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Noahidism

The rainbow is the unofficial symbol of Noahidism, recalling the Genesis flood narrative in which a rainbow appears to Noah after the Flood; it represents God's promise to Noah to refrain from flooding the Earth and destroying all life again.[1]

Noahidism (/ˈnəhdɪzəm/) or Noachidism (/ˈnəxdɪzəm/) is a monotheistic Jewish religious movement aimed at non-Jews,[9] based upon the Seven Laws of Noah[10] and their traditional interpretations within Orthodox Judaism.[11]

According to the Jewish law, non-Jews (gentiles) are not obligated to convert to Judaism, but they are required to observe the Seven Laws of Noah to be assured of a place in the World to Come (Olam Ha-Ba), the final reward of the righteous.[17] The penalty for violating any of the Noahide laws is discussed in the Talmud,[12] but in practical terms it is subject to the working legal system which is established by the society at large.[12] Those who subscribe to the observance of the Noahic Covenant are referred to as Bnei Noach (Hebrew: בני נח, "Sons of Noah") or Noahides (/ˈn.əhdz/).[18] The modern Noahide movement was founded in the 1990s by Orthodox Jewish rabbis from Israel,[2][3][7] mainly tied to Chabad-Lubavitch and religious Zionist organizations,[2][3][7] including The Temple Institute.[2][3][7]

Historically, the Hebrew term Bnei Noach has been applied to all non-Jews as descendants of Noah.[3][12][13] However, nowadays it is primarily used to refer specifically to those "Righteous Gentiles" who observe the Seven Laws of Noah.[3][4][5] Noahide communities have spread and developed primarily in the United States, United Kingdom, Latin America, Nigeria, the Philippines, and Russia.[5] According to a Noahide source in 2018, there are over 20,000 official Noahides around the world and the country with the greatest number is the Philippines.[3][5][7]

The Noahic Covenant

The theological basis for the seven commandments of the Noahic Covenant is said to be derived interpretatively from demands addressed to Adam[19] and to Noah,[20] who are believed to be the progenitors of humankind in Judaism, and therefore to be regarded as universal moral laws.[13][21] The seven commandments of the Noahic Covenant enumerated in the Babylonian Talmud (Avodah Zarah 8:4, Sanhedrin 56a-b) are:[24]

  1. Do not worship idols.[25]
  2. Do not curse God.[26]
  3. Do not murder.[27]
  4. Do not commit adultery or sexual immorality.[28]
  5. Do not steal.[29]
  6. Do not eat flesh torn from a living animal.[30]
  7. Establish courts of justice.[32]

According to the American Roman Catholic priest and dogmatic theologian Bruce R. Barnes, the obligation to follow the Noahic Covenant and its seven commandments was incumbent upon the Jewish people as well, and remained effective for them until the Ten Commandments were given to Moses on Mount Sinai:[13]

With the giving of the Torah, God chose a people to live by His Commandments. This is a critical moment for those who believe that revelation is the only authentic expression of law. Such individuals think that the Revealed Law predominates and that the Noahide Laws are absorbed into the Mosaic Laws, thereby losing their independence. This unification of the two sets of law during the revelation at Sinai strengthened and confirmed (rather than diminished) the obligation for non-Jews to follow the Noahide Laws. Righteous Gentiles were obliged to follow the Seven Commandments and, by association, the Sinaitic Commandments because the Noahide Laws were now considered subsumed into the Sinai Laws. This did not alter the distinction between the two sets of people who followed the respective laws. [...] The relationship between the Noahites and the Jews would always be similar to the relationship between a priest and a faithful layman. The obligation to follow the Noahide Laws was incumbent upon the Jews from Adam to the Revelation at Sinai. Virtually all Jewish thinkers who dealt with this issue kept this in mind.[13]

Historical precedents

The concept of "Righteous Gentiles" (gerim toshavim) has a few precedents in the history of Judaism, primarily during Biblical times and the Roman domination of the Mediterranean. In the Hebrew Bible, it is reported that the legal status of ger toshav (Biblical Hebrew: גר תושב, ger: "foreigner" or "alien" + toshav: "resident", lit.'resident alien')[37] was granted to those Gentiles (non-Jews) living in the Land of Israel who did not want to convert to Judaism but agreed to observe the Seven Laws of Noah.[38] The Sebomenoi or God-fearers of the Roman Empire were another ancient example of non-Jews being included within the Jewish community without converting to Judaism.[2][39]

During the Golden Age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, the medieval Jewish philosopher and rabbi Moses Maimonides (1135–1204) wrote in the halakhic legal code Mishneh Torah that Gentiles (non-Jews) must perform exclusively the Seven Laws of Noah and refrain from studying the Torah or performing any Jewish commandment, including resting on the Shabbat;[40] however, Maimonides also states that if Gentiles want to perform any Jewish commandment besides the Seven Laws of Noah according to the correct halakhic procedure, they are not prevented from doing so.[41] According to Maimonides, teaching non-Jews to follow the Seven Laws of Noah is incumbent on all Jews, a commandment in and of itself.[4] Nevertheless, the majority of rabbinic authorities over the centuries have rejected Maimonides' opinion, and the dominant halakhic consensus has always been that Jews are not required to spread the Noahide laws to non-Jews.[4]

During the 1860s in Western Europe, the idea of Noahidism as a universal Judaic religion for non-Jews was developed by Elijah Benamozegh,[2][42] an Italian Sephardic Orthodox rabbi and renowned Jewish Kabbalist.[43] Between the years 1920s–1930s, French writer Aimé Pallière [fr] adopted the Noahide laws at the suggestion of his teacher Elijah Benamozegh; afterwards, Pallière spread Benamozegh's doctrine in Europe and never formally converted to Judaism.[2][21] Modern historians argue that Benamozegh's role in the debate on Jewish universalism in the history of Jewish philosophy was focused on the Seven Laws of Noah as the means subservient to the shift of Jewish ethics from particularism to universalism, although the arguments that he used to support his universalistic viewpoint were neither original nor unheard in the history of this debate.[42] According to Clémence Boulouque, Carl and Bernice Witten Associate Professor of Jewish and Israel Studies at Columbia University in the City of New York, Benamozegh ignored the ethnocentric biases contained in the Noahide laws, whereas some contemporary right-wing Jewish political movements have embraced them.[42]

Modern Noahide movement

Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the Lubavitcher Rebbe, encouraged his followers on many occasions to preach the Seven Laws of Noah,[2][4] devoting some of his addresses to the subtleties of this code.[44][45][46] Since the 1990s,[2][3] Orthodox Jewish rabbis from Israel, most notably those affiliated to Chabad-Lubavitch and religious Zionist organizations,[2][3][7] including The Temple Institute,[2][3][7] have set up the modern Noahide movement.[2][3][7] These Noahide organizations, led by religious Zionist and Orthodox Jewish rabbis, are aimed at non-Jews to proselytize among them and commit them to follow the Noahide laws.[2][3][7] According to Rachel Z. Feldman,[3] American anthropologist and Assistant Professor of Religious Studies at Dartmouth College, many of the Orthodox Jewish rabbis involved in mentoring Noahides are supporters of the Third Temple movement who believe that the messianic era shall begin with the establishment of a Jewish theocratic state in Israel, supported by communities of Noahides worldwide:[3]

Today, nearly 2,000 Filipinos consider themselves members of the "Children of Noah", a new Judaic faith that is growing into the tens of thousands worldwide as ex-Christians encounter forms of Jewish learning online. Under the tutelage of Orthodox Jewish rabbis, Filipino "Noahides", as they call themselves, study Torah, observe the Sabbath, and passionately support a form of messianic Zionism. Filipino Noahides believe that Jews are a racially superior people, with an innate ability to access divinity. According to their rabbi mentors, they are forbidden from performing Jewish rituals and even reading certain Jewish texts. These restrictions have necessitated the creation of new, distinctly Noahide ritual practices and prayers modeled after Jewish ones. Filipino Noahides are practicing a new faith that also affirms the superiority of Judaism and Jewish biblical right to the Land of Israel, in line with the aims of the growing messianic Third Temple Movement in Jerusalem.[3]

Feldman describes Noahidism as a "new world religion" that "carv[es] out a place for non-Jews in the messianic Zionist project" and "affirms the superiority of Judaism and Jewish biblical right to the Land of Israel, in line with the aims of the growing messianic Third Temple Movement in Jerusalem."[3] She characterizes Noahide ideology in the Philippines and elsewhere in the global south as having a "markedly racial dimension" constructed around "an essential categorical difference between Jews and Noahides".[3] David Novak, professor of Jewish theology and ethics at the University of Toronto, has denounced the modern Noahide movement by stating that "If Jews are telling Gentiles what to do, it's a form of imperialism".[4]

High Council of Bnei Noah

In 2005 a "High Council of Bnei Noah", set up to represent Noahide communities around the world, was endorsed by a group that claimed to be the new Sanhedrin.[47] The High Council of Bnei Noah consists of a group of Noahides who, at the request of the nascent Sanhedrin, gathered in Jerusalem on 10 January 2006 to be recognized as an international Noahide organization for the purpose of serving as a bridge between the nascent Sanhedrin and Noahides worldwide.[48] There were ten initial members who flew to Israel and pledged to uphold the Seven Laws of Noah and to conduct themselves under the authority of the Noahide beth din (religious court) of the nascent Sanhedrin.[48]

Acknowledgment

Meir Kahane and Shlomo Carlebach organized one of the first Noahide conferences in the 1980s. In 1990, Kahane was the keynote speaker at the First International Conference of the Descendants of Noah, the first Noahide gathering, in Fort Worth, Texas.[2][3][7] After the assassination of Meir Kahane that same year, The Temple Institute, which advocates to rebuild the Third Jewish Temple on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, started to promote the Noahide laws as well.[2][7]

The Chabad-Lubavitch movement has been one of the most active in Noahide outreach, believing that there is spiritual and societal value for non-Jews in at least simply acknowledging the Noahide laws.[2][3][4][5] In 1982, Chabad-Lubavitch had a reference to the Noahide laws enshrined in a U.S. Presidential proclamation: the "Proclamation 4921",[49] signed by the then-U.S. President Ronald Reagan.[49] The United States Congress, recalling House Joint Resolution 447 and in celebration of Menachem Mendel Schneerson's 80th birthday, proclaimed 4 April 1982, as a "National Day of Reflection".[49]

In 1989 and 1990, they had another reference to the Noahide laws enshrined in a U.S. Presidential proclamation: the "Proclamation 5956",[50] signed by then-President George H. W. Bush.[50] The United States Congress, recalling House Joint Resolution 173 and in celebration of Menachem Mendel Schneerson's 87th birthday, proclaimed 16 April 1989, and 6 April 1990, as "Education Day, U.S.A."[50]

In January 2004, the spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel, Sheikh Mowafak Tarif, met with a representative of Chabad-Lubavitch to sign a declaration calling on all non-Jews in Israel to observe the Noahide laws; the mayor of the Arab city of Shefa-'Amr (Shfaram) also signed the document.[51]

In March 2016, the Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, Yitzhak Yosef, declared during a sermon that Jewish law requires that the only non-Jews allowed to live in Israel are obligated to follow the Noahide laws:[52][53]

According to Jewish law, it's forbidden for a non-Jew to live in the Land of Israel – unless he has accepted the seven Noahide laws, [...] If the non-Jew is unwilling to accept these laws, then we can send him to Saudi Arabia, [...] When there will be full, true redemption, we will do this.[52]

Yosef further added:

[N]on-Jews shouldn't live in the land of Israel. [...] If our hand were firm, if we had the power to rule, then non-Jews must not live in Israel. But, our hand is not firm. [...] Who, otherwise be the servants? Who will be our helpers? This is why we leave them in Israel.[54]

Yosef's sermon sparked outrage in Israel and was fiercely criticized by several human rights associations, NGOs and members of the Knesset;[52] Jonathan Greenblatt, Anti-Defamation League's CEO and national director, and Carole Nuriel, Anti-Defamation League's Israel Office acting director, issued a strong denunciation of Yosef's sermon:[52][54]

The statement by Chief Rabbi Yosef is shocking and unacceptable. It is unconscionable that the Chief Rabbi, an official representative of the State of Israel, would express such intolerant and ignorant views about Israel's non-Jewish population – including the millions of non-Jewish citizens.

As a spiritual leader, Rabbi Yosef should be using his influence to preach tolerance and compassion towards others, regardless of their faith, and not seek to exclude and demean a large segment of Israelis.

We call upon the Chief Rabbi to retract his statements and apologize for any offense caused by his comments.[54]

See also

References

  1. ^ Segal, Alan F. (1993). "Conversion and Universalism: Opposites that Attract". In McLean, Bradley H. (ed.). Origins and Method: Towards a New Understanding of Judaism and Christianity. Journal for the Study of the New Testament: Supplement Series. Vol. 86. Bloomsbury and Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 177–178. ISBN 9780567495570. Furthermore, the sign of the Noahide covenant, the rainbow, is available to all humanity to symbolize God's promise of safety. And it is completely outside of the special covenant with Abraham and his descendants. The covenant with Noah is expanded to the entire primeval period, encompassing all the revealed commandments preceding Sinai.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Feldman, Rachel Z. (8 October 2017). "The Bnei Noah (Children of Noah)". World Religions and Spirituality Project. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Feldman, Rachel Z. (August 2018). "The Children of Noah: Has Messianic Zionism Created a New World Religion?" (PDF). Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. 22 (1). Berkeley: University of California Press: 115–128. doi:10.1525/nr.2018.22.1.115. eISSN 1541-8480. ISSN 1092-6690. LCCN 98656716. OCLC 36349271. S2CID 149940089. Retrieved 31 May 2020 – via Project MUSE.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kress, Michael (2018). "The Modern Noahide Movement". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Strauss, Ilana E. (26 January 2016). "The Gentiles Who Act Like Jews: Who are these non-Jews practicing Orthodox Judaism?". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d Tabachnick, Toby (22 July 2010). "Noahides establish website for interested followers". The Jewish Chronicle of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Ilany, Ofri (12 September 2018). "The Messianic Zionist Religion Whose Believers Worship Judaism (But Can't Practice It)". Haaretz. Tel Aviv. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  8. ^ a b c Harris, Ben (26 June 2009). "Torah-embracing non-Jews fuel their movement online". JWeekly. San Francisco. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  9. ^ [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]
  10. ^ [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]
  11. ^ [2][3][4][5][6][7]
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Singer, Isidore; Greenstone, Julius H. (1906). "Noachian Laws". Jewish Encyclopedia. Kopelman Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Barnes, Bruce R. (2021). Wierciński, Andrzej (ed.). "The Noahide Laws and the Universal Fellowship with God" (PDF). Rocznik Teologii Katolickiej. Biblical Hermeneutics. XX. Białystok: International Institute for Hermeneutics on behalf of the University of Białystok: 5–32. doi:10.15290/rtk.2021.20.01. hdl:11320/12441. ISSN 1644-8855. S2CID 246335626. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 May 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Reiner, Gary (2011) [1997]. "Ha-Me'iri's Theory of Religious Toleration". In Laursen, John Christian; Nederman, Cary J. (eds.). Beyond the Persecuting Society: Religious Toleration Before the Enlightenment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 86–87. doi:10.9783/9780812205862.71. ISBN 978-0-8122-0586-2.
  15. ^ Moses Maimonides (2012). "Hilkhot M'lakhim (Laws of Kings and Wars)". Mishneh Torah. Translated by Brauner, Reuven. Sefaria. p. 8:14. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  16. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew ed., Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben Noah, end of article); note the variant reading of Maimonides and the references in the footnote.
  17. ^ [3][4][12][13][14][15][16]
  18. ^ [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][13]
  19. ^ Genesis 2:16
  20. ^ See Genesis Rabbah 34; Sanhedrin 59b
  21. ^ a b Schwarzschild, Steven S. (2006). "Noachide Laws". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vol. 15 (2nd ed.). Farmington Hills, Michigan: Macmillan Reference USA/Keter Publishing House. p. 284. ISBN 978-002-865-928-2. Archived from the original on 12 October 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2023 – via Encyclopedia.com.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Berkowitz, Beth (2017). "Approaches to Foreign Law in Biblical Israel and Classical Judaism through the Medieval Period". In Hayes, Christine (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Judaism and Law. New York City: Cambridge University Press. pp. 147–149. ISBN 978-1-107-03615-4. LCCN 2016028972.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h "Noahide Laws". Encyclopædia Britannica. Edinburgh: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 14 January 2008. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2020. Noahide Laws, also called Noachian Laws, a Jewish Talmudic designation for seven biblical laws given to Adam and to Noah before the revelation to Moses on Mt. Sinai and consequently binding on all mankind.
    Beginning with Genesis 2:16, the Babylonian Talmud listed the first six commandments as prohibitions against idolatry, blasphemy, murder, adultery, and robbery and the positive command to establish courts of justice (with all that this implies). After the Flood a seventh commandment, given to Noah, forbade the eating of flesh cut from a living animal (Genesis 9:4). Though the number of laws was later increased to 30 with the addition of prohibitions against castration, sorcery, and other practices, the "seven laws", with minor variations, retained their original status as authoritative commandments and as the source of other laws. As basic statutes safeguarding monotheism and guaranteeing proper ethical conduct in society, these laws provided a legal framework for alien residents in Jewish territory. Maimonides thus regarded anyone who observed these laws as one "assured of a portion in the world to come."
  24. ^ [12][14][22][23]
  25. ^ [12][14][22][23]
  26. ^ [12][14][22][23]
  27. ^ [12][14][22][23]
  28. ^ [12][14][22][23]
  29. ^ [12][14][22][23]
  30. ^ [12][14][22][23]
  31. ^ "Sanhedrin 56". Babylonian Talmud. Halakhah.
  32. ^ [12][14][22][23][31]
  33. ^ a b Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1986). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Vol. 3 (Fully Revised ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. p. 1010. ISBN 0-8028-3783-2. In rabbinic literature the ger toshab was a Gentile who observed the Noachian commandments but was not considered a convert to Judaism because he did not agree to circumcision. [...] some scholars have made the mistake of calling the ger toshab a "proselyte" or "semiproselyte." But the ger toshab was really a resident alien in Israel. Some scholars have claimed that the term "those who fear God" (yir᾿ei Elohim/Shamayim) was used in rabbinic literature to denote Gentiles who were on the fringe of the synagogue. They were not converts to Judaism, although they were attracted to the Jewish religion and observed part of the law.
  34. ^ a b Bleich, J. David (1995). Contemporary Halakhic Problems. Vol. 4. New York City: KTAV Publishing House (Yeshiva University Press). p. 161. ISBN 0-88125-474-6. Rashi, Yevamot 48b, maintains that a resident alien (ger toshav) is obliged to observe Shabbat. The ger toshav, in accepting the Seven Commandments of the Sons of Noah, has renounced idolatry and [...] thereby acquires a status similar to that of Abraham. [...] Indeed, Rabbenu Nissim, Avodah Zarah 67b, declares that the status on an unimmersed convert is inferior to that of a ger toshav because the former's acceptance of the "yoke of the commandments" is intended to be binding only upon subsequent immersion. Moreover, the institution of ger toshav as a formal halakhic construct has lapsed with the destruction of the Temple.
  35. ^ a b Singer, Isidore; Greenstone, Julius H. (1906). "Noachian Laws". Jewish Encyclopedia. Kopelman Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2020. The Seven Laws. Laws which were supposed by the Rabbis to have been binding upon mankind at large even before the revelation at Sinai, and which are still binding upon non-Jews. The term Noachian indicates the universality of these ordinances, since the whole human race was supposed to be descended from the three sons of Noah, who alone survived the Flood. [...] Basing their views on the passage in Genesis 2:16, they declared that the following six commandments were enjoined upon Adam: (1) not to worship idols; (2) not to blaspheme the name of God; (3) to establish courts of justice; (4) not to kill; (5) not to commit adultery; and (6) not to rob (Gen. R. xvi. 9, xxiv. 5; Cant. R. i. 16; comp. Seder 'Olam Rabbah, ed. Ratner, ch. v. and notes, Wilna, 1897; Maimonides, "Yad," Melakim, ix. 1). A seventh commandment was added after the Flood—not to eat flesh that had been cut from a living animal (Genesis 9:4). [...] Thus, the Talmud frequently speaks of "the seven laws of the sons of Noah," which were regarded as obligatory upon all mankind, in contradistinction to those that were binding upon Israelites only (Tosef., 'Ab. Zarah, ix. 4; Sanh. 56a et seq.). [...] He who observed the seven Noachian laws was regarded as a domiciled alien, as one of the pious of the Gentiles, and was assured of a portion in the world to come (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 1; Sanh. 105a; comp. ib. 91b; "Yad," l.c. viii. 11).
  36. ^ a b Jacobs, Joseph; Hirsch, Emil G. (1906). "Proselyte: Semi-Converts". Jewish Encyclopedia. Kopelman Foundation. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2020. In order to find a precedent the rabbis went so far as to assume that proselytes of this order were recognized in Biblical law, applying to them the term "toshab" ("sojourner," "aborigine," referring to the Canaanites; see Maimonides' explanation in "Yad," Issure Biah, xiv. 7; see Grätz, l.c. p. 15), in connection with "ger" (see Ex. xxv. 47, where the better reading would be "we-toshab"). Another name for one of this class was "proselyte of the gate" ("ger ha-sha'ar," that is, one under Jewish civil jurisdiction; comp. Deut. v. 14, xiv. 21, referring to the stranger who had legal claims upon the generosity and protection of his Jewish neighbors). In order to be recognized as one of these the neophyte had publicly to assume, before three "ḥaberim," or men of authority, the solemn obligation not to worship idols, an obligation which involved the recognition of the seven Noachian injunctions as binding ('Ab. Zarah 64b; "Yad," Issure Biah, xiv. 7). [...] The more rigorous seem to have been inclined to insist upon such converts observing the entire Law, with the exception of the reservations and modifications explicitly made in their behalf. The more lenient were ready to accord them full equality with Jews as soon as they had solemnly forsworn idolatry. The "via media" was taken by those that regarded public adherence to the seven Noachian precepts as the indispensable prerequisite (Gerim iii.; 'Ab. Zarah 64b; Yer. Yeb. 8d; Grätz, l.c. pp. 19–20). The outward sign of this adherence to Judaism was the observance of the Sabbath (Grätz, l.c. pp. 20 et seq.; but comp. Ker. 8b).
  37. ^ [33][34][35][36]
  38. ^ [33][34][35][36]
  39. ^ Goodman, Martin (2007). "Identity and Authority in Ancient Judaism". Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays. Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. Vol. 66. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 30–32. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004153097.i-275.7. ISBN 978-90-04-15309-7. ISSN 1871-6636. LCCN 2006049637. S2CID 161369763.
  40. ^ Moses Maimonides (2012). "Hilkhot M'lakhim (Laws of Kings and Wars)". Mishneh Torah. Translated by Brauner, Reuven. Sefaria. p. 10:9. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  41. ^ Moses Maimonides (2012). "Hilkhot M'lakhim (Laws of Kings and Wars)". Mishneh Torah. Translated by Brauner, Reuven. Sefaria. p. 10:10. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  42. ^ a b c Boulouque, Clémence (2020). "Situating Benamozegh in the Debate on Jewish Universalism". Another Modernity: Elia Benamozegh's Jewish Universalism. Stanford Studies in Jewish History and Culture. Berlin and Redwood City: De Gruyter/Stanford University Press. pp. 63–82. doi:10.1515/9781503613119-009. ISBN 9781503613119. S2CID 241853880.
  43. ^ Kogan, Michael S. (2008). "Three Jewish Theologians of Christianity: Elijah Benamozegh (1823–1900)". Opening the Covenant: A Jewish Theology of Christianity. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 80–84. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195112597.003.0003. ISBN 978-0-19-511259-7. S2CID 170858477.
  44. ^ Schneerson, Menachem Mendel (1979). Likkutei Sichot [Collected Talks] (in Yiddish). Vol. 4. Brooklyn: Kehot Publication Society. p. 1094. ISBN 978-0-8266-5722-0.
  45. ^ Schneerson, Menachem Mendel (1985). Likkutei Sichot [Collected Talks] (in Yiddish). Vol. 26. Brooklyn: Kehot Publication Society. pp. 132–144. ISBN 978-0-8266-5749-7.
  46. ^ Schneerson, Menachem Mendel (1987). Likkutei Sichot [Collected Talks] (in Yiddish). Vol. 35. Brooklyn: Kehot Publication Society. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-8266-5781-7.
  47. ^ HaLevi, Ezra (28 September 2005). "Sanhedrin Moves to Establish Council For Noahides". Arutz Sheva. Beit El. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  48. ^ a b HaLevi, Ezra (10 January 2006). "A group of non-Jewish delegates have come to Jerusalem to pledge their loyalty to the Laws of Noah". Arutz Sheva. Beit El. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  49. ^ a b c Woolley, John; Peters, Gerhard (3 April 1982). "Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States: 1981–1989 – Proclamation 4921—National Day of Reflection". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  50. ^ a b c Woolley, John; Peters, Gerhard (14 April 1989). "George Bush, 41st President of the United States: 1989–1993 – Proclamation 5956—Education Day, U.S.A., 1989 and 1990". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  51. ^ "Druze Religious Leader commits to Noachide "Seven Laws"". Arutz Sheva. Beit El. 18 January 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  52. ^ a b c d Sharon, Jeremy (28 March 2016). "Non-Jews in Israel must keep Noahide laws, chief rabbi says". The Jerusalem Post. Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  53. ^ "Israel 2016 International Religious Freedom Report: Israel and the Occupied Territories" (PDF). State.gov. US Department of State-Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  54. ^ a b c Greenblatt, Jonathan; Nuriel, Carole (28 March 2016). "ADL: Israeli Chief Rabbi Statement Against Non-Jews Living in Israel is Shocking and Unacceptable". Adl.org. New York City: Anti-Defamation League. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2020.

Further reading

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Noahidism
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