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Offenbach am Main

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Offenbach am Main
The downtown of Offenbach
The downtown of Offenbach
Flag of Offenbach am Main
Coat of arms of Offenbach am Main
Location of Offenbach am Main
Map
Offenbach am Main is located in Germany
Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main is located in Hesse
Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main
Coordinates: 50°6′N 8°48′E / 50.100°N 8.800°E / 50.100; 8.800
CountryGermany
StateHesse
Admin. regionDarmstadt
DistrictUrban district
Government
 • Lord mayor (2017–23) Felix Schwenke[1] (SPD)
Area
 • Total44.90 km2 (17.34 sq mi)
Elevation
98 m (322 ft)
Population
 (2022-12-31)[2]
 • Total134,170
 • Density3,000/km2 (7,700/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
63001 - 63075
Dialling codes069
Vehicle registrationOF
Websitewww.offenbach.de

Offenbach am Main (German pronunciation: [ˈɔfn̩bax ʔam ˈmaɪn] ) is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the left bank of the river Main. It borders Frankfurt and is part of the Frankfurt urban area and the larger Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. It has a population of 138,335 (December 2018).[3]

In the 20th century, the city's economy was built on machine-building, leather-making, typography and design, and the automobile and pharmaceutical industries.

Geography

Subdivision

The inner city area of Offenbach is quite large and consists of the historic center of the city and its expansions of the 1800s. Three formerly independent suburbs were incorporated in the first half of the 20th century: Bürgel being the first in 1908, then Bieber and Rumpenheim in 1938 and 1942.

South of the inner city area are the suburbs Lauterborn, Rosenhöhe and Tempelsee. Kaiserlei is a commercial district in the far west of the city bordering Frankfurt. In the west Waldheim is a residential neighborhood on the city limits with Mühlheim am Main. In 2010 the eastern part of the city center was officially named Mathildenviertel, as the area was already unofficially called by the locals.[4]

Unlike most larger cities in Germany, Offenbach was not completely divided into districts. Only the nine neighborhoods mentioned above were officially districts, leaving the largest parts of the city officially unnamed. Although specific names for neighborhoods and areas were already in use among the locals and residents.

In June 2019 the city council approved a new act that subdivides the city's area entirely into 21 districts. The nine existing districts largely remained the same, most of them were even expanded. The new districts were laid out after the already by locals commonly known neighborhoods, such as the Westend, the Nordend or Buchhügel. A completely new name was only needed to be found for one neighborhood south of the city center, which never had commonly used name before: Lindenfeld. The name derived from an old name of a land lot in this area, when it was still fields in agricultural use prior to the 1800s.[5]

As of July 2019 there are the following 21 districts:

  • Bieber
  • Bieberer Berg
  • Buchhügel
  • Buchrain
  • Bürgel
  • Carl-Ulrich-Siedlung
  • Hafen
  • Kaiserlei
  • Lauterborn
  • Lindenfeld
  • Mathildenviertel
  • Musikerviertel
  • Nordend
  • Offenbach-Ost
  • Rosenhöhe
  • Rumpenheim
  • Senefelderquartier
  • Tempelsee
  • Waldheim
  • Westend
  • Zentrum

Climate

Offenbach experienced a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). The summer time was subtropical, ranging from 21°C to about 23°C in average. Spring time and autumn were warm-temperate, with averages between about 13°C and 18°C. The winter was cool-temperate, with daily means from 6°C to 9°C. Due to its location in the Upper Rhine Plain, the whole Rhein-Main Metropolitan Region generally experienced one of the warmest climates in Germany, making it possible to grow plants from the subtropics such as vineyards, palm trees and olive trees.

Climate data for Offenbach am Main
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
10.9
(51.6)
14.8
(58.6)
20.6
(69.1)
23.9
(75.0)
27.6
(81.7)
29.8
(85.6)
29.9
(85.8)
25.5
(77.9)
18.7
(65.7)
11.6
(52.9)
10.3
(50.5)
19.3
(66.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.9
(42.6)
6.5
(43.7)
8.9
(48.0)
14.0
(57.2)
17.3
(63.1)
21.0
(69.8)
22.4
(72.3)
22.9
(73.2)
18.0
(64.4)
13.1
(55.6)
7.7
(45.9)
7.2
(45.0)
13.7
(56.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
2.7
(36.9)
3.6
(38.5)
6.9
(44.4)
11.0
(51.8)
14.5
(58.1)
15.2
(59.4)
16.0
(60.8)
12.1
(53.8)
8.4
(47.1)
5.5
(41.9)
3.8
(38.8)
8.6
(47.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 85
(3.3)
101
(4.0)
91
(3.6)
63
(2.5)
112
(4.4)
132
(5.2)
162
(6.4)
133
(5.2)
81
(3.2)
96
(3.8)
94
(3.7)
144
(5.7)
1,294
(51)
Average rainy days 17 18 12 9 14 17 16 15 11 13 14 19 175
Mean monthly sunshine hours 96 142 245 303 299 331 320 304 264 177 101 59 2,641
Source: opendata.dwd.de/climate_environment/CDC/observations_global/CLIMAT/monthly/qc/... (Station 10641)

History

Offenbach in 1655
The main street Frankfurter Straße around 1900

The first documented reference to a suburb of Offenbach appears in 770.[6] In a document of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II dating to 977 exists the first mention of the place of Offenbach.[7] During the Middle Ages Offenbach passed through many hands. Only in 1486 could the Count Ludwig of Isenburg finally take control of city for his family, and 1556 Count Reinhard of Isenburg relocated his Residence to Offenbach, building a palace, the Isenburger Schloß (Isenburg Palace), which was completed in 1559. It was destroyed by fire in 1564 and rebuilt in 1578.

In 1635, Offenbach was given to the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt, but it was returned to the Isenburg-Birstein Count (later Prince) in 1642. It remained in that principality until 1815, when the Congress of Vienna gave the city to the Austrian Emperor, Francis I. A year later it was given to the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Always very close to the city centre of Frankfurt, Offenbach was a popular location for business. The town has its own trade fair, and many companies have opened facilities here because there are fewer restrictions and no closed businesses. French Protestants (Huguenots) came in the 17th century and settled in Offenbach and contributed to making Offenbach a prosperous city, e.g., bringing knowledge of tobacco with them and turning Offenbach into a centre for rolling cigars. The town was more cosmopolitan than Frankfurt; famous people such as Goethe and Mozart visited it several times.

The Rumpenheim Palace and its park were a popular destination for monarchs in the 19th century. The city was thereafter ruled by Grand Dukes of Hesse and by Rhine until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. Offenbach became the center of the traditional design with figures such as the architect Hugo Eberhardt, the typographer Rudolf Koch, the bookbinder and designer Ignatz Wiemeler and Ernst Engel and the painter Karl Friedrich Lippmann.

During the Second World War a third of the city was destroyed by Allied bombing, which claimed 467 lives. With the new district Lauterborn the city was expanded to the south in the 1960s. On the border with Frankfurt, the office district Kaiserlei was built. Offenbach is a so-called "Sozialer Brennpunkt" (deprived area) because of unemployment, poverty, gang related crime and migration.[8]

Before its eradication in the Holocaust, the city had a Jewish population. Jews settled in the city as late as the late 16th century, and it is believed that out of the 871 residents of the town as of 1829, the 40 Jewish families accounted for nearly a quarter of the town's population. They also established their own cemetery.[9]

Governance

Mayor

Mayor Felix Schwenke

The current mayor of Offenbach is Felix Schwenke of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). He was elected in 2017.

The most recent mayoral election was held on 10 September 2017, with a runoff held on 24 September, and the results were as follows:

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Felix Schwenke Social Democratic Party 12,076 43.3 26,408 66.9
Peter Freier Christian Democratic Union 7,918 28.4 13,062 33.1
Peter Schneider Alliance 90/The Greens 3,963 14.2
Christin Thüne Alternative for Germany 1,476 5.3
Elke Kreiß The Left 1,032 3.7
Muhsin Senol Forum New Offenbach 916 3.3
Helge Herget Pirate Party Germany 520 1.9
Valid votes 27,901 99.3 39,470 97.4
Invalid votes 209 0.7 1,061 2.6
Total 28,110 100.0 40,531 100.0
Electorate/voter turnout 91,924 30.6 92,115 44.0
Source: City of Offenbach (1st round, 2nd round)

The following is a list of mayors since 1824:

  • 1824–1826: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1826–1834: Heinrich Philipp Schwaner
  • 1834–1837: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1837–1849: Jonas Budden
  • 1849–1859: Friedrich August Schäfer
  • 1859–1867: Johann Heinrich Dick
  • 1867–1874: Johann Martin Hirschmann
  • 1874–1882: Hermann Stölting
  • 1883–1907: Wilhelm Brink
  • 1907–1919: Andreas Dullo
  • 1919–1933: Max Granzin
  • 1947–1949: Johannes Rebholz
  • 1950–1957: Hans Klüber
  • 1957–1974: Georg Dietrich
  • 1974–1980: Walter Buckpesch
  • 1980–1986: Walter Suermann
  • 1986–1994: Wolfgang Reuter
  • 1994–2006: Gerhard Grandtke
  • 2006–2018: Horst Schneider
  • 2018–: Felix Schwenke

City council

The Offenbach city council (Stadtverordnetenversammlung) governs the city alongside the mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 14 March 2021, and the results were as follows:

Party Lead candidate Votes % +/- Seats +/-
Social Democratic Party (SPD) Felix Schwenke 610,508 28.4 Increase 3.6 20 Increase 2
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) Sybille Schumann 390,305 18.1 Increase 3.6 13 Increase 3
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) Roland Walter 389,099 18.1 Decrease 6.0 13 Decrease 4
The Left (Die Linke) Sven Malsy 183,773 8.5 Increase 0.7 6 ±0
Alternative for Germany (AfD) Christin Thüne 157,125 7.3 Decrease 1.7 5 Decrease 1
Free Democratic Party (FDP) Dominik Schwagereit 134,284 6.2 Decrease 3.3 4 Decrease 3
Free Voters (FW) Dennis Lehmann 91,446 4.2 Increase 1.5 3 Increase 1
Forum New Offenbach (FNO) Muhsin Senol 57,626 2.7 Decrease 0.2 2 ±0
Pirate Party Germany (Piraten) Gregory Engels 46,459 2.2 Increase 0.5 2 Increase 1
Die PARTEI (PARTEI) Daniel Pfeiffer 34,957 1.6 Increase 1.1 1 Increase 1
Young Offenbach (JO) Dominik Imeraj 28,525 1.3 Steady 0.0 1 ±0
Alliance for Innovation and Justice (BIG) Fikri Türet 27,574 1.3 New 1 New
Valid votes 32,424 96.1
Invalid votes 1,308 3.9
Total 33,732 100.0 71 ±0
Electorate/voter turnout 94,827 35.6 Increase 2.7
Source: Statistics Hesse

Twin towns – sister cities

Offenbach am Main is twinned with:[10]

Demographics

Offenbach has a large non-German population. In 2016, foreign nationals made up 37% of the population.[11] The largest communities are, in that order, from Turkey, Greece, Romania, Poland and Italy.[12]

As of 2019, residents with a migration background enumerated 88,608, or 63.4% of the population, while Germans without a migration background enumerated 51,241 residents.[13] Nearly one-in-three, 29.5%, of foreign residents originate from Europe, particularly from countries like Romania, Greece, Bulgaria, Poland, Croatia and Italy.[14]

According to census data, Offenbach[15] and Duisburg had the highest share of Muslim migrants of all German districts in 2011. Muslims were between 14% and 17% of the city's population as of 2011.[16][17][18][19][20][21] Turks made up 11% of the city's population in 2019.[22]

Population history

The development of the population in Offenbach between 1540 and 1997.

Until the end of the 17th century, Offenbach remained a small town with less than a thousand inhabitants. With the coming into power of the count Johann Philipp in 1685, the city began to develop and the population rose steadily. In the 19th century the city became industrialized and the population increased even tenfold.[23] Offenbach is one of the German cities where Germans without migrant background make up a minority of the population. As of 31 December 2012, approx. 44.3% of residents or 55,047 people had no foreign background. In contrast to that, there were 55.7% or 69,214 people with at least one non-German grandparent.[24] The largest of those groups are:[25]

Largest groups of foreign residents by 2022
Country Population
 Turkey 6,179
 Romania 5,631
 Syria 5,416
 Greece 5,180
 Bulgaria 4,984
 Poland 4,112
 Croatia 4,052
 Italy 3,919
 Ukraine 3,469
 Serbia 3,127
 Afghanistan 2,715
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,380
 Iraq 1,807
 Morocco 1,386
 Spain 1,234
Year Population
1540 480
1685 600
1718 1,500
1800 5,000
1816 6,210
1825 7,147
1828 7,466
1830 7,498
1 December 1834 9,433
1 December 1840 9,597
3 December 1843 9,883
3 December 1846 11,565
3 December 1852 11,087
3 December 1855 13,724
3 December 1861 16,708
3 December 1864 19,390
Year Population
3 December 1867 20,322
1 December 1871 22,689
1 December 1875 26,012
1 December 1880 28,597
1 December 1885 31,704
1 December 1890 35,064
2 December 1895 39,388
1 December 1900 50,468
1 December 1905 59,765
1 December 1910 75,583
1 December 1916 67,197
5 December 1917 67,483
8 October 1919 75,380
16 June 1925 79,362
16 June 1933 81,329
17 May 1939 85,140
Year Population
31 December 1945 70,600
29 October 1946 75,479
13 September 1950 89,030
25 September 1956 104,283
6 June 1961 116,195
31 December 1965 117,893
27 May 1970 117,306
31 December 1975 115,251
31 December 1980 110,993
31 December 1985 107,090
25 May 1987 111,386
31 December 1990 114,992
31 December 1995 116,533
31 December 2000 117,535
30 September 2005 119,833
31 March 2007 117,224
Year Population
31 December 2008 118,103
31 December 2009 117,718
31 December 2010 119,734
31 December 2011 121,970
31 December 2012 116,945
31 December 2013 126,934

Economy

The 120-meter high "City-Tower" is mainly used as the German headquarters of Capgemini

Until the early 1970s Offenbach was dominated by the machine-building and leather industries. The city hosts the German Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies to this day. The Deutscher Wetterdienst, commonly abbreviated as DWD, (translated from German as German Meteorological Service), residing in the Westend district.

Offenbach was also the European center of typography, with Gebr. Klingspor and Linotype (inventors of Optima or Palatino typeface) moving to nearby Eschborn in the 1970s and MAN Roland printing machines still a major employer today. Typography and design still remain important with a cluster of graphic design and industrial design companies, as well as the university level Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach am Main (HfG) design school and the Klingspor Museum.

In recent years Offenbach has become a popular location for a wide array of services, especially from the transport sectors. Offenbach is the host to the European headquarters of Honda,[26][failed verification] Hyundai Motors[27] and Kumho Tires.[28]

Arts and culture

Attractions

Klingspor Museum
The Büsing-Park in winter
French Protestant church and City Tower

In Offenbach there is no specific Old Town, but there are several buildings which survived bombing during the war and have been restored. One of them is the Neo-baroque palace Büsingpalais with the Büsingpark, reconstructed in the 1980s. Today it is used as a congress center close to the Sheraton hotel. Between the shopping area and the Main, is the Lilipark and the Lilitemple, named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's fiancée Lili Schönemann. The most important building is the Isenburger Schloss [de] (Isenburg Palace), a renaissance palace from 1576. It is today used by the Offenbach Design University which is next to it. There is also a neoclassic palace in the borough Rumpenheim, the Rumpenheimer Schloss it now serves exclusively as domestic dwellings but the park is public.

  • Isenburger Schloss, a Renaissance building, now used by the Offenbach Design University
  • Büsingpalais with Büsingpark
  • Wilhelmsplatz a square with coffee houses and three times a week a market.
  • Buildings of the French Protestant Church and the French Protestant Community.
  • Rumpenheim Palace.
  • Former Synagogue "Capitol" (now a concert hall next to the new Synagogue).
  • The Westend Quarter (19th century).
  • Several art deco apartment houses.
  • Buildings by early 20th century architect Hugo Eberhardt: "Heyne" Factory, main building of the Design University, AOK Insurance building.
  • Prefabricated houses by Egon Eiermann in Lauterborn

Events

There are several festivals in Offenbach, some of these are:

  • Lichterfest im Büsing-Park (festival of lights in the park of the Büsing palais)
  • Nacht der Museen (with Frankfurt)
  • Mainuferfest
  • Cross Media Night

Museums

Sports

home to the football club Kickers Offenbach stadium "Bieberer Berg"

Kickers Offenbach football club was founded in 1901.

Infrastructure

Transport

S-Bahn station: Marktplatz
S-Bahn network in Offenbach

Roads

The streets of central Offenbach are usually congested with cars during the rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping streets, are pedestrian-only streets. There are numerous car parks located throughout the city. The Offenbacher Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange where the Autobahnen A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 661 meet. The A661 crosses the A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 5 (Basel-Hannover).

Public transport

The city is connected by a major line of the S-Bahn railway system to Frankfurt. The station in the city center is Marktplatz. In general, six stations are located in Offenbach: Offenbach-Kaiserlei, Offenbach-Ledermuseum, Offenbach-Marktplatz, Offenbach-Ost, Offenbach-Bieber, Offenbach-Waldhof. Trains run every 5–10 minutes between Offenbach and Frankfurt. A 24 hours Service between both cities was introduced in 2013. The journey from Offenbach Marktplatz to Frankfurt Main Station takes 15 minutes, Frankfurt Airport can be reached within 26 minutes. Suburban trains run underground in downtown Offenbach. The city tunnel was opened in 1996. Services split up at Offenbach-Ost Station to Hanau (S8 and S9 trains), Rödermark (S1) and Dietzenbach (S2). An often-addressed problem is that there is no direct interchange between regional and suburban trains in Offenbach, since the lines were separated when the tunnel was built. Therefore, residents and city officials have proposed several times that platforms for regional trains should be added to the Offenbach-Ost Station.

The city's municipal public transportation services are operated by the "Offenbacher Verkehrsbetriebe" (OVB) and its subcontractors. Nine routes (numbered 101–108 and 120) connect all boroughs with the major train stations at Marktplatz, Offenbach-Ost and Kaiserlei as well as the Central Station. The bus network has very good coverage and frequency of service. All routes except for number 102 and number 107 busses stop at Marktplatz station, making it the most important transit hub in the city. Buses usually run with a 15-minute headway on working days and a 30-minute headway on Sundays, public holidays and after 8:00 pm. Exemptions are routes 103, 107 and 120 which run every 30 minutes. Number 103 and 120 buses share most of their route, creating a 15-minute headway on the shared section in downtown Offenbach. Those two routes also connect the city of Offenbach with its surrounding towns, Frankfurt am Main, Mühlheim am Main and Obertshausen. Out of all municipal bus services the number 101 bus is the most frequented route. It runs every 7 or 8 minutes Mondays through Fridays. Service on the other most frequented routes (104 and 105) is also increased to a 7/8-minute headway during rush hours. In addition to the municipal bus services there are regional buses that serve the city. Two express bus routes connect Offenbach to the city of Langen (route X83) and Bad Vilbel (X97). Other services are the number OF-30 bus to Heusenstamm, the 41 bus to Fechenheim as well as the 551 to Gravenbruch, Enkheim and Bad Vilbel.

Regional trains stop at the Offenbach Central Station in the city's center. The station is on the Frankfurt-Hanau main line which is one of railway with the most traffic in Germany. Mostly hourly service for Wächsersbach, Fulda, Würzburg and Erbach call at the Offenbach Central Station. There is no long-distance train service at central station, although many high-speed trains pass through on their way from Frankfurt to Munich, Berlin or Hamburg. The station lost most of its importance when the suburban trains were re-routed through the newly build tunnel beneath Berliner Straße. Nonetheless a train ride from Offenbach Central Station to Frankfurt Central Station takes only ten minutes which makes it a much-appreciated route for commuters.

Frankfurt Airport

The city is accessed from around the world via the Frankfurt Airport, (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) from Offenbach. The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two train stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction "Offenbach Ost or "Hanau"), departing from the regional traffic station, take 25 minutes from the airport to get to Offenbach.

Notable people

Johann André
Salomon Formstecher
Gottfried Böhm

Notable residents

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Thomas Kirstein (20 January 2018). "Rührung im Blitzlichtgewitter: Ära Schneider geht in die Ära Schwenke über". Op-online.de (in German). Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Bevölkerung in Hessen am 31.12.2022 nach Gemeinden" (XLS) (in German). Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt. June 2023.
  3. ^ "Statistischer Vierteljahresbericht der Stadt Offenbach IV/2018" (PDF). Stadt Offenbach. Stadt Offenbach am Main, Amt für Arbeitsförderung, Statistik und Integration. 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Antrag Magistratsvorlage Nr. 144/10". City of Offenbach. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  5. ^ Germany, hessenschau de, Frankfurt (28 June 2019). "Aus 9 mach 21: Offenbach verpasst sich 12 neue Stadtteile". hessenschau.de (in German). Retrieved 15 July 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Braun, Lothar (12 February 2004). "Offenbach und seine Vororte". City of Offenbach. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  7. ^ "Offenbach – Facts and Figures" (PDF). City of Offenbach. 2012. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  8. ^ Presse, Frankfurter Neue. "Nach dem Tod von Tugce A." Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  9. ^ "Ehemals große jüdische Landgemeinde mit langer Tradition". offenbach (in German). Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  10. ^ "Offenbach und seine Partnerstädte". offenbach.de (in German). Offenbach am Main. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  11. ^ "Official statistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  12. ^ Official statistics for nationalities in 2016
  13. ^ "Statistische Publikationen". Stadt Offenbach (in German). Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  14. ^ "Statistische Publikationen". Stadt Offenbach (in German). Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  15. ^ "Rund 14 Prozent der Offenbacher sind Muslime". www.op-online.de (in German). 6 March 2023. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  16. ^ "Rund 14 Prozent der Offenbacher sind Muslime". www.op-online.de (in German). 6 March 2023. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  17. ^ "Kartenseite: Muslime in Deutschland – Landkreise". kartenseite.wordpress.com. 5 April 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  18. ^ Hahn, Michael (9 May 2011). "Muslime in den Großstädten beim Zensus 2011" (PDF). kartenseite files wordpress.com (PDF). Retrieved 24 October 2023. ((cite web)): Check |archive-url= value (help)
  19. ^ "Muslime in Deutschland 2011 – Zahlen für die Großstädte". Kartenseite (in German). 5 April 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  20. ^ "Muslime in Deutschland 2011 – Landkreise – Karte (Islam-Karte)". Kartenseite (in German). 5 April 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  21. ^ "ZENSUS2011 - Press - 2011 Census: 80.2 million inhabitants lived in Germany on 9 May 2011". www.zensus2011.de. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  22. ^ "Statistische Publikationen". Stadt Offenbach (in German). Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  23. ^ "Offenbach – die kleine Großstadt am Main". City of Offenbach. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014.
  24. ^ "Einwohner mit Migrationshintergrund am 31.12.2012" (PDF). Melderegister Offenbach, MigraPro. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2013.
  25. ^ "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund in Offenbach am Main : Erhebungsmethode und Ergebnisse" (PDF). Offenbach.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  26. ^ "Kontakt". www.honda.de (in German). Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  27. ^ "News & Events Archived 2012-02-11 at the Wayback Machine." Hyundai. Retrieved on 22 April 2012. "Kaiserleipromenade 5 63067 Offenbach"
  28. ^ "Impressum Archived 2011-11-04 at the Wayback Machine." Kumho Tyres. Retrieved on 9 November 2011. "Brüsseler Platz 1 63067 Offenbach am Main"
  29. ^ "Ignatz Wiemeler and his ingenious bindings. A highlight in the collections of the Klingspor Museum Offenbach". Association of European Printing Museums. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
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Offenbach am Main
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