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Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands languages

Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands
Barrier Islands–Batak, Sumatran
Geographic
distribution
Sumatra, Indonesia
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
Proto-languageProto-Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands (Proto-Sumatran)
Glottolognort2829

The Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands languages (also Barrier Islands–Batak languages or Sumatran languages) are a group of Malayo-Polynesian languages spoken by the Batak and related peoples in the interior of North Sumatra and by the Nias, Mentawai people, and others on the Barrier islands (Simeulue, Nias, and Mentawai Islands Regency) off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.

Classification

The languages of the Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands subgroup are:

This subgroup was first proposed by Lafeber (1922), who called it "Batak-Nias".[1] Nothofer (1986) presented lexical and phonological evidence in support of this subgroup, calling it "Barrier Islands–Batak".[2]

The position of the highly divergent Enggano language is controversial. Both Lafeber (1922) and Nothofer (1986) include Enggano as a probable daughter language.[1][2] This is rejected by Edwards (2015) who considers Enggano a primary branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages.[3] Recent research by Smith (2017) however supports the inclusion of Enggano within his tentative "Sumatran" subgroup, which is an extended version of Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands that further includes the Nasal language spoken in Bengkulu in southwestern Sumatra.[4] Smith's proposal is supported by Billings & McDonnell (2022) who classify the Sumatran languages as follows:[5]

As phonological evidence for the inclusion of these languages with the Sumatran subgroup they propose:[5]

Mergers
  1. PMP *j, *g > Proto-Sumatran *g
  2. PMP *z, *d > Proto-Sumatran *d
  3. PMP *ñ, *n > Proto-Sumatran *n
  4. PMP *R, *r > Proto-Sumatran *r
  5. PMP *h > Proto-Sumatran zero
Shift (sound change)
  1. PMP *q > Proto-Sumatran *h

Lexicon

Edwards (2015: 78)[3] provides the following table comparing body part vocabulary items across various languages of the Barrier Islands. Edwards (2015: 89) considers the aberrant Enggano language as not part of the Barrier Islands-Batak languages.

Gloss PMP Enggano Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue
head *qulu e-(ʔ)udu uteʔ həɡə tuhu ulu
hair, head *buhek e-pududui alai bu bu buʔ
face *daqih e-baka mata bava muko bobaŋon
eye *mata e-baka mata hərə mata mata
nose *ijuŋ ẽ-pãnũ asak ixu nixu ixuŋ
mouth *baqbaq e-kaʔa ŋaŋa bava bafa ba(ʔ)ba
lips *biRbiR e-ukudipo bibo beve befe befil
tongue *dilaq e-dio† lila, ʤala lela l/nela dila
tooth *nipen e-kaʔa ʧon ifɨ ifɨ ehen
ear *taliŋa e-kadiha taliŋa taliŋa ɡuɡuyu (k)oeuʔ
neck *liqeR ẽ-ũʔũ lolokat baɡi ʔoɡu leŋɡəl
hand *kamay/*lima e-ʔapo kabei bələxa, taŋa taŋa kaoʔ, siʔu
fingernail *kanuhkuh ẽ-kanũʔũnũ sulet siʔa tena tenab˺
breast *titi(q)/*susu e-koko tottot susu totoʔ totuʔ
belly *tian e-kitai baɣa talu amatan besil
leg *qaqay e-ae dere ahe ae haɨ
knee *tuhud ẽ-pũʔũ u-ae bókolo tuhi bohun boxul
hair, body *bulu e-pududui bulu bu bu buʔ
skin *kulit e-ʔudi kulit uli bebi bebiʔ
meat/flesh *hesi e-heda akkelak naɡole ö(h)i isi
fat/grease *miñak/*himaR ẽ-mĩnãʔ㇠lainak tavə tafɨ tafɨ
bone *tuqelaŋ e-ʔaa tolat təla tɨ/öla sod˺
heart *pusuq e-báhau, ẽ-kẽmã teinuŋ tədə ɨlaxa, oho ate
blood *daRaq e-kiaki loɣau do do dala
liver *qatay ẽ-nĩũnĩũ atei ate bala
urine *iheq ẽ-ĩkõ kia xiɨ k/xiɨ
excrement *taqi e-kai tanai tai tai tai

Proto-Sumatran lexical innovations listed by Billings & McDonnell (2022) are:[5]

English gloss Proto-Sumatran Pre-Gayo Proto-Batak languages Proto-Northern Barrier Islands Proto-Central Barrier Islands Pre-Mentawai Nasal
friend *alay *aley *alay *le *aley
to kiss *aŋgəh *aŋgəh *aŋkə *ago
ginger *bahiŋ *bahiŋ *baiŋ
heron *baruŋ *baruŋ *baluŋ
bat *bəŋkik *bəŋkik *bəŋiʔ *bəgi
maggot *bərŋay *bərŋey *bəŋay
mountain *dələg *dələg *dələk *lələ *lelew
nest *hasar *asay *asar hasal
sibling in law *lakun *lakun *laʔun *laʔo *lakun
one *sada *sara *sada *sara *sara *sara
snail *ciəh *cih siyuh
roof *tarub *tarub *talup
low *təruh *tuyuh *təruh *təlu *tou
midday *tigər *tigər *tikəl *sixo
smoke *timbər *timbər *timbəl *simbo *timbo
to ask for *tindaw *tiro *tindaw *sində *tidow
rattan *puləgəs *puləgəs *pulege

References

  1. ^ a b Lafeber, Abraham (1922). Vergelijkende klankleer van het Niasisch. s'-Gravenhage: Hadi Poestaka.
  2. ^ a b Nothofer, Bernd (1986). "The Barrier Island Languages in the Austronesian Language Family". In Geraghty, P., Carrington, L. and Wurm, S.A. (eds.) Focal II: Papers From the Fourth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, pp. 87–109. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 94, Canberra, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University.
  3. ^ a b Edwards, Owen (2015). "The Position of Enggano within Austronesian". Oceanic Linguistics 54(1): 54–109
  4. ^ Smith, Alexander D. (2017). "The Western Malayo-Polynesian Problem". Oceanic Linguistics 56(2): 435–490
  5. ^ a b c Billings, Blaine; McDonnell, Bradley. 2022. Subgrouping Malayo-Polynesian languages of Sumatra and the Barrier Islands. Presentation given at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society (SEALS 31), University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, May 18–20, 2022. (slides)
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Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands languages
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