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List of nature deities

A Greek dryad depicted in a painting

In religion, a nature deity is a deity in charge of forces of nature, such as a water deity, vegetation deity, sky deity, solar deity, fire deity, or any other naturally occurring phenomena such as mountains, trees, or volcanoes. Accepted in panentheism, pantheism, deism, polytheism, animism, totemism, shamanism, and paganism, the deity embodies natural forces and can have various characteristics, such as that of a mother goddess, "Mother Nature", or lord of the animals.

African

Akan mythology

  • Asase Yaa, the goddess of the harsh earth, Truth and Mother of the Dead in the Akan religion
  • Asase Afua, the goddess of the lush earth, fertility, love, procreation and farming in the Akan religion
  • Bia, personification of the Bia River and god of the wilderness and wild animals in the Akan religion
  • Tano, personification of the Tano River and god of the river and thunder

Bantu mythology

Egyptian mythology

  • Ash, god of the oasis and the vineyards of the western Nile Delta
  • Geb, Egyptian god of earth with sister/wife Nut, the sky goddess as his consort

Igbo mythology

Voodoo mythology

Yoruba mythology

Zulu mythology

  • iNyanga, Zulu moon goddess
  • Nomhoyi, Zulu goddess of rivers
  • Nomkhubulwane, Zulu goddess mother of fertility, rain, agriculture, rainbow and beer
  • Unsondo, Zulu god of the sky, sun, thunder, earthquake

American

Aztec mythology

  • Xochipilli, god of art, games, beauty, dance, flowers, maize, and song
  • Xochiquetzal, goddess of fertility, beauty, female sexual power, protection of young mothers, of pregnancy, childbirth, vegetation, flowers, and the crafts of women
  • Tonantzin, mother goddess

Brazilian mythology/Guarani mythology

  • Curupira, a powerful demon or forest spirit and guardian of nature

Haitian Vodou

  • Baron Samedi, loa of the dead
  • Grand Bois, loa associated with trees, plants and herbs
  • L'inglesou, loa who lives in the wild areas of Haiti and kills anyone who offends him
  • Loco, loa associated with healers and plants, especially trees

Inca mythology

  • Pachamama, fertility goddess who presides over planting, harvesting and earthquakes

Maya mythology

  • Yum Kaax, god of agriculture, wild plants and animals

Native American mythology

  • Asintmah, Athabaskan earth and nature goddess, and the first woman to walk the earth
  • Ngen, Mapuche spirits of nature

Asian

Chinese mythology

Hinduism

  • Prithvi or Bhumi, goddess regarded as "Mother Earth"; Sanskrit for Earth
  • Agni, god of fire
  • Varuna, god of oceans
  • Vayu, god of wind
  • Indra, god of rain, lightning and thunders
  • Aranyani, goddess of the forests and the animals that dwell within it

Japanese mythology

  • Amaterasu, goddess of the sun
  • Izanagi, forefather of the gods, god of creation and life and first male
  • Izanami, Izanagi's wife and sister, goddess of creation and death, first female
  • Konohanasakuya-hime, the blossom-princess and symbol of delicate earthly life
  • Shinigami, god of death
  • Suijin, god of water
  • Fūjin, god of wind
  • Kagu-tsuchi, god of fire
  • Susanoo, god of storms, (fertility in Izumo legends), younger brother to Amaterasu and Tsukuyomi
  • Tsukuyomi, god of the moon and oceans, younger brother of Amaterasu and older brother of Susanoo

Korean mythology

  • Dangun, god-king of Gojoseon, god of the mountain
  • Dokkaebi, nature spirits
  • Lady Saso, goddess of the mountain
  • Jacheongbi, goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment
  • Jeonggyun Moju, mother of Suro of Geumgwan Gaya and Ijinashi of Daegaya, goddess of the mountain
  • Jik, god of grains
  • Sa, god of the earth
  • Sansin, local mountain gods

Vietnamese mythology

European

Baltic mythology

Celtic mythology

English mythology

Etruscan mythology

  • Fufluns, god of plant life, happiness, wine, health, and growth in all things
  • Selvans, god of the woodlands
  • Artumes, goddess of the hunt, woodlands, the night, and the wild

Finnish mythology

  • Lempo, god of wilderness and archery
  • Tapio, god and ruler of forests
  • Mielikki, goddess of forests and the hunt. Wife of Tapio.

Mari

  • Mlande, god of the earth
  • Mlande-Ava, goddess of the earth

Georgian mythology

  • Dali, goddess of mountain animals such as ibex and deer

Germanic mythology

  • Ēostre or Ostara, the goddess of spring
  • Fjörgyn, the female personification of the earth. She is also the mother of the goddess Frigg and, very rarely, mother of Thor
  • Freyja, goddess of fertility, gold, death, love, beauty, war and magic
  • Freyr, god of fertility, rain, sunlight, life and summer
  • Iðunn the goddess of spring who guards the apples that keep the gods eternally young; wife of the god Bragi[3]
  • Jörð, personification of the earth and the mother of Thor
  • Nerthus, goddess of the earth, called by the Romans Terra Mater.
  • Njörð, god of the sea, fishing, and fertility
  • Rán, goddess of the sea, storms, and death
  • Skaði, goddess of mountains, skiing, winter, archery and hunting
  • Sif, goddess of earth, fertility, and the harvest
  • Thor, god of thunder, lightning, weather, oak trees, and fertility
  • Ullr, god of hunting, archery, skiing, and mountains

Germanic folklore

  • Nøkken, male water spirit, lures foolish children into the lakes at the deepest, darkest parts of the lakes
  • Elf, beautiful, fairy-like creature that lives in the forest and streams.

Greek mythology

  • Anthousai, flower nymphs
  • Aphrodite, goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and fertility
  • Apollo, god of the sun, light, healing, poetry and music, and archery
  • Aristaeus, god of shepherds, cheesemaking, beekeeping, honey, honey-mead, olive growing, oil milling, medicinal herbs, hunting, and the Etesian winds
  • Artemis, goddess of the hunt, the dark, the light, the moon, wild animals, nature, wilderness, childbirth, virginity, fertility, young girls, and health and plague in women and childhood
  • Aurae, nymphs of the breezes
  • Chloris, goddess of flowers
  • Cronus, god of the harvest
  • Cybele, Phrygian goddess of the fertile earth and wild animals
  • Demeter, goddess of the harvest, crops, the fertility of the earth, grains, and the seasons
  • Dionysus, god of wine, vegetation, pleasure, madness, and festivity. The Roman equivalent is Bacchus.[4]
  • Dryads, tree and forest nymphs
  • Epimeliades, nymphs of highland pastures and protectors of sheep flocks
  • Gaia, the goddess of the earth and its personification. She is also the primal mother goddess.
  • Hamadryades, oak tree dryades
  • Hegemone, goddess of plants, specifically making them bloom and bear fruit as they were supposed to
  • Helios, Titan-god of the Sun
  • Horae, goddesses of the seasons and the natural portions of time
  • Meliae, nymphs of honey and the ash tree
  • Nymphs, nature spirits
  • Naiades, fresh water nymphs
  • Nereids, salt-water nymphs
  • Nyx, Primordial goddess and personification of Night
  • Oceanides, fresh water nymphs
  • Oreades, mountain nymphs
  • Oxylus, god of forests & mountains
  • Pan, god of shepherds, flocks, mountain wilds, and rustic music
  • Persephone (Kore), goddess of spring growth
  • Physis, primeval goddess of nature
  • Rhea, goddess of fertility, motherhood, and the mountain wilds
  • Satyrs, rustic nature spirits
  • Selene, Titan-goddess of the Moon

Greek rustic deities

Nordic folklore

  • Rå, Skogsrå, Hulder, beautiful, female forest spirit, can lure men to their death by making them fall in love and marrying them

Roman mythology

  • Bacchus – god of wine, nature, pleasure and festivity; equivalent to the Greek god Dionysus
  • Ceres, goddess of growing plants and motherly relationships; equivalent to the Greek goddess Demeter
  • Diana, goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness and the moon; equivalent to the Greek goddess Artemis
  • Faunus, horned god of the forest, plains and fields
  • Feronia, goddess associated with wildlife, fertility, health and abundance
  • Flora, goddess of flowers and the spring; equivalent to the Greek goddess Chloris
  • Fufluns, god of plant life, happiness and health and growth in all things
  • Liber, cognate for Bacchus/Dionysus
  • Nemestrinus, god of the forests and woods
  • Ops, goddess of fertility and the earth
  • Pilumnus, nature god who ensured children grew properly and stayed healthy
  • Pomona, goddess of fruit trees, gardens and orchards
  • Silvanus, tutelary spirit or deity of woods and fields and protector of forests
  • Terra, primeval goddess personifying the earth; equivalent to the Greek goddess Gaia

Slavic mythology

Oceanian

Māori mythology

Micronesian mythology

Philippine mythology

Toraja

  • Indo' Ongon-Ongon, goddess of earthquakes
  • Pong Banggai di Rante, earth goddess

Western Asian

Arab mythology

Armenian mythology

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  • Ara the Handsome, in the myth of Ara the Beautiful and Semiramis Ara acts as a deity of a dying and resurrecting nature
  • Aralez (mythology) Aralezner, the oldest gods in the Armenian pantheon, Aralez are dog-like creatures with powers to resuscitate fallen warriors and resurrect the dead by licking wounds clean
  • Areg (Arev) or Ar, god of the Sun, comparable with Mesopotamian Utu. Likely also known as, or developed into, Ara. This god was probably mentioned on the Urartian-era Door of Meher (as Ara or Arwaa)
  • Astłik had been worshipped as the Armenian deity of fertility and love, later the skylight had been considered her personification
  • Tsovinar "Nar of the Sea", goddess of waters and the ocean. Perhaps also a lightning goddess. Became the consort of Vahagn. Possibly connected to Inara, in Hittite–Hurrian mythology the goddess of the wild animals of the steppe and daughter of the Storm-god Teshub
  • Mihr (Armenian deity) cognate with the Mithra. God of the sun and light, son of Aramazd, the brother of Anahit and Nane.
  • Spandaramet a daughter of Aramazd, and chthonic goddess of fertility, vineyards and the underworld
  • Vishap a dragon closely associated with water, similar to the Leviathan. It is usually depicted as a winged snake or with a combination of elements from different animals.

Hittite mythology

  • Irpitiga, lord of the earth
  • Sarruma, god of the mountains

Mesopotamian mythology

Persian mythology

Turco-Mongol

  • Umay, the goddess of nature, love and fertility in Turkic mythology. Also known as Yer Ana.
  • İye, deities or spirits or natural assets.
  • Baianai, the god of the forest, animals, and hunt in Turkic mythology.
  • Ukulan, the god of water in Turkic mythology, also known as Su Ata.

See also

References

  1. ^ Briggs, Katharine (1976). An Encyclopedia of Fairies. Pantheon Books. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0394409183.
  2. ^ Wright, Elizabeth Mary (1913). Rustic Speech and Folk-Lore. Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press. p. 198.
  3. ^ World English Dictionary
  4. ^ Walter Burkert, (1985) Greek Religion, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-36280-2.
  5. ^ MILLER, JR., PATRICK D. (1985). "Eridu, Dunnu, and Babel: A Study in Comparative Mythology" (PDF). Hebrew Annual Review. 9: 227–251. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
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List of nature deities
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