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New Julfa

New Julfa
Նոր Ջուղա
Courtyard of the Holy Savior Cathedral, and the Museum of Khachatur Kesaratsi
Courtyard of the Holy Savior Cathedral, and the Museum of Khachatur Kesaratsi
Coordinates: 32°38′10.79″N 51°39′20.55″E / 32.6363306°N 51.6557083°E / 32.6363306; 51.6557083
CountryIran
ProvinceIsfahan Province
CountiesIsfahan County
CityIsfahan
DistrictDistrict 5 (Isfahan)
Settledearly 17th century

New Julfa (Persian: نو جلفا, Now Jolfā, or جلفای نو, Jolfâ-ye Now; Armenian: Նոր Ջուղա, Nor Jugha) is the Armenian quarter of Isfahan, Iran, located along the south bank of the Zayanderud.

Established and named after the older city of Julfa in the early 17th century (now divided as Jolfa, Iran and Julfa, Azerbaijan), it is still one of the oldest and largest Armenian quarters in the world (hy).

History

Map of New Julfa (planimetry)
View of New Julfa

New Julfa was established in 1606 as an Armenian quarter by the edict of Abbas the Great, sultan of the Safavid dynasty. Over 150,000 Armenians were forcibly moved there from Old Julfa (also known as Jugha or Juła) (hy). Iranian sources state that the Armenians came to Iran fleeing the Ottoman Empire's persecution. Nevertheless, historical records indicate that the residents of Julfa were treated well by Shah Abbas in the hopes that their resettlement in Isfahan would be beneficial to Iran due to their knowledge of the silk trade.[1][2]

Since its foundation, New Julfa was administered by the Lazaryan noble family which moved to Russia after Nader Shah's death in 1747.[3] One of its members, Ivan Lazarev, became a court banker to Catherine the Great and was made an Imperial Count in 1788. His brother established the Lazarev Institute in Moscow.

In 1947, the historian Fernand Braudel wrote that the Armenians had a trade network that stretched from Amsterdam to Manila in the Philippines. Many scholars in Armenia have done pioneering work on this network in the 60s, 70s and 80s. Levon Khachikian and Sushanik Khachikian have edited and published several New Julfan account books. Over the next few centuries, New Julfa became the hub of "one of the greatest trade networks of the early modern era,"[4] with outposts as far east as Canton, Surabaya, and Manila,[5] and as far west as Cadiz, London, and Amsterdam, with a few merchants traveling across the Atlantic or Pacific oceans to Acapulco or Mexico City.

An old photograph of the Holy Savior Cathedral from the 1930s

A significant majority of Armenian trading families were based in New Julfa. Due to their dispersal, many families that were originally from the older city of Julfa[2][1][6] created a main settlement in Bengal expanding the trade network based in New Julfa.[1] However, Some scholars argue that Surat, Bengal and Hughli were independent nodes and that the central control of New Julfa was not as important to their thriving Indian Ocean trade.[5] Many New Julfan Armenians later settled in Manila, Hong Kong, and also in Australia. Their networks have been studied based on Armenian sources.[1][2] Some also settled in Singapore, where Armenians from New Julfa became the mainstay of the Armenian community in the country. Most were traders, but perhaps better known were the Sarkies (Ter Woskanian) brothers who founded Singapore's Raffles Hotel in 1887.

A Christmas shop in New Julfa

New Julfa is still an Armenian-populated area with an Armenian school and sixteen churches, including the Holy Savior Cathedral. Armenians in New Julfa observe Iranian law with regard to clothing, but retain a distinct Armenian language, identity, cuisine, and culture which is protected by the Iranian government.[7]

According to David Petrosyan of the Institute for Central Asian and Caucasian Studies, New Julfa had 10,000–12,000 Armenian inhabitants in 1998.[8] As of today, it is still one of the world's largest ethnic Armenian quarters.

Sites

Churches

Holy Savior Cathedral, New Julfa
Ceiling of the Holy Savior Cathedral
Museum of Khachatur Kesaratsi

Armenian Apostolic

Roman Catholic

Protestant

Museums

Schools

  • Samian (1831–1853) (hy)
  • Katarinyan (1858–now) (hy)
  • Azgayin Kntronakan (1880–now) (hy)
  • Gevorg Kananyan (1905–now) (hy)

Notable people

The statues at the entrance of the Museum of Khachatur Kesaratsi
Statue of Khachatur Kesaratsi, founder of the first publishing house in Iran
Statue of Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet
  • Apcar family – merchant family
  • Sceriman family – merchant family
  • De l'Estoile family – merchant family
  • Lazarian family (ru) – noble family
  • Sarkies Brothers – businessmen
  • Khvajeh Safar (d. 1618) – mayor of Julfa
  • Martin the Armenian (hy) (d. 1619) – first Armenian-American / Iranian-American
  • Azaria Jughayetsi (hy) (16th century) – notary
  • Petik and Sanos (ru) (16th century) – merchants
  • Mesrop of Khizan (c. 1560 – c. 1652) – manuscript illuminator
  • Stepanos Dzik Jughayetsi (hy) (1583–1647) – writer
  • Khachatur Kesaratsi (1590–1646) – archbishop and publisher (hy)
  • Khvajeh Petros Velijanian (fa) (d. 1649) – merchant
  • Simeon Jughayetsi (ru) (d. 1657) – scholar
  • Hakob IV of Julfa (hy) (1598–1680) – Catholicos (1655–80)
  • Mirman Mirimanidze (17th century) – mayor of New Julfa
  • Otar Beg (1583–1663) – mayor of New Julfa
  • Hakop Jughayetsi (ru) (17th century) – manuscript illuminator
  • Siet Khachikian (hy) (17th century) – diplomat
  • Grigor Usta (hy) (17th century) – architect
  • Hovhannes Jughayetsi Ktreshents (hy) (17th century) – printer
  • Kostand Jughayetsi (hy) (17th century) – scholar
  • Marcara Avanchintz (17th century) – merchant
  • Minas (hy) (17th century) – painter
  • Hovhannes Jughayetsi Ktreshents (hy) (c.1610–c.1660) – publisher
  • Minas Jughayetsi (hy) (1610–1670) – painter
  • Mohammad Beg (d. 1671) – mayor of New Julfa
  • Voskan Yerevantsi (1614–1674) – publisher
  • Hajji Piri (d. 1694) – mayor of New Julfa
  • Bogdan Saltanov (1630–1703) – painter
  • Hovhannes Mrkouz (1643–1715) – philosopher
  • Egaz Norjughayetsi (hy) (1650–1734) – musician
  • Ghul Arzuni (hy) (1650–1750) – musician
  • Arzuni Jughayetsi (hy) (1650–1750) – musician
  • Arapiet di Martin (hy) (1650–1760) – musician
  • Stepanos Dashtetsi (ru) (1653–1720) – writer
  • Abgar Ali Akbar Armani (d. 1708) – merchant
  • Alexander I of Julfa (d. 1714) – Catholicos (1706–14)
  • Petros di Sargis Gilanents (ru) (d. 1724) – merchant
  • Hagopdjan de Deritchan (d. 1726) – diplomat
  • Coja Petrus Uscan (1680–1751) – merchant
  • Aghazar di Khachik (hy) (1690–1750) – military man
  • Grigor Harutiunian (hy) (d. 1763) – political leader
  • Aghazar Lazarian (hy) (1700–1782) – merchant
  • Zaccaria Seriman (it) (1709–1784) – writer
  • Tovmas Khojamalian (hy) (c.1720–1780) – historian
  • Shahamir Shahamirian (1723–1798) – political activist
  • Stefano Domenico Sceriman (it) (1729–1806) – writer
  • Ivan Lazarevich Lazarev (1735–1801) – jeweller
  • Petros Kalantarian (hy) (1735–1???) – physician
  • Minas Lazarian (hy) (1737–1809) – politician
  • Astvadsatour Babikian (hy) (1738–1825) – writer
  • Khachatour Lazarian (hy) (1741–1774) – politician
  • Hovakim Lazarian (hy) (1743–1826) – political activist
  • Nikoghayos Aghababaian (hy) (1750–1809) – merchant
  • Khachatur Jughayetsi (hy) (18th century) – historian
  • Movses Baghramian (18th century) – political activist
  • Tadevos Soginian (hy) (18th century) – political activist
  • Ivan Karapet (hy) (18th century) – political activist
  • George Manook (1763–1827) – merchant
  • Hakob Hovnatanyan (1806–1871) – painter
  • Tadevos Avetoumian (hy) (1811–1863) – writer
  • Zerouni Masehian (fa) (1811–18??) – goldsmith
  • Megrtich Emin (ru) (1815–1890) – scholar
  • Minus Megerdich Zorab (1833–1896) – painter
  • Tiruhi Ter-Nahapetian (hy) (19th century) – artist
  • Mirza Malkam Khan (1834–1908) – politician
  • Martiros Khan Davidkhanian (1843–1905) – general
  • Sarkis Khan Davidkhanian (1846-?) – general
  • Eskandar Khan Davidkhanian – professor and general
  • Markar Khan Davidkhanian (19th century) – minister of finance
  • Tiruhi Ter-Nahapetian (hy) (19th century) – artist
  • Vittoria Aganoor (1855–1910) – poet
  • Minas Manook Basil (Barseghian) (hy) (1857–1922) – physician
  • Diana Abgar (1859–1937) – diplomat
  • Matevos Aghakhan Karakhanian (fa) (1860–1946) – photographer
  • Arathoon Stephen (1861–1927) – businessman
  • Hovsep Mirzayan (hy) (1868–1935) – politician
  • Mesrovb Jacob Seth (1871–1939) – scholar
  • Hovhannes Abkarian (fa) (1875–1931) – musician
  • Tigran Abgarian (hy) (1877–1950) – philologist
  • Petros Abkar (fa) (1884–19??) – politician
  • Megrdich Abgar (hy) (1884–1967) – archbishop
  • Mkrtich Hakobian (hy) (1885–1971) – photographer
  • Minas Patkerhanian (hy) (1885–1972) – photographer
  • Markar Galstiants (fa) (1888–1985) – architect
  • Yeghia Velijanian (hy) (1889–1976) – artist
  • Guregh Israelian (1894–1949) – Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem (1944–49)
  • Zabel Stepanian-Bartev (fa) (1894–1982) – telegraph technician
  • Karo Minassian (hy) (1897–1973) – physician
  • Meguertitch Khan Davidkhanian (1902–1983) – general and politician
  • Haykush Ter-Martirosian (hy) (1905–1987) – actress
  • Bersabe Hovsepian (hy) (1906–1999) – public figure
  • Rafael Atayan (hy) (1907–1990) – writer
  • Poghos Petrosian (hy) (1907–19??) – bishop
  • Abraham Gurgenian (hy) (1908–1991) – painter
  • Annik Shefrazian (1909–1996) – actress
  • Aramais Aghamalian (1910–1985) – film director
  • Johny Baghdasarian (fa) (1913–1979) – film director
  • Sumbat Der Kiureghian (1913–1999) – painter
  • Yervand Nahapetian (fa) (1916–2006) – painter
  • Emma Abrahamian (fa) (b. 1919) – sculptor
  • Alain John (1920–1943) – sculptor
  • Alenush Terian (1920–2011) – astronomer and physicist
  • Levon Minassian (fa) (1920–2013) – scholar
  • Sevak Saginian (fa) (1921–2003) – politician
  • Clara Abkar (hy) (1922–1996) – painter
  • Hrand Ghoukasian (fa) (1927–1996) – physician and translator
  • Arsham Yesayi (fa) (b. 1931) – tennis player
  • Neshan Sarkissian (Karekin I) (1932–1999) – Prelate of the Diocese of New Julfa (1971–75), Catholicos of Cilicia (1983–94) and Catholicos of All Armenians (1994–99)
  • Nechan Karakéhéyan (b. 1932) – Catholic bishop of New Julfa (2000–05)
  • Krzysztof Penderecki (b. 1933) – "Poland's greatest living composer"
  • Nikol Faridani (1935–2008) – photographer
  • Grish Davtian (hy) (b. 1935) – poet
  • Alek Ter-Khachatourian (fa) (b. 1935) – translator
  • Grigor Nazarian (hy) (b. 1937) – architect
  • Varouj Karapetian (fa) (b. 1938) – film technician
  • Arbi Hovhannisian (hy) (b. 1942) – film director
  • Sako Ghoukasian (fa) (1943–2015) – opera singer
  • George Bournoutian (b. 1943) – scholar
  • Megerdich Toumanian (hy) (b. 1943) – mathematician
  • Vartan Vartanian (fa) (b. 1943) – politician
  • Nelson Shirvanian (hy) (1944–2018) – sculptor
  • Tigran Toumanian (fa) (b. 1946) – film technician
  • Armen Der Kiureghian (b. 1947) – scholar
  • Herach Khachatourian (fa) (b. 1948) – politician
  • Caro Lucas (1949–2010) – scholar
  • Zaven Ghoukasian (fa) (1950–2015) – film director
  • Masis Hambarsounian (b. 1950) – boxer
  • Georgik Abrahamian (fa) (b. 1952) – politician
  • Artavazd Baghoumian (fa) (b. 1953) – politician
  • Jirayr Kocharian (hy) (b. 1955) – cartographer
  • Hrant Markarian (b. 1958) – politician and chairman of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation
  • Robert Beglarian (b. 1961) – politician
  • Vahik Trossian (fa) (b. 1967) – football player
  • Nairy Baghramian (b. 1971) – visual artist
  • Aren Davoudi (b. 1986) – basketball player
  • Oshin Sahakian (b. 1986) – basketball player
  • Kajayr Hakopian (hy) (b. 1989) – actor
  • Armen Tahmazyan (b. 1990) – football player

Friendly cities

New Julfa has friendly relations with:[9]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Sushil Chaudhuri and Kéram Kévonian eds., Les Arméniens dans le commerce asiatique au début de l’ere moderne [Armenians in Asian trade in the Early Modern Era], (Paris, 2007).
  2. ^ a b c Baghdiantz McCabe, Ina The Shah’s Silk for Europe’s Silver: The Eurasian Silk trade of the Julfan Armenians in Safavid Iran and India (1590–1750). University of Pennsylvania Series, Scholar’s Press, 1999.
  3. ^ "ЛАЗАРЕВЫ • Большая российская энциклопедия - электронная версия".
  4. ^ Sebouh Aslanian. "The Salt in a Merchant's Letter": The Culture of Julfan Correspondence in the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. Journal of World History 19 (2008): 127-188
  5. ^ a b Bhattacharya, Bhaswatti “Making Money at the Blessed Place of Manilla: Armenians in the Madras- Manila Trade in the Eighteenth Century.” Journal of Global History, (2008),3, 1-20.
  6. ^ Mesrob Jacob Seth, an Armenian historian
  7. ^ Vasgen Ghougassian The Emergence of the Diocese of New Julfa in the Seventeenth Century, Atlanta, University of Pennsylvania Series), 1998.
  8. ^ Petrosyan, David (1998). Армянская община в Иране (in Russian). Institute for Central Asian and Caucasian Studies. ...еще 10-12 тысяч - в Исфагане (армяне называют его Новой Джугой)...
  9. ^ "Ispahan/Quartier de la Nouvelle-Jolfâ (Iran)". Retrieved 17 February 2021.

Sources

See also

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New Julfa
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