organizations

The Oromo have played a major role in the internal dynamics of Ethiopia.[134] Accordingly, Oromos played major roles in all three main political movements in Ethiopia (centralist, federalist and secessionist) during the 19th and 20th century. In addition to holding high powers during the centralist government and the monarchy, the Raya Oromos in the Tigray regional state played a major role in the Weyane revolt, challenging Emperor Haile Selassie I 's rule in the 1940s.[135] Simultaneously, both federalist and secessionist political forces developed inside the Oromo community.[citation needed]

At present a number of ethnic-based political organizations have been formed to promote the interests of the Oromo. The first was the Mecha and Tulama Self-Help Association was founded in January 1963, but was disbanded by the government after several increasingly tense confrontations in November 1966.[136] Later groups include the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM), the United Liberation Forces of Oromia (ULFO), the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromia (IFLO), the Oromia Liberation Council (OLC), the Oromo National Congress (ONC, recently changed to OPC) and others. Another group, the Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO), is one of the four parties that form the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) coalition. The ONC, for example, was part of the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces coalition that challenged the EPRDF in the Ethiopian general elections of 2005.[citation needed]

Several of these groups seek to create an independent Oromo nation, some using armed force.[137][138] Meanwhile, the ruling OPDO and several opposition political parties in the Ethiopian parliament believe in ethnic federalism. However, most Oromo opposition parties in Ethiopia condemn the economic and political inequalities in the country.[139][140] Progress toward independence started in the 1960s[141] and 70s,[138][142] but progress has been slow aside from the creation of Oromo-focused banks, notably the Oromo-owned Awash International Bank in 1994[143][144] and the Oromia Bank (formerly Oromia National Bank) established in 2008.[145]

Flag of the Oromo Liberation Front and the Oromo Liberation Army, respectively the OLF and OLA.

Radio broadcasts began in the Oromo language in Somalia in 1960 on Radio Mogadishu.[146] Within Kenya there has been radio broadcasting in Oromo (in the Borana dialect) on the Voice of Kenya since at least the 1980s.[147] Broadcasting in Oromo began in Ethiopia during the 1974 revolution, in which Radio Harar began broadcasting.[148][149] The first private Afaan Oromoo newspaper in Ethiopia, Jimma Times, also known as Oromo: Yeroo, was recently[when?] established, but it has faced a lot of harassment and persecution from the Ethiopian government since its beginning.[150][151][152] Abuse of Oromo media is widespread in Ethiopia and reflective of the general oppression Oromos face in the country.[153]

Various human rights organizations have publicized the government persecution of Oromos in Ethiopia for decades. In 2008, the OFDM opposition party condemned the government's indirect role in the death of hundreds of Oromos in western Ethiopia.[154] According to Amnesty International, "between 2011 and 2014, at least 5000 Oromos have been arrested based on their actual or suspected peaceful opposition to the government. These include thousands of peaceful protestors and hundreds of opposition political party members. The government anticipates a high level of opposition in Oromia, and signs of dissent are sought out and regularly, sometimes pre-emptively, suppressed. In numerous cases, actual or suspected dissenters have been detained without charge or trial, killed by security services during protests, arrests and in detention."[155]

According to Amnesty International, there is a sweeping repression in the Oromo region of Ethiopia.[155] On 12 December 2015, the German broadcaster Deutsche Welle reported violent protests in the Oromo region of Ethiopia in which more than 20 students were killed. According to the report, the students were protesting against the government's re-zoning plan named 'Addis Ababa Master Plan'.

On 2 October 2016, between 55 and 300 festival-goers were massacred at the most sacred and largest event among the Oromo, the Irreechaa cultural thanksgiving festival.[156] In one day, dozens were killed and many injured. Every year, millions of Oromos gather in Bishoftu for this annual celebration. That year Ethiopian security forces responded to peaceful protests by firing tear gas and live bullets at over two million people surrounded by a lake and cliffs. In the week that followed, angry youth attacked government buildings and private businesses. On 8 October, the government responded with an abusive and far-reaching state of emergency, which was lifted in August 2017.[157] During the state of emergency, security forces arbitrarily detained over 21,000 people.[158]

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ "Census 2007" Archived February 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ "Population and Housing Census: Ethnic Affiliation". Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2019. 210,000 Borana, 110,500 Gabra,85,000 Orma, 45,200 Sakuyye and 20,000 Waata
  3. ^ "Oromo, West Central". Ethnologue. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  4. ^ "Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Somalia".
  5. ^ "Oromo Community of Minnesota | CareerForce".
  6. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics 2021, Census of Population and Housing: Cultural diversity data summary, 2021, 28 June 2022, Archived 10 November 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. 8 February 2017. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  8. ^ "Ethiopia and the Oromo People: Is it possible to determine whether an Ethiopian is an ethnic Oromo by the individual's last name? What religion or religions are practiced by ethnic Oromos in Ethiopia". UNHCR Refworld. United States Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services. 28 April 1998.
  9. ^ Joireman, Sandra F. (1997). Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa: The Allocation of Property Rights and Implications for Development. Universal-Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 1-58112-000-1.
  10. ^ Sarah Tishkoff; et al. (2009). "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans" (PDF). Science. 324 (5930): 1035–44. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  11. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  12. ^ a b Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 6 April 2010. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  13. ^ a b c "Ethiopia", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 14 December 2022, retrieved 24 December 2022
  14. ^ Central Statistical Agency, Ethiopia. "Table 2.2 Percentage Distribution of Major Ethnic Groups: 2007" (PDF). Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Census Results. United Nations Population Fund. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  15. ^ "Ethiopia". 16 October 2023.
  16. ^ Mohammed, Hassen (19 May 2017). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia, 1300-1700. Boydell & Brewer, Limited. ISBN 978-1-84701-161-9. OCLC 962017017.
  17. ^ Pankhurst, Richard (1997). The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. The Red Sea Press. ISBN 9780932415196.
  18. ^ a b Paul Trevor William Baxter, Jan Hultin, Alessandro Triulzi. "Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries'. Nordic Africa Institute (1996) pp. 123–124
  19. ^ Described in detail in G.W.B. Huntingford, The Galla of Ethiopia; the Kingdoms of Kafa and Janjero (London: International African Institute, 1955), pp. 55ff
  20. ^ Shiferaw Bekele, The State in the Zamana Masafent (1786-1853), p. 25
  21. ^ Molla Tikuye, The Rise and Fall of The Yajju Dynasty (1784–1980), p. 199
  22. ^ "Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO". Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  23. ^ Harold G. Marcus A History of Ethiopia. University of California Press (1994) pp. 55 Google Books
  24. ^ a b c John Ralph Willis (2005). Slaves and Slavery in Africa: Volume Two: The Servile Estate. Routledge. pp. 122–127, 129–134, 137. ISBN 978-1-135-78017-3.
  25. ^ a b c John Ralph Willis (2005). Slaves and Slavery in Africa: Volume Two: The Servile Estate. Routledge. pp. 128–134. ISBN 978-1-135-78016-6.
  26. ^ a b c Ira M. Lapidus (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 483. ISBN 978-1-139-99150-6.
  27. ^ a b Donald N. Levine (2014). Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press. pp. 35–41. ISBN 978-0-226-22967-6.
  28. ^ a b c Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 17–19 with footnotes. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5.
  29. ^ a b c Lewis, Herbert S. (1966). "The Origins of the Galla and Somali". The Journal of African History. 7 (1). Cambridge University Press: 27–46. doi:10.1017/s0021853700006058. ISSN 0021-8537. S2CID 163027084.
  30. ^ Library (U.S.), Army (1967). Africa: Its Problems and Prospects; a Bibliographic Survey. Headquarters, Department of the Army.
  31. ^ Gikes, Patrick (2002). "Wars in the Horn of Africa and the dismantling of the Somali State". African Studies. 2. University of Lisbon: 89–102. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  32. ^ "Frankfurter afrikanistische Blätter". Frankfurt University Library (1). 1989. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  33. ^ a b c d Alessandro Triulzi [in Italian] (1996). Paul Trevor William Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. (ed.). Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 251–256. ISBN 978-91-7106-379-3.
  34. ^ Mekuria Bulcha, Jan Hultin (1996). Paul Trevor William Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. (ed.). Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 55–56, 55–56, 85–90. ISBN 978-91-7106-379-3.
  35. ^ a b c Erwin Fahlbusch (1999). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-90-04-11695-5.
  36. ^ a b Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5.
  38. ^ Ta'a, Tesema (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 17. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  39. ^ Ernesta Cerulli (1956), Peoples of South-west Ethiopia and its Borderland, International African Institute, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-138-23410-9, Chapter: History & Traditions of Origin
  40. ^ a b Mohammed Hassen (2015). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300–1700. Boydell & Brewer (Originally: Cambridge University Press). pp. 66–68, 85, 104–106. ISBN 978-1-84701-117-6.
  41. ^ a b Juxon Barton (September 1924), The Origins of the Galla and Somali Tribes, The Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society, No. 19, pages 6–7
  42. ^ a b Tilstone Beke, Charles (1848). On the Origin of the Gallas. London, England: John E. Taylor. p. 3.
  43. ^ Markham, Clements (1869). A History of the Abyssinian Expedition. London, England: Macmillan. p. 40.
  44. ^ Kanno, Ayalew (2005). An Ancient People in the State of Menelik The Oromo (said to be of Gallic Origin) Great African Nation. Michigan, United States: Ayalew Kanno. p. 373. ISBN 9781599751894.
  45. ^ Mekonnen, Y. K. (2013a). Ethiopia: The land, its people, history and culture. New Africa Press.
  46. ^ Ethnographic Survey of Africa. International African Institute. 1969.
  47. ^ a b Claude Sumner Ethiopian Philosophy: The treatise of Zärʼa Yaʻe̳quo and Wäldä Ḥe̳ywåt Addis Ababa University, (1976) pp. 149 footnotes 312, Quote: "D'Abbadie claimed that the name Galla was explained to him as derived from a war cry, and used by the Gallas of themselves at war."
  48. ^ Mohammed Hassen (2015). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300-1700. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-1-84701-117-6.
  49. ^ "Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gallas" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 413.
  50. ^ "Oromo Archived 30 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine" in the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
  51. ^ Oromo Archived 30 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Merriam-Webster (2014). Quote: "Origin and Etymology of Oromo, (western dialect) oromoo, a self-designation, First known use: 1893."
  52. ^ CF Beckingham and George Huntingford (1967). Some records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646, being extracts from the history of High Ethiopia or Abassia (Series: Oromo Peuple d'Afrique). Kraus Nendeln, Liechtenstein. pp. 1–7. OCLC 195934.
  53. ^ a b Galla, Candace (2012). "Sustaining generations of Indigenous voices: Reclaiming language and integrating multimedia technology". {World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Journal: 46–48.
  54. ^ a b Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5.
  55. ^ "The Gadaa System and Some of Its Institutions among the Booranaa: A Historical Perspective". pp. 91–92.
  56. ^ Pankhurst, Richard. The Ethiopian Borderlands. p. 137.
  57. ^ a b c Richard Pankhurst (1997). The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. The Red Sea Press. pp. 279–280. ISBN 978-0-932415-19-6.
  58. ^ Mohammed Hassen (2015). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300–1700. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 222–225. ISBN 978-1-84701-117-6.
  59. ^ Donald N. Levine (2000). Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press. pp. 78–89. ISBN 978-0-226-47561-5.
  60. ^ W.A. Degu, "Chapter 7 Political Development in the Pre-colonial Horn of Africa" Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, "The State, the Crisis of State Institutions in the Horn of Africa: The Cases of Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia", Thela Thesis (Amsterdam, 2002), page 142
  61. ^ Richard Pankhurst (1997). The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. The Red Sea Press. pp. 281–283. ISBN 978-0-932415-19-6.
  62. ^ a b "Oromo (s. also Galla)", in Siegbert von Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica Volume 4 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2011), p. 303.
  63. ^ Richard Stephen Whiteway (1902). The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia in 1541-1543 as Narrated by Castanhoso. Hakluyt Society. p. 82.
  64. ^ [bare URL PDF]
  65. ^ Aṣma Giyorgis, Bairu Tafla "Aṣma Giyorgis and His Work: History of the Gāllā and the Kingdom of Šawā". Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH (1987) pp. 439 Google Books
  66. ^ Günther Schlee Identities on the Move: Clanship and Pastoralism in Northern Kenya. Manchester University Press (1989) pp. 38–40 Google Books
  67. ^ a b c "Oromo (s. also Galla)", in Siegbert von Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica Volume 4 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2011), p. 304.
  68. ^ Joseph Marie Quérard, « Notice biographique sur Charles Xavier Rochet d'Héricourt », Revue littéraire de la Franche-Comté, 1er novembre 1863
  69. ^ Ethiopia, E. (2021, August 16). Rochet d’Héricourt, Charles-Xavier. Sewasew.,1829%20to%201839%20in%20Egypt
  70. ^ d’Héricourt, R. C.-X. (1841b). Voyage sur la côte orientale de la mer rouge, dans le pays d’adel et le royaume de choa: Par c.-e.-x. Rochet d’Héricourt .. A. Bertrand. p. 174-175
  71. ^ "Oromia Regional State". Ethiopia Government Portal. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  72. ^ Gebrewold, Belachew (2017). "Civil Militias and Militarisation of Society in the Horn of Africa". Civil Militia. Routledge. pp. 187–212. ISBN 978-1-138-25332-2.
  73. ^ a b Oromo people Archived 18 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Britannica
  74. ^ a b "Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji". Archived from the original on 16 January 2009.
  75. ^ Aguilar, Mario (1996). "The Eagle as Messenger, Pilgrim and Voice: Divinatory Processes among the Waso Boorana of Kenya". Journal of Religion in Africa. 26 (1). Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 26, Fasc. 1 (Feb. 1996), pp. 56–72: 56–72. doi:10.1163/157006696X00352. JSTOR 1581894.
  76. ^ a b Steven L. Danver (2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-1-317-46400-6.
  77. ^ Hayward, R. J.; Hassan, Mohammed (1981). "The Oromo Orthography of Shaykh Bakri Saṗalō". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 44 (3): 550–566. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00144209. S2CID 162289324.
  78. ^ Shaban, Abdurahman. "One to five: Ethiopia gets four new federal working languages". Africa News. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  79. ^ a b "The world factbook". 19 October 2021.
  80. ^ "Home". Ministry of Innovation and Technology. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  81. ^ "ቤት | FMOH". Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  82. ^ Language data for Ethiopia, n.d.
  83. ^ "Children's books breathe new life into Oromo language".
  84. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. "Ethnologue Ethiopia". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  85. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. "Ethnologue myf". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  86. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. "Ethnologe kmq". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  87. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch (1999). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-90-04-11695-5.
  88. ^ Hussein Ahmed (25 October 2000). Islam in Nineteenth-Century Wallo, Ethiopia. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-49228-8.
  89. ^ Abbas Gnamo. Conquest and Resistance in the Ethiopian Empire, 1880 – 1974: The Case of the Arsi Oromo. p. 176.
  90. ^ Census (PDF), Ethiopia, 2007, archived from the original (PDF) on 10 February 2016
  91. ^ James B. Minahan (2016). Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. pp. 319–320. ISBN 978-1-61069-954-9.
  92. ^ The world of caffeine : the science and culture of the world's most popular drug, 2001
  93. ^ Ethiopia: Special Cuisines As a Symbol of Oromo Lifestyle, 15 September 2020, retrieved 15 September 2020
  94. ^ TYPES OF OROMO FOODS / RECIPES, 2024, retrieved 9 June 2024
  95. ^ "UNPO: Oromo: Farmer from Ethiopia Mmay be the Oldest Living Person in the World".
  96. ^ "Let Us Talk About Food: Oromo vs. Ethiopian". 7 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  97. ^ "Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo".
  98. ^ a b Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5.
  99. ^ "Chapter 7: The Gadaa Council (Adula)". addis herald. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  100. ^ Said S. Samatar (1992). In the Shadow of Conquest: Islam in Colonial Northeast Africa. The Red Sea Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0-932415-70-7.
  101. ^ Ruggles, Clive (2006). Ancient Astronomy: An Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth. ABC-Clio. pp. 285–286. ISBN 978-1-85109-477-6. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  102. ^ Afe Adogame (2016). The Public Face of African New Religious Movements in Diaspora. Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-317-01863-6.
  103. ^ Clive L. N. Ruggles (2005). Ancient Astronomy: An Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth. ABC-CLIO. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-1-85109-477-6.
  104. ^ Doyle, Laurance R. (1986). "The Borana Calendar Reinterpreted". Current Anthropology. 27 (3): 286–287. doi:10.1086/203439. S2CID 144426218.
  105. ^ a b Gemetchu Megerssa (1996). Paul Trevor William Baxter; et al. (eds.). Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 92–96. ISBN 978-91-7106-379-3.
  106. ^ Terje Østebø (2011). Localising Salafism: Religious Change Among Oromo Muslims in Bale, Ethiopia. BRILL Academic. pp. 292–293 with footnotes. ISBN 978-90-04-18478-7. Orumumma can best be translated as Oromoness, signifying belonging to the Oromo people. (...) neologism introduced by Mekuria Bulcha (1996) and Gemetchu Megersa (1996). (...) Whether this was a result of the larger ethno-nationalist discourse is yet another question.
  107. ^ Terje Østebø (2011). Localising Salafism: Religious Change Among Oromo Muslims in Bale, Ethiopia. BRILL Academic. pp. 301–302 with footnotes. ISBN 978-90-04-18478-7.
  108. ^ Günther Schlee (2002). Imagined Differences: Hatred and the Construction of Identity. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 142–146. ISBN 978-3-8258-3956-7.
  109. ^ Abbink, J. (1985). "Review: Oromo Religion. Myths and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia by Lambert Bartels". Anthropos. 80 (1–3): 285–287. JSTOR 40460901.
  110. ^ a b Herbert S. Lewis (1965). Jimma Abba Jifar, an Oromo Monarchy: Ethiopia, 1830–1932. The Red Sea Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-1-56902-089-0.
  111. ^ a b Haberland, Eike (1993). Hierarchie und Kaste : zur Geschichte und politischen Struktur der Dizi in Südwest-Äthiopien (in German). Stuttgart: Steiner. pp. 105–106, 117–119. ISBN 3-515-05592-4.
  112. ^ Quirin, James (1979). "The Process of Caste Formation in Ethiopia: A Study of the Beta Israel (Felasha), 1270–1868". The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 12 (2). Boston University African Studies Center: 235–258. doi:10.2307/218834. JSTOR 218834.
  113. ^ Haji, Abbas (10 April 1997). "Pouvoir de bénir et de maudire : cosmologie et organisation sociale des Oromo-Arsi". Cahiers d'Études africaines. 37 (146): 289–318. doi:10.3406/cea.1997.3515 – via
  114. ^ Asafa Jalata (2010), Oromo Peoplehood: Historical and Cultural Overview Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Sociology Publications and Other Works, University of Tennessee Press, page 12, see "Modes of Livelihood" section
  115. ^ Donald N. Levine (2014). Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press. pp. 195–196. ISBN 978-0-226-22967-6.
  116. ^ Cerulli, Ernesta (1922). The Folk-Literature of the Oromo of Southern Abyssinia. Harvard African studies. Vol. 3. Istituto Orientale di Napoli, Harvard University Press. pp. 341–355. OCLC 42447447.
  117. ^ William Gervase Clarence-Smith (2013). The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. Routledge. pp. 93–97. ISBN 978-1-135-18214-4.
  118. ^ Ronald Segal (2002). Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. MacMillan. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-374-52797-6.
  119. ^ Ten Years in Abyssinia and Sixteen Years in Syria being the Autobiography of Theophilus Waldmeier p.34
  120. ^ Winston, Robert, ed. (2004). Human: The Definitive Visual Guide. New York: Dorling Kindersley. p. 413. ISBN 0-7566-0520-2.
  121. ^ "Human Rights in Ethiopia: Through the Eyes of the Oromo Diaspora" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  122. ^ "Human rights abuses under EPRDF" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  123. ^ "Ethiopian forces 'kill 140 Oromo protesters'". 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016.
  124. ^ a b "Unrest in Ethiopia: Grumbling and rumbling: Months of protests are rattling a fragile federation". The Economist. 26 March 2016. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  125. ^ "Ethnic violence displaces hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians". 8 November 2017.
  126. ^ "Ethiopia tops global list of highest internal displacement in 2018". Relief Web. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  127. ^ "At least 23 die in weekend of Ethiopia ethnic violence". The Daily Star. 17 September 2018. Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  128. ^ Ahmed, Hadra; Goldstein, Joseph (24 September 2018). "Thousands Are Arrested in Ethiopia After Ethnic Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  129. ^ "Ethiopia arrests suspects over Haacaaluu Hundeessaa killing", Al Jazeera. 10 July 2020.
  130. ^ "Haile Selassie statue destroyed in London park". BBC News. 2 July 2020.
  131. ^ Davey, Melissa (13 February 2016), "Oromo children's books keep once-banned Ethiopian language alive", The Guardian, retrieved 14 February 2016
  132. ^ Language & Culture (PDF)
  133. ^ Ethiopians: Amhara and Oromo, January 2017
  134. ^ "Migrations profoundly affected the Oromo unity". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  135. ^ "Raya Oromos inside the Weyane revolt of Tigray" (PDF). Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  136. ^ Bahru Zewde, "A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855–1991", 2nd edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2001), pp. 261f.
  137. ^ "Ethiopia talks with Oromo rebel group end without deal for a third time". Al Jazeera. 22 November 2023. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  138. ^ a b "Latest peace talks between Ethiopia's government and Oromo militants break up without an agreement". AP News. 21 November 2023. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  139. ^ Mamdani, Mahmood (3 January 2019). "The Trouble With Ethiopia's Ethnic Federalism". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  140. ^ Gebeye, Berihun Adugna (17 March 2023). "The Four Faces of Ethiopian Federalism". Gebeye, Berihun Adugna, the Four Faces of Ethiopian Federalism (March 17, 2023). Faculty of Laws University College London Law Research Paper No. 04/2023. doi:10.2139/ssrn.4392205. S2CID 258121001. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  141. ^ Moges, Zola (24 August 2022). "Oromo nationalism should cross the river of resentment". Ethiopia Insight. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  142. ^ Harter, Fred (12 January 2023). "Ethiopia's Oromia conflict: 'People are dying on a daily basis'". The New Humanitarian. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  143. ^ Observer, Ethiopia (2 March 2018). "Awash bank in lawsuit over unpaid bills". Ethiopia Observer. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  144. ^ The Africa Report; Sisay, Andualem (14 October 2013). "Ethiopia's Awash International Bank : Growth amid challenges – Shiferaw". The Africa Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  145. ^ Teshome, Metasebia (6 December 2021). "Oromia Bank rebrands with excellence in mind". Capital Newspaper. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  146. ^ Thomas Lucien Vincent Blair, Africa: a market profile, (Praeger: 1965), p. 126.
  147. ^ Stroomer, p. 4.
  148. ^ World Radio and Television Handbook. Amsterdam: Radio Data Centre GmbH. 1975. pp. 133, 316, 432.
  149. ^ "All that glitters is not gold: Can Ethiopia's new PM deliver?".
  150. ^ "Govt. continues rejecting license for Jimma Times Afaan Oromoo newspaper". 9 May 2008. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  151. ^ "Ethiopia's "government" attacks Macha-Tulama, Jimma Times media & Oromo opposition party". Archived from the original on 20 May 2008. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  152. ^ "CJFE award nominee". Archived from the original on 25 September 2010.
  153. ^ "Ethiopia's Largest Ethnicity Group Deprived of Linguistic and Cultural Sensitive Media Outlets". Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  154. ^ "OFDM Press Release: The Massacre of May, 2008". Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  155. ^ a b "Ethiopia: 'Because I am Oromo': Sweeping repression in the Oromia region of Ethiopia". 28 October 2014. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  156. ^ "Ethiopia mourns 55 killed during protest at Oromia festival". BBC News. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  157. ^ "Investors shy away from Ethiopia in the wake of violent protests – The Washington Post". Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  158. ^ "Security Force Response to the 2016 Irreecha Cultural Festival". 19 September 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2019.

Further reading

{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Oromo people
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!

Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.


Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?