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Order of the Lion of Finland

Order of the Lion of Finland
  • Suomen Leijonan ritarikunta
  • Finlands Lejons orden
The sash and the breast star of the order
Awarded by  Finland
TypeState order
EstablishedSeptember 11, 1942; 81 years ago (1942-09-11)
CountryFinland
SeatHouse of the Estates[1]
RibbonRed
EligibilityFinnish nationals and foreigners[2]
CriteriaFor significant civilian or military merits[2]
StatusCurrently constituted
FounderRisto Ryti[3]
Grand MasterAlexander Stubb[1]
ChancellorJussi Nuorteva [fi][1]
Vice-ChancellorKari Jordan [fi][1]
Classes
  • Grand Cross
  • First Class Commander
  • Commander
  • First Class Knight
  • Knight
Websiteritarikunnat.fi/language/en
Statistics
First inductionSeptember 28, 1942[4]
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of the Cross of Liberty
Next (lower)Cross of Merit for Finnish Physical Education and Sports

Ribbon of the Order of the Lion of Finland

The Order of the Lion of Finland (Finnish: Suomen Leijonan ritarikunta; Swedish: Finlands Lejons orden) is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the Cross of Liberty and the Order of the White Rose of Finland. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of all three orders. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and at least four members. The orders of the White Rose of Finland and the Lion of Finland have a joint board. The President of Finland wears the Star of the Order of the Lion of Finland.

History

The Order of the Lion of Finland was established on September 11, 1942.[3] At that time, Finland was waging the Continuation War. Wartime diplomacy included a heightened need to decorate particularly foreigners from aligned countries, chiefly Germany. The existing Finnish orders – the Order of the Cross of Liberty and the Order of the White Rose of Finland – could not keep up with the decorations and their highest grades were in danger to become inflated due to too many holders. The Order of the Lion of Finland was thus established to allow the continuation of decorating foreigners with high ranks in Finnish orders,[5] although the Order of the Lion of Finland can also be awarded to Finnish nationals.[6] The new order also allowed for more flexible decorations, taking in account the rank and achievements of the recipients.[7]

In January 1998 President Martti Ahtisaari was criticized by some NGOs, politicians and notable cultural figures because he awarded Commander of the Order of the Lion of Finland to Djamaludin Suryohadikusumo, the Forest Minister of Indonesia, and to Sukanto Tanoto, the main owner of the Indonesian RGM Company, a parent company of the April Company. The April Company was criticized by non-governmental organisations for destroying rainforests, and Indonesia itself was criticized heavily for human right violations, especially in East Timor. Ahtisaari's party chairman Erkki Tuomioja said that giving the medals was questionable since he feared the act may tarnish the public image of Finnish human rights policy. Students of the arts had demonstrations in Helsinki against the decision to give medals.[8][9] Artist Marjatta Hanhijoki [fi] and author Leena Krohn returned their Pro Finlandia medals to protest the Indonesian decorations.[10]

Finnish Olympic and Paralympic medalists are awarded Knight or Knight, First Class, with clasps.[11]

Ambassadors accredited to Helsinki leaving their post are given the Grand Cross provided that their country also awards medals reciprocally.[12]

Classes

The classes of the Order of the Lion of Finland are:

  • Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion of Finland
  • Commander, First Class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland
  • Commander of the Order of the Lion of Finland
  • Pro Finlandia Medal of the Order of the Lion of Finland (awarded to artists and writers)
  • Knight, First Class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland
  • Knight of the Order of the Lion of Finland
  • Cross of Merit of the Order of the Lion of Finland

Recipients

Grand Cross

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (October 2022)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Ritarikuntien organisaatio". Ritarikunnat - Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ja Suomen Leijonan ritarikunnat (in Finnish). January 7, 2022. Retrieved September 22, 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Asetus Suomen Leijonan ritarikunnan perustamisesta" (PDF). Ritarikunnat - Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ja Suomen Leijonan ritarikunnat (in Finnish). Retrieved September 22, 2022.
  3. ^ a b Matikkala 2017a, p. 166.
  4. ^ Matikkala 2017a, p. 169.
  5. ^ Matikkala 2017b, pp. 229–230.
  6. ^ Verkkola, Tuija (December 6, 2003). "Kolmen ritarikunnan vuoropuhelu". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  7. ^ Matikkala, Antti (2018). "Ritarikunnat isänmaan palveluksessa". Kylkirauta (in Finnish). Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  8. ^ Kjellberg, Helena (January 15, 1998). "Mielenosoitus: Kunniamerkit takaisin Indonesiasta". Kotimaa. Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). p. 1. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  9. ^ Iivonen, Jyrki (March 21, 2000). "Ahtisaari saanee vastaehdokkaan UPM:n hallitus- vaaliin". Talous. Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). p. 3. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  10. ^ Kjellberg, Helena (January 16, 1998). "Ahtisaari: Kunniamerkkien myöntäminen Indonesiaan perusteltua". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  11. ^ Mattila, Pasi (December 6, 2018). "Melkein 4 000 suomalaista saa itsenäisyyspäivänä kunniamerkin – keräsimme kuvakatalogin merkeistä, joita voi nähdä linnan juhlien vieraiden rintapielissä". Aamulehti (in Finnish). Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  12. ^ Matikkala 2017a, p. 175.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Matikkala 2017a, p. 491.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Matikkala 2017b, p. 517.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Matikkala 2017b, p. 518.
  16. ^ Matikkala 2017a, p. 245.
  17. ^ Matikkala 2017a, p. 204.
  18. ^ Matikkala 2017a, p. 215.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Matikkala 2017a, p. 492.
  20. ^ a b Matikkala 2017a, p. 247.
  21. ^ "Messuvaltuuskunta Poznanista palannut" (in Finnish). April 30, 1948. p. 12.
  22. ^ "Tshekkoslovakian lähettiläs Suomessa vaihtuu". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). January 10, 1949. p. 1.
  23. ^ "Aikakauslehdentoimittajat ministeri Helon kutsuilla". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). April 30, 1949. p. 4.
  24. ^ "Puolan lähettilään jäähyväiset". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). May 14, 1949. p. 6.
  25. ^ Matikkala 2017b, p. 483.
  26. ^ a b Matikkala 2017a, p. 253.
  27. ^ Matikkala 2017a, p. 246.
  28. ^ "Ministeri Coulet'n jäähyväisaudienssi". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). April 6, 1950. p. 6.
  29. ^ Matikkala 2017a, p. 254.
  30. ^ "Suomen Leijonan suurristi ministeri Seippelille". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). July 2, 1953. p. 6.
  31. ^ Matikkala 2017a, p. 256.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h Matikkala 2017a, p. 493.
  33. ^ "Ministeri Zore jäähyväisaudienssilla tasavallan presidentin luona". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). January 12, 1955. p. 7.
  34. ^ "Suomen Leijonan suurristi Ranskan lähettiläälle". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). July 17, 1955. p. 9.
  35. ^ Matikkala 2017a, p. 258.
  36. ^ a b c d e f "Kunniamerkkejä". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). October 4, 1956. pp. 19–20.
  37. ^ "Suomen Leijonan suurristi ministeri Langerille". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). February 23, 1957. p. 7.

Works cited

  • Matikkala, Antti (2017a). Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ja Suomen Leijonan ritarikunnat (in Finnish). Helsinki: Edita. ISBN 978-951-37-7005-1.
  • Matikkala, Antti (2017b). Kunnian ruletti: Korkeimmat ulkomaalaisille 1941-1944 annetut suomalaiset kunniamerkit (in Finnish). Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura. ISBN 978-952-222-847-5.

Further reading

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Order of the Lion of Finland
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