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Oliver, British Columbia

Oliver
Town of Oliver[1]
Motto(s): 
"Borne of the Waters, Blest by the Sun"
Oliver is located in British Columbia
Oliver
Oliver
Location of Oliver in British Columbia
Coordinates: 49°10′58″N 119°33′5″W / 49.18278°N 119.55139°W / 49.18278; -119.55139
CountryCanada
ProvinceBritish Columbia
RegionSouth Okanagan
Regional districtOkanagan-Similkameen
Village Incorporated1945
Village Founded1921
Town Incorporated1990
Government
 • Governing bodyBand Council, Town Council, RDOS Board
 • Chief/Mayor/DirectorC. Louie, M.Johansen, R.Knodel
Area
 • Town4.88 km2 (1.88 sq mi)
Elevation
310 m (1,020 ft)
Population
 (2016)[2][3]
 • Town4,928
 • Density1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
 • Urban
5,279
Time zoneUTC-8 (PST)
Postal code
V0H 1T0
Area code250 / 778 / 236
Highways Hwy 97
WaterwaysOkanagan River
Websitewww.oliver.ca Edit this at Wikidata

Oliver is a town near the south end of the Okanagan Valley in the Southern Interior of British Columbia, Canada, with a population of nearly 5,000 people. It is located along the Okanagan River by Tuc-el-nuit Lake between Osoyoos and Okanagan Falls, and is labelled as the Wine Capital of Canada by Tourism British Columbia.[4] It was once "The Home of the Cantaloupe" as well as the "Home of the International Horseshow."

The community of Oliver is made up of land governed by three different bodies: the Town of Oliver, the Regional District of Okanagan-Similkameen and the Osoyoos Indian Band.

Local industries include grape and fruit production, agri-tourism, wine production, ranching, golfing and recreation, retail and service trades. Some of the largest employers include Osoyoos Indian Band, School District #53, Interior Health and Okanagan Tree Fruit Cooperative.

Origin of name

Named after John Oliver (1856–1927), Premier of British Columbia. "Honest John" and his government brought irrigation water and settlement lots to the area with the South Okanagan Lands Project.[5]: 198 

The name of the area of this locality in the native Okanagan language is N̓k̓mip.[6]

History

The people of the Syilx Okanagan Nation have lived in the South Okanagan for hundreds if not thousands of years and traditionally moved throughout their large territory to follow seasonal food resources. Many of their camps and village sites were on the shores of the lakes and glacial benches throughout the area. They relied on the river, creeks and valley lakes of the Southern Okanagan for their daily lives.

The first encroachment from European immigrants came circa 1811, when fur traders came to the area with the establishment of Fort Okanagan (now in the US) and first explored the area for trade.

In the 1880s, free gold-bearing quartz was found at Camp McKinney (east of Oliver) which became a busy gold mine, attracting miners and merchants, and boasting a public transportation system. Fairview (just west of Oliver) miners found gold and fueled the growth of a boomtown but it lasted just a few years and no remnants of the town survive today, other than a heritage marker.

  • Established in 1921,[7] Oliver began as a settlement for unemployed veterans of the First World War as part of the Soldier Settlement Act of 1917. A gravity-fed canal was constructed to provide irrigation to the semi-arid area.
  • On January 30, 1919, the South Okanagan Lands Project (SOLP) began work on the Intake Dam at the base of McIntyre Bluff. Over the next eight years the 23 concrete-lined miles of the main canal were dug southward to the boundary. Eighteen and a half feet across the top, five feet deep and delivering 230 cubic feet per second, SOLP designed it to enable farmers to put nearly a foot of water per month on every acre of bottom land in the southern Valley. To get the canal from the east side of the Valley to the benches on the west, the “big siphon”—now concrete, but originally a 1,940-foot (590 m)-long wood-stave pipe of six and a half-foot-diameter—was constructed. It runs directly beneath the centre of Oliver. The office of the lands project now houses the town office and the building that housed the BC Police built circa 1924 stands today as the Oliver & District Museum.[8]
  • A post office, Board of Trade, and the first official business (a general store) were established in 1921 and the BC government administered the area until 1945 when the village was incorporated and a council elected. In 1990, the community's municipal incorporation was upgraded to town, its current status.[9]
  • In 1922, electrical power was brought to Oliver by the West Kootenay Power and Light Co.
  • In 1923, the Kettle Valley Railway (KVR) constructed a station in Oliver and rails to transport fruit north to Penticton. In 1931, it was leased to the Canadian Pacific Railway. The last train went through Oliver in 1977. The building now sits slightly north of its original position and houses the Oliver Tourism Association and Visitor Centre.
  • In 1935, Oliver was featured in Ripley's Believe it or Not for the claim that none of the dogs in Oliver had fleas.
  • In 1990, Oliver held the world record for baking the world's largest cherry pie.[10]
  • In 2002, on her Golden Jubilee Tour of Canada, Queen Elizabeth II gave the Royal assent that Oliver was the Wine Capital of Canada.[11]
  • Located east of Oliver is Area 27 Motorsports Park, which is the first and only track over 2 miles in Canada west of Ontario.

Oliver has been characterized by waves of migrants from different parts of the world. The first non-Indigenous settlers in the area, mostly war veterans and their families, came from the United Kingdom in the 1920s.[12] This was followed by migration from Germany in the 1930s, and Hungarians in the 1940s and 1950s. Immigrants from Portugal arrived in Oliver starting in the 1950s, and soon owned most of the area wineries and orchards. The most recent migration has been of Sikh Canadians, many coming from the Lower Mainland and Calgary. As of 2017, Punjabi Sikhs own about 70 per cent of the area orchards and wineries.[12]

Administration of water

  • SOLP (1919–1964) South Okanagan Lands Project – established by the Province of BC 1921 and run by provincial government employees for over forty years. In the spring of 1964 the Oliver/Osoyoos Fruit Growers' Association was informed that the province was getting out of the irrigation business.
  • SOLID (1964–1989) South Okanagan Lands and Irrigation District – On June 25, 1964 the Fruit Growers' Association volunteered itself to be the cornerstone of the locally constituted South Okanagan Lands Irrigation District which operated the system until 1989.
  • Oliver Water (1989 to present) Town of Oliver – The water district was divided into two parts to be run by municipal governments. The Towns of Oliver and Osoyoos now deliver nineteen billion imperial gallons—nearly one hundred billion litres—to the Valley's parched soils annually. 1990 saw the election of Water Councillors in both communities—a first in BC.

Airport

A helicopter lands at Transwest
  • CAU3 Paved Hard Surface 3200 ft by 50 ft
  • Elevation: 1015 ft
  • VFR - Lighted strip
  • Owned by Town of Oliver

Coordinates:

  • Lat 49-10.24 N
  • Lon 119-33.04 W
  • Home to Oliver Flying Club (terminal and hangars), Okanagan Kootenay Air Cadet Gliding Program, VMR Aviation, Transwest Helicopters, Oliver Fire Department, Oliver-Osoyoos Search and Rescue and Big Horn Squadron Royal Canadian Air Cadets

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1951 1,000—    
1956 1,147+14.7%
1961 1,774+54.7%
1966 1,563−11.9%
1971 1,615+3.3%
1976 1,641+1.6%
1981 1,893+15.4%
1986 1,963+3.7%
1991 3,743+90.7%
1996 4,285+14.5%
2001 4,224−1.4%
2006 4,370+3.5%
2011 4,824+10.4%
2016 4,928+2.2%
[13][14]
Osoyoos Indian Band iconic sign at Senkulmen

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Oliver had a population of 5,094 living in 2,312 of its 2,445 total private dwellings, a change of 3.4% from its 2016 population of 4,928. With a land area of 5.49 km2 (2.12 sq mi), it had a population density of 927.9/km2 (2,403.2/sq mi) in 2021.[15]

  • Town of Oliver: 4928
  • Regional District Area 'C': 3473
  • Osoyoos Indian Band: 900

Ethnicity

Oliver has seen waves of immigration from the British Isles, Central Europe, Southern Europe, and Southern Asia since non-Indigenous settlement began approximately 100 years ago. With the construction of an irrigation canal to encourage settlement at the behest of former premier John Oliver, the community was originally built for British immigrants and veterans returning from the First World War during the 1920s.[16] Following the initial British migration wave were Germans and Hungarians who first migrated to Oliver between the 1930s and 1950s, followed by Portuguese immigrants between the 1950s and the 1970s, and finally Punjabi Sikhs from the 1980s into the contemporary era.[16]

Today, Oliver's major communities – Indigenous, Portuguese, Caucasian, and Sikhs live in cultural and social silos, with little or no informal social interaction other than in schools, shopping centres and work places.[16]

Panethnic groups in the Town of Oliver (2001−2021)
Panethnic
group
2021[17] 2016[18] 2011[19] 2006[20] 2001[21]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[a] 3,940 79.44% 3,965 84.63% 4,065 87.89% 4,005 94.46% 3,670 88.97%
South Asian 465 9.38% 410 8.75% 315 6.81% 145 3.42% 190 4.61%
Indigenous 260 5.24% 155 3.31% 140 2.38% 55 1.3% 145 3.52%
Latin American 90 1.81% 30 0.64% 45 0.97% 10 0.24% 60 1.45%
Southeast Asian[b] 85 1.71% 45 0.96% 10 0.22% 0 0% 10 0.24%
East Asian[c] 70 1.41% 60 1.28% 40 0.86% 25 0.59% 30 0.73%
African 25 0.5% 10 0.21% 0 0% 0 0% 10 0.24%
Middle Eastern[d] 15 0.3% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 10 0.24%
Other/Multiracial[e] 0 0% 10 0.21% 10 0.22% 0 0% 0 0%
Total responses 4,960 97.37% 4,685 95.07% 4,625 95.87% 4,240 96.47% 4,125 97.66%
Total population 5,094 100% 4,928 100% 4,824 100% 4,395 100% 4,224 100%
Note: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses

Language

According to the 2011 Census, 79.57% of Oliver's population have English as mother tongue; Punjabi is the mother tongue of 5.21% of the population, followed by German (2.87%), Portuguese (2.55%), French (2.45%), Spanish (0.96%), Dutch (0.74%), Hungarian (0.74%), Russian (0.53%), and Ukrainian (0.53%).[22]

Mother tongue Population Percentage
English 3,740 79.57%
Punjabi 245 5.21%
German 135 2.87%
Portuguese 120 2.55%
French 115 2.45%
Spanish 45 0.96%
Dutch 35 0.74%
Hungarian 35 0.74%
Russian 25 0.53%
Ukrainian 25 0.53%

Religion

According to the 2021 census, religious groups in Oliver included:[17]

Religious groups in Golden (1991−2021)
Religious group 2021[17] 2011[23] 2001[21] 1991[24]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Christian 2,145 43.25% N/A N/A 2,970 72% 2,955 81.86%
Sikh 375 7.56% N/A N/A 185 4.48% 20 0.55%
Hindu 20 0.4% N/A N/A 0 0% 20 0.55%
Muslim 10 0.2% N/A N/A 0 0% 0 0%
Buddhist 0 0% N/A N/A 15 0.36% 10 0.28%
Jewish 0 0% N/A N/A 0 0% 0 0%
Other religion 60 1.21% N/A N/A 25 0.61% 0 0%
Irreligious 2,345 47.28% N/A N/A 935 22.67% 605 16.76%
Total responses 4,960 97.37% N/A N/A 4,125 97.66% 3,610 96.45%

Notable people

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Climate

Oliver has a semi-arid climate (BSk) with hot, dry summers and cool winters. Annual snowfall is light, averaging just 18 inches (46 cm). Oliver is amongst the warmest communities in Canada with an average daily mean of 50.5 °F (10.3 °C).[25]

Climate data for Oliver, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1924–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
17.8
(64.0)
23.0
(73.4)
32.2
(90.0)
37.8
(100.0)
47.0
(116.6)
43.9
(111.0)
40.0
(104.0)
38.3
(100.9)
29.0
(84.2)
20.0
(68.0)
16.1
(61.0)
47
(117)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
5.5
(41.9)
12.0
(53.6)
17.4
(63.3)
22.0
(71.6)
25.8
(78.4)
29.8
(85.6)
29.6
(85.3)
23.9
(75.0)
15.6
(60.1)
6.8
(44.2)
1.5
(34.7)
16.0
(60.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
1.4
(34.5)
6.2
(43.2)
10.7
(51.3)
15.1
(59.2)
18.9
(66.0)
22.2
(72.0)
21.8
(71.2)
16.4
(61.5)
9.7
(49.5)
3.3
(37.9)
−1.1
(30.0)
10.3
(50.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
−2.7
(27.1)
0.4
(32.7)
3.9
(39.0)
8.1
(46.6)
11.9
(53.4)
14.6
(58.3)
13.8
(56.8)
8.9
(48.0)
3.7
(38.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
−3.8
(25.2)
4.6
(40.3)
Record low °C (°F) −26.7
(−16.1)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−17.8
(0.0)
−9.4
(15.1)
−2.2
(28.0)
0.6
(33.1)
3.9
(39.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−12.0
(10.4)
−21.0
(−5.8)
−26.1
(−15.0)
−28.9
(−20.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 28.7
(1.13)
21.4
(0.84)
24.9
(0.98)
26.5
(1.04)
34.7
(1.37)
41.5
(1.63)
25.5
(1.00)
20.7
(0.81)
18.7
(0.74)
21.6
(0.85)
31.2
(1.23)
34.2
(1.35)
329.7
(12.98)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 13.7
(0.54)
16.3
(0.64)
23.2
(0.91)
26.5
(1.04)
34.7
(1.37)
41.5
(1.63)
25.5
(1.00)
20.7
(0.81)
18.7
(0.74)
21.5
(0.85)
25.9
(1.02)
16.2
(0.64)
284.5
(11.20)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 15.0
(5.9)
5.1
(2.0)
1.7
(0.7)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.0)
5.3
(2.1)
18.0
(7.1)
45.2
(17.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 9.9 8.0 9.0 9.0 9.9 9.9 6.2 5.7 6.2 7.9 11.9 11.7 105.1
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 5.5 6.6 8.5 9.0 9.9 9.9 6.2 5.7 6.2 7.8 10.4 5.3 90.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 4.9 1.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 6.9 15.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 42.7 83.4 141.3 191.6 239.7 238.6 282.7 274.5 211.9 147.5 64.4 41.4 1,959.6
Percent possible sunshine 15.8 29.2 38.4 46.6 50.6 49.2 57.8 61.5 55.9 44.0 23.3 16.1 40.7
Source: Environment Canada[26]

Notes

  1. ^ Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
  2. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Filipino" and "Southeast Asian" under visible minority section on census.
  3. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Chinese", "Korean", and "Japanese" under visible minority section on census.
  4. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "West Asian" and "Arab" under visible minority section on census.
  5. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Visible minority, n.i.e." and "Multiple visible minorities" under visible minority section on census.

References

  1. ^ "British Columbia Regional Districts, Municipalities, Corporate Name, Date of Incorporation and Postal Address" (XLS). British Columbia Ministry of Communities, Sport and Cultural Development. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
  2. ^ "2016 Census Profile". 2016 Census. Statistics Canada.
  3. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and population centres, 2011 and 2006 censuses: British Columbia. Statistics Canada. Retrieved March 17, 2013
  4. ^ Tourism BC website
  5. ^ Akrigg, G.P.V.; Akrigg, Helen B. (1986), British Columbia Place Names (3rd, 1997 ed.), Vancouver: UBC Press, ISBN 0-7748-0636-2
  6. ^ Upper Nicola Band. “Syilx Place Names.” Facebook, October 5, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=1057161971367609.
  7. ^ Based on the establishment of the SOLP and post office establishment dates as well as the establishment of the first business and Board of Trade. This information provided by the Oliver & District Heritage Society.
  8. ^ "Oliver & District Heritage Society". Oliver & District Heritage Society. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  9. ^ "Oliver". BC Geographical Names.
  10. ^ "World's largest cherry pie puts Oliver back in spotlight". TimesChronicle.ca. Oliver Chronicle. January 26, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  11. ^ Davies, Colton (March 16, 2018). "Canada's real wine capital?". www.castanet.net. Penticton News. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  12. ^ a b "Sikhs make world go round in Oliver". TimesChronicle.ca. Oliver Chronicle. August 24, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  13. ^ "Historical Municipal Census Data: 1921–2011". BC Stats. Archived from the original on December 31, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
  14. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Oliver, Town [Census subdivision], British Columbia and British Columbia [Province]".
  15. ^ "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), British Columbia". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  16. ^ a b c "Sikhs make world go round in Oliver". South Okanagan Times Chronicle. August 24, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  17. ^ a b c Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  18. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 27, 2021). "Census Profile, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  19. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (November 27, 2015). "NHS Profile". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  20. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (August 20, 2019). "2006 Community Profiles". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  21. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (July 2, 2019). "2001 Community Profiles". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  22. ^ Census Profile Oliver, T British Columbia http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=5907014&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&Data=Count&SearchText=oliver&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom=&TABID=1
  23. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. "NHS Profile - Place name search results". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  24. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. "1991 Census of Canada: Census Area Profiles". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  25. ^ "Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data - Climate - Environment and Climate Change Canada". climate.weather.gc.ca. September 25, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  26. ^ "OLIVER STP". 1981–2010 Canadian Climate Normals. Environment Canada. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
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Oliver, British Columbia
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