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Nerses IV the Gracious

Nerses IV the Gracious
Սուրբ Ներսէս Դ. Կլայեցի (Շնորհալի)
Illustration of Nerses IV the Gracious in the 1898 book Illustrated Armenia and Armenians[1]
Installed1166
Term endedAugust 13, 1173
PredecessorGregory III of Cilicia
SuccessorGregory IV the Young
Personal details
Born1102
DiedAugust 13, 1173
Sainthood
Feast daySaturday of the Fourth Week of the Holy Cross (mid-October) (Armenian Apostolic Church)
13 August (Roman Catholic Church)
Venerated inArmenian Orthodox Church
Armenian Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church

Nerses IV the Gracious (Armenian: Սուրբ Ներսէս Դ. Կլայեցի (Շնորհալի); also Nerses Shnorhali, Nerses of Kla or Saint Nerses the Graceful; 1102 – 13 August 1173) was Catholicos of Armenia from 1166 to 1173.

During his time as a bishop and, later, as Catholicos of the Armenian Church, Nerses worked to bring about reconciliation with the Eastern Orthodox Church and convened a council with emissaries selected by the Byzantine emperor himself to discuss how they might be able to reunite the two churches. The terms the emperor offered were, however, unacceptable to both Nerses and the Armenian Church, and the negotiations collapsed.

Nerses is remembered as a theologian, poet, writer and hymn composer.[2] He has been called "the Fénelon of Armenia" for his efforts to draw the Armenian church out of isolation,[3] and has been recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church, which holds his feast on August 13, and by the Armenian Apostolic Church, who celebrate him in mid-October on the Saturday of the Fourth Week of the Holy Cross.

Biography

Early life

Nerses was born in approximately 1100 into the noble Pahlavuni family.[4][5][6] Nerses was the name he adopted upon ordination as a priest; his birth name is unknown.[4] He was the son of Apirat Pahlavuni and the great-grandson of the writer and prince Grigor Magistros.[4][5] According to some sources, he was born in the castle of Dzovk in the province of Tluk in Cilicia,[6][7] located southwest of Aintab in the domain of the Armenian warlord Gogh Vasil.[8] However, other sources claim that Nerses was born in his family's fortress, also called Dzovk, in the historical province of Sophene in Armenia,[4][5] near modern-day Elazığ.[9] Nerses moved to Dzovk in Cilicia, named after their original home, with his brother, the future Catholicos Gregory III, after the death of their father in 1111.[8] After the early death of his father, Nerses and his older brother Gregory were placed under the guardianship of their maternal granduncle, Catholicos Gregory II the Martyrophile, who placed them in the Karmir Vank (Red Monastery) of Shughr[7] in the mountains of southeastern Cilicia.[6] Later, Gregory's successor Basil of Ani[10] (a cousin of Nerses)[11] placed them under the tutelage of the monk Stepanos Manouk, a highly regarded scholar and theologian.[7] Nerses' epithet Shnorhali, which may be translated as 'graceful'[10] or 'full of grace',[12] appears to have been an honorary title given to the graduates of Karmir Vank,[10][13] although others have suggested that he received this title for the grace of his person, speech and written works[6] or because of the irenic quality of his writing.[11]

Members of the Pahlavuni family held the office of Armenian catholicos from 1066 to 1203.[10] The Pahlavunis worked to maintain their family's control over the catholicosate. After Basil of Ani's death in 1113, Nerses' brother Gregory became catholicos at the age of 18.[11] Nerses himself was ordained to be a celibate priest by his brother at the age of 17 and was consecrated a bishop at the age of 35.[7]

Bishop

In 1125, Nerses assisted his older brother, now Catholicos Gregory III of Cilicia, in moving the catholicate to Dzovk near Lake Kharput, on the property of their father, Prince Apirat. In 1138, amid political tensions, Gregory and Nerses started on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and, on the way, took part in a synod at Antioch to examine the behavior of Ralph of Domfront, Latin Patriarch of Antioch. On the conclusion of the synod, Gregory continued on to Jerusalem together with the papal legate Alberic of Ostia, sending Nerses back.[11][14]

In 1165, hostilities broke out between Thoros II, Prince of Armenia and Oshin of Lampron, the two strongest Armenian princes of Cilicia.[11] Gregory sent his brother Nerses out to mediate.[11]

On his way to the mediation, Nerses stopped at Mamistra, where he met the Byzantine governor Alexios Axouch and discussed the strained relations between the Armenian and Greek churches since the Greek Orthodox declared the Armenian Church and the Jacobite Church heretics in 1140. Axouch was sufficiently impressed with this discussion to urge Nerses to write an exposition of the Armenian faith which Axouch could then forward to the emperor in Constantinople. Nerses did so, stressing in his letter that, as both the Armenian and Greek churches accepted the statements of the First Council of Ephesus, there was no clear reason for them not to be in agreement, making no polemical statements about the later Council of Chalcedon and its Confession.[11]

On Nerses' return from his successful mediation efforts in the Armenian war, and the death of his brother Gregory shortly thereafter, Nerses was made Catholicos of the Armenian Church.[11]

Catholicos

While in office, he moved the see of the Catholicos from Sis to Hromkla (Rumkale).

After the death of his brother Gregory, the letter Nerses wrote to the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos received a reply from the emperor. In the letter, the emperor invited the then-deceased Catholicos Gregory to come to Constantinople. Nerses wrote back to the emperor, informing him of Gregory's death and suggesting that an alternative might be for a discussion in which both the Greek and Armenian churches could present their positions. In 1171, the emperor sent a delegation led by Theorianus, a theologian from Constantinople, and John Atman, an Armenian member of the Orthodox Church and abbot of the monastery at Philippopolis. Although there had been early hope for active participation by the Jacobite Church as well, the patriarch of the Jacobite church, Michael the Syrian, chose to only send an observer with a Jacobite profession of faith to the meeting. The meeting ultimately concluded with an agreement which basically accepted the position of the Greek church. Nerses created a new profession of faith for his church written in a conciliatory tone to be taken back to Constantinople for review by that church. He sent with it a confidential message to the emperor in which he promised to make every effort to reconcile the Armenian and Orthodox churches.[11]

In December of that year Theorianus and John Atman returned to Hromgla with letters from the emperor and the Orthodox Patriarch Michael III of Constantinople. The letter from the emperor encouraged Nerses to work toward the unity of the two churches, and expressed sympathy for the problems that were expected from the clergy of the Armenian church. The official statement from Constantinople included nine points which the Orthodox established saw as being at odds with the imperial church. These included points of doctrine regarding some of the church councils, including Chalcedon, liturgical questions including use of unleavened bread and undiluted wine in the Eucharist, and the disparities between the liturgical calendars of the two churches. The statement also specifically required that the emperor should be given the authority to make the appointments of any further Catholicoi of the Armenian church.[11]

Nerses was surprised by the severity of several of the proposals, and raised objections to them. In response, the delegates from the emperor produced the confidential letters exchanged by Nerses and the emperor, which served to embarrass Nerses to the Armenians. The revelation served to harden the objections of the Armenian clergy to any attempts at reconciliation. Nerses wrote out a letter to Constantinople in which he thanked the emperor for his interest, and promised that, at the appropriate time, there would be a council in Armenia formed to take up his proposals. Nerses also suggested that the Greeks might consider the possibility that perhaps some of its own traditions could bear some attention and correction.[11]

Nerses was by this time some 70 years old, and he made arrangements to turn the position of Catholicos to another. Following the tradition of his family, he chose between two relatives who had already achieved the position of bishop in the church. Nerses' own choice was for the younger of the two candidates, but the other one, Gregory, had support from the prince Mleh and ultimately took the position of Catholicos in 1173.[11]

Works

In addition to the letters mentioned above, Nerses wrote a number of musical works, volumes of poetry, and theological works as well.

His major literary achievements include Vipasanut’iun, a novel written in poetic form, and Voghb Yedesio (Lamentation on Edessa),[7] regarding the fall of Edessa.[7]

Hisus Vordi is a reproduction of the Bible in poetic form, which also contains stories from church history and ends with the events of the End Times. It has been translated into English as Jesus Son.[7]

Another of his works, Tught’ Endhanrakan is an exhortation on pastoral theology and how Christians should behave. The work also includes information on the hierarchy of the Armenian Apostolic Church and of society, and matters of daily life in that era of Cilician Armenian history. It has been translated into English and modern Armenian.[7]

A collection of his daily prayers, Twenty-four Hour Prayers, has been translated into 32 languages,[15] and one prayer in particular, Havatov Khostovanim (I Confess with Faith), is currently available in 36 languages.[7] Several of Nerses' poems have been adopted for use in the Armenian Hymnal and Divine Liturgy.[16] In James R. Russell's view, Nerses' poetry emphasizes "the imagery of fire and light in a manner at once redolent of Hesychasm and consonant with the Zoroastrian substrate of Armenian Christian culture."[16]

One work of Nerses which has since been lost is a commentary on the Book of Genesis. In that work, he related the story he received from some Armenian monks who came to visit him during his time as Catholicos to tell him of how they were able to see the Garden of Eden from a distance.[16] In one painting of the scene, the vegetation of the Garden appear as colored gemstones. Unfortunately, the angel with a sword appointed to guard the garden would not allow the monks to take one of the blossoms with them.[16]

Canonization

In the Roman Catholic Church he is venerated as St. Nerses Glaietsi, Nerses Clayatsi alongside his nephew, St. Nerses of Lambron, both being considered champions of Church unity.

References

  1. ^ Gaidzakian, Ohan (1898). Illustrated Armenia and the Armenians. Boston. p. 141.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  2. ^ Holding, Nicholas (2006). Armenia with Nagorno Karabagh. Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 44.
  3. ^ Attwater, Donald (1965). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. Harmondsworth: Penguin. p. 248.
  4. ^ a b c d Ayvazyan, Hovhannes, ed. (2002). Kʻristonya Hayastan hanragitaran Քրիստոնյա Հայաստան հանրագիտարան [Christian Armenia Encyclopedia] (PDF) (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia Publishing House. pp. 787–793. ISBN 9785897000166.
  5. ^ a b c Tahmizian, N. (1982). "Nerses Shnorhali" Ներսես Շնորհալի. In Arzumanian, Makich (ed.). Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran Հայկական սովետական հանրագիտարան [Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia] (in Armenian). Vol. 8. Yerevan. pp. 254–256.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  6. ^ a b c d Hacikyan, Agop Jack; Basmajian, Gabriel; Franchuk, Edward S. (2002). "Nerses Shnorhali (St. Nerses the Graceful) (c. 1101–1173)". The Heritage of Armenian Literature. Vol. 2. pp. 391–396. ISBN 9780814330234. Nerses Shnorhali was one of the most remarkable figures of medieval Armenian literature.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Asadourian, Avak (2005). "Nerses of Kla". Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol. 10 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 6478–6479. ISBN 0028657330.
  8. ^ a b Hakobyan, T. Kh.; Melik-Bakhshyan, S. T.; Barseghyan, H. Kh. (1988). "Tsovk" Ծովք. Hayastani ev harakitsʻ shrjanneri teghanunneri baṛaran Հայաստանի և հարակից շրջանների տեղանունների բառարան [Dictionary of Toponymy of Armenia and Adjacent Territories] (in Armenian). Vol. 2. Yerevan University Publishing House. p. 863.
  9. ^ Thomson, Robert W. (1991). "Nersēs Šnorhali". In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195046526.
  10. ^ a b c d Maksoudian, Krikor H. (1987). "Nersēs IV Šnorhali". In Strayer, Joseph R. (ed.). Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Vol. 9. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0-684-18275-0.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Frazee, Charles A. (June 1976). "The Christian Church in Cilician Armenia: Its Relations with Rome and Constantinople to 1198". Church History. 45 (2). Cambridge University Press on behalf of the American Society of Church History: 166–184. doi:10.2307/3163715. JSTOR 3163715. S2CID 162237549.
  12. ^ Kebranian, Nanor (2017). "Armenian Poetry and Poetics". In Greene, Roland (ed.). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4th ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780190681173.
  13. ^ Pinggéra, Karl (2011). "Nerses IV Shnorhali". Religion Past and Present. Brill. doi:10.1163/1877-5888_rpp_SIM_124061. ISBN 9789004146662.
  14. ^ Clapp, James A.; Dadoyan, Seta B. (8 September 2017). The Armenians in the Medieval Islamic World: Armenian Realpolitik in the Islamic World and Diverging Paradigmscase of Cilicia Eleventh to Fourteenth Centuries. Routledge. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-351-48576-0. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  15. ^ Buckley, J. M. (2003). "Nerses Gratiosus (Šnorhali)" (PDF). New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Gale. pp. 251–252.
  16. ^ a b c d Russell, James R. (Spring 2007). "The Shrine beneath the Waves". RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics. 51 (51). The President and Fellows of Harvard College acting through the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology: 136–156. doi:10.1086/RESv51n1ms20167721. JSTOR 20167721. S2CID 132334949.

Further reading

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