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Naturalis Biodiversity Center

Naturalis Biodiversity Center
Nederlands Centrum voor Biodiversiteit Naturalis
Mammoth skeleton on display in the old museum
Naturalis Biodiversity Center is located in South Holland
Naturalis Biodiversity Center
Location in South Holland in the Netherlands
Established9 August 1820; 203 years ago (1820-08-09)
LocationDarwinweg 2[1]
Leiden, Netherlands
Coordinates52°09′53″N 4°28′24″E / 52.16472°N 4.47333°E / 52.16472; 4.47333
TypeNational museum
Natural history museum
Research center
CollectionsZoology, botany, geology
Collection size43 million objects[2]
Visitors339,550 (2015)[3]
DirectorEdwin van Huis[4]
Public transit accessLeiden Centraal/LUMC[1]
Nearest parkingOn site (paid)

Naturalis Biodiversity Center (Dutch: Nederlands Centrum voor Biodiversiteit Naturalis) is a national museum of natural history and a research center on biodiversity in Leiden, Netherlands. It was named the European Museum of the Year 2021.[5][6] Although its current name and organization are relatively recent, the history of Naturalis can be traced back to the early 1800s. Its collection includes approximately 42 million specimens, making it one of the largest natural history collections in the world.[7]


The beginnings of Naturalis go back to the creation of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie (abbreviated RMNH, National Museum of Natural History) by royal decree on August 9, 1820. In 1878, the geological and mineralogical collections of the museum were split off into a separate museum,[8] remaining distinct until the merger of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie with the Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie (abbreviated RGM) in 1984, to form the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (NNM) or National Museum of Natural History.[9]

In 1986, it was decided that the institution should become a public museum, and a new building was designed by the Dutch architect Fons Verheijen. The building's reception area incorporated the 1657-1661 Pesthuis, designed by Huybert Corneliszoon van Duyvenvlucht.[10] Completed in 1998, it was opened on April 7, 1998, by Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands.[8] The new building costs were about €60 million, making it the second most expensive museum building in the Netherlands.[citation needed]

In 2010 the National Museum of Natural History (Naturalis) further combined with the Zoological Museum Amsterdam (ZMA) of the University of Amsterdam, and the Dutch National Herbaria at the universities of Leiden, Amsterdam and Wageningen, to form the Nederlands Centrum voor Biodiversiteit (NCB Naturalis).[11][12][13] The combined institute was formally opened as part of the ‘International Year of Biodiversity 2010’ by Education Minister Ronald Plasterk and Agriculture Minister Gerda Verburg.[14][15]

In 2012 the name became the Naturalis Biodiversity Center.[7] Naturalis has partnered with ETI Bioinformatics in support of the Catalog of Life (CoL), and is working with the Global Biodiversity Information Facility.[16] Funding is in place to support digitization of the massed collections.[11][17] In 2015, further renovation and expansion was planned, with a proposed design from Neutelings Riedijk Architecten. The Pesthuis (historical Plague hospital) will no longer be part of the complex.[18] However, a lawsuit by the previous architect postponed these plans. The museum, except the research facilities, was closed from September 2018 to mid 2019 due to renovations. Temporary exhibitions were held in the Pesthuis, the former entrance building, during the renovations.[19] The new building was finished in the summer of 2019 with the museum opening again on August 31 of that year.[20]

The museum with the new wing re-opened in 2019

Within a year of the opening the museum had to close again in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic until June 2020. The museum reopened on June 8 with free entrance for essential workers.[21] On July 1 the museum was reopened for the public charging full prices again. It closed again in the winters of 2020 and 2021 due to further national COVID-19 measures.

Naturalis was named the European Museum of the Year 2021 in the annual awards of the European Museum Forum. The jury cited Naturalis as "a very inventive museum with beautiful exhibitions", and also that the museum's "agile ability" to move on and transform itself.[5][6]


The tower of Naturalis, in which almost the entire collection is housed

The current museum is known for the numerous objects in its collections. Prior to the merger with the Zoölogisch Museum Amsterdam and National Herbarium of the Netherlands, there were approximately 10 million zoological and geological specimens in the Naturalis collection. Following the merger with the collections of the Zoölogisch Museum Amsterdam and National Herbarium of the Netherlands in 2010–12, there are now approximately 42 million specimens:[2][11]

The largest part of the collections are stored in a 60-meter-high tower, a landmark in Leiden, opened in April 1998. Some parts of the collections are stored in a depot in the former museum building at the Raamsteeg in the city center of Leiden.

The Index Herbariorum code assigned to Naturalis is L[22] and it is used when citing housed herbarium specimens.


Among the collections at Naturalis are the papers and field notes of a number of early travelers and naturalists, including the following:


Permanent exhibitions

The museum has several permanent exhibitions:[23][24]

  • Live Science (a highly interactive gallery dedicated to displaying the institute's function as science center and collection depot to the public)
  • Life (provides a tour along multiple biotopes, from the deep sea to the sky, showing mounted specimens and replica's of the highlights of the Earth's present fauna)
  • Earth (exhibits the way human culture is entangled with system earth. Artefacts and minerals from four regions with high geological activity, Hawaii, Japan, Brazil and Iceland, are displayed surrounded by a panorama that combines the environment of these regions)
  • Dinosaur Era (Exhibits a selection of fossils from the Paleozoic and mainly the Mesozoic period with a focus on dinosaurs. The highlight of the gallery is Trix which is one of the most complete[25] and best preserved[26] Tyrannosaurus skeletons found so far. On top of that, Trix is one of the two only authentic tyrannosaurs that are permanently kept in Europe. The other one is Tristan, which belongs to a Danish proprietor albeit being currently on exhibit at the Natural History Museum, Berlin, in Germany.)[27]
  • Ice Age (dedicated to the Netherlands during the last ice age, a large scale model showcases the Dutch landscape and its fauna of that time, a large collection of Dutch Pleistocene fossils is exhibited as well as full skeletons of mammals from that time, including a woolly mammoth)
  • Early Humans (a homage to Dutch scientist Eugène Dubois and his discovery of the Java Man (Homo erectus) which are kept at Naturalis. The holotype Trinil 2 is on display here.)
  • Seduction (showcases procreation in Nature, it illustrates the rituals of courting, coupling, and raising offspring in a playful way)
  • Death (a gallery dedicated to circle of life)

Current Temporary exhibitions

  • Nature's Treasure Trove (25 valuable and extraordinary collection objections that are not on permanent display are publicly displayed under special conditions to celebrate the 200 year anniversary of the museum's collection) - September 30, 2020 - September 5, 2021[28]

Past Temporary exhibitions

During the renovation of the main building the former entrance building, the historic Pesthuis, was used for three temporary exhibits from 2016 to 2018.

  • T-rex in Town (before Trix entered in permanent exhibition at the Museum, the skeleton was first exhibited at the Pesthuis from September 10, 2016, to June 5, 2017).[25][29][30][31]
  • Op Expeditie met Naturalis (English: Expedition with Naturalis, a summer holiday program aimed to involve children with science and nature from June 24 to September 10, 2017)[32]
  • GIF! (English: VENOM!, an exhibit with live animals, centred around the popular Dutch biologist and Naturalis researcher Freek Vonk, showing the different kinds of venom and poison in nature from October 14, 2017, to September 2, 2018)[33][34]

Virtual Museum

During the COVID-19 pandemic the museum was made virtually accessible. The visitor can move freely through the exhibitions with information and short videos available in Dutch or English to add context to some of the museum's highlights.

Research Institute

Besides its role as a museum, Naturalls is also a scientific research institute collaborating with most Dutch universities. Around 120 researchers and 200 guest researchers are working at Naturalis in nine groups on topics such as biodiversity, botany, marine biology, or geology.[35] Naturalis is a (co-)initiator of several citizen science projects.[36][37][38] With the project Arise, which aims to map all biodiversity in the Netherlands, Naturalis is a player in one of the largest Dutch research infrastructure projects.[39]

Former Buildings



Year Visitors Year Visitors
2008 245,275[40] 2012 251,500[40]
2009 266,000[40] 2013 307,500 (est.)[41]
2010 270,000[40] 2014 300,000 (est.)[42]
2011 273,000[40] 2015 339,550[3]

Naturalis had an estimated 285,000 visitors and was the 15th most visited museum of the Netherlands in 2013.[43] The museum had a record number of 440,000 visitors in 2022[44]


  1. ^ a b Getting there, Naturalis. Retrieved on 20 December 2014.
  2. ^ a b [1], Naturalis. Retrieved on 26 March 2022.
  3. ^ a b (in Dutch) Maaike Lek, "Naturalis ontvangt voor derde jaar op rij recordaantal bezoekers",, 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  4. ^ Management and Trustees Archived 20 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Naturalis. Retrieved on 20 December 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Leiden museum Naturalis is European museum of the year". Retrieved 25 June 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Naturalis Wins European Museum of the Year Award". 15 May 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
  7. ^ a b "New logo: Naturalis". The Branding Source. 23 July 2012.
  8. ^ a b "Naturalis Biodiversity Center". INTK. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  9. ^ Wood, Bernard; Henry, Amanda (2013). Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of human evolution. Oxford [etc.]: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781444342475.
  10. ^ "Profile - Naturalis – National Museum of Natural History". Saatchi Gallery. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  11. ^ a b c Oever, Jon Peter; Gofferje, Marc (20 July 2012). "'From Pilot to production': Large Scale Digitisation project at Naturalis Biodiversity Center". ZooKeys (209): 87–92. doi:10.3897/zookeys.209.3609. PMC 3406468. PMID 22859880. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  12. ^ "Naturalis Biodiversity Center (NBC)". Synthesis. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  13. ^ "Zoölogisch Museum, University of Amsterdam (ZMA)". Electronic inventory of European bird collections. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  14. ^ "Minister Plasterk opens the Netherlands Center for Biodiversity". University of Amsterdam News. 9 February 2010. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  15. ^ "The Netherlands starts the International Year of Biodiversity 2010 by launching new Biodiversity Center". Naturalis. 28 January 2010. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  16. ^ Naturalis Biodiversity Center; Smets, E (2014). Self-evaluation report - Research & Education 2009-2013 (PDF). Leiden, Netherlands: Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  17. ^ Heerlien, Maarten; Van Leusen, Joost; Schnörr, Stephanie; De Jong-Kole, Suzanne; Raes, Niels; Van Hulsen, Kirsten (25 February 2015). "The Natural History Production Line". Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage. 8 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1145/2644822. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  18. ^ Kromhout, Astrid (2015). "The design for our new museum is ready". Naturalis. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015.
  19. ^ "Groot deel Naturalis per 31 augustus dicht voor verbouwing" [Large section of Naturalis closed for renovations from August 31]. Unity NU.
  20. ^ "Naturalis reopens: researchers in the museum". Leiden University. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  21. ^ "Naturalis tot 1 juli gratis voor mensen in vitale beroepen". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). 8 June 2020. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  22. ^ "Index Herbariorum". Steere Herbarium, New York Botanical Garden. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  23. ^ "Permanent exhibitions". Naturalis. Archived from the original on 29 October 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  24. ^ "Galleries | Naturalis". Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  25. ^ a b "Trix the T Rex makes her mark on Leiden in new exhibition". 9 September 2016.
  26. ^ Pim Kaskes, 2016, Unearthing the background of the Naturalis Tyrannosaurus rex : taphonomy, stratigraphy and paleoenvironment, Master Thesis, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
  27. ^ Tristan Otto, Natural History Museum, Berlin
  28. ^ "Nature's treasure trove - 200 years of Naturalis | Naturalis". Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  29. ^ "Over 4,000 jam into Naturalis to see new T-Rex Trix". NL Times. 12 September 2016.
  30. ^ "Eindelijk heeft Naturalis haar T.rex" [Naturalis finally has her T.rex]. Trouw. 26 August 2016.
  31. ^ "T. rex in Town - Naturalis". Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.
  32. ^ "Op expeditie met Naturalis - Tentoonstelling - Naturalis Biodiversity Center (Leiden) - WhichMuseum". (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  33. ^ Tentoonstelling GIF! bij Naturalis, archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 13 April 2021
  34. ^ "GIF! in Naturalis - Gemist? - Bekijk het op MuseumTV". MuseumTV (in Dutch). Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  35. ^ "Onderzoeksgroepen en afdelingen | Naturalis". (in Dutch). Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  36. ^ "Help mee met onderzoek naar paardenbloemen". Natuurmonumenten (in Dutch). 11 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  37. ^ "Naturalis en Staatsbosbeheer werken samen aan kennis over biodiversiteit". Staatsbosbeheer (in Dutch). Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  38. ^ "Planten en waterdiertjes tellen voor citizen science". Universiteit Leiden (in Dutch). Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  39. ^ "Naturalis brengt Nederlandse biodiversiteit in kaart met megaproject ARISE". Sleutelstad. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  40. ^ a b c d e (in Dutch) Top 55 Museumbezoek 2012 Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Nederlandse Museumvereniging. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  41. ^ (in Dutch) Chris de Waard, "Naturalis trekt recordaantal bezoekers",, 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  42. ^ (in Dutch) Bart Dirks, "Leidse musea tijdelijk dicht: even geen publiekstrekkers", de Volkskrant, 2015. Retrieved on 2 June 2016.
  43. ^ (in Dutch) Daan van Lent & Pieter van Os, "Musea doen het goed: aantal bezoekers in 2013 fors gestegen", NRC Handelsblad, 2013. Retrieved on 20 December 2014.
  44. ^ (in Dutch)Opnieuw bezoekersrecord voor Naturalis Retrieved on 07 March 2024.
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Naturalis Biodiversity Center
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