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National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma

National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma
ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံ အမျိုးသားညွန့်ပေါင်းအစိုးရ
1990–2012
Flag of National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma
Flag[1]
Coat of arms of National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma
Coat of arms
Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei
StatusGovernment in exile
CapitalYangon
Capital-in-exileRockville, Maryland, United States
Common languagesBurmese
GovernmentCoalition government
Prime Minister 
• 1990–2012
Sein Win
LegislatureNational Council
History 
• Established
18 December 1990
• Disestablished
14 September 2012
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
Myanmar

The National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (Burmese: ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံ အမျိုးသားညွန့်ပေါင်းအစိုးရ [pjìdàʊɰ̃zṵ mjəmà nàɪɰ̃ŋàɰ̃ əmjóðá ɲʊ̰ɰ̃báʊɰ̃ əsója̰]; NCGUB) was an administration which claimed to be the government in exile of Burma (Myanmar). It had its headquarters in Rockville, Maryland, United States. It was formally established in December 1990, with Sein Win as its first prime minister. It was dissolved in September 2012.

History

On 18 December 1990, in Manerplaw, the National League for Democracy (NLD) and the other opposition parties of Burma established the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma,[2] and elected Sein Win, a first cousin of Aung San Suu Kyi, as its prime minister.

A newer version, the Democratic Government of Burma, replaced the original structure in Bommersvik, Sweden at a special convention held there from 16 to 23 July 1995. In a press release, embargoed until 27 July 1995, the Elected Representatives of Burma issued the following communiqué:[3]

Following the release of Burmese democracy leader and 1991 Nobel Peace laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on 10 July 1995, the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB) led by Prime Minister Dr. Sein Win, convened the first ever Convention of Elected Representatives from the liberated areas of Burma in Bommersvik, Sweden, from 16–23 July 1995. The representatives of the people of Burma elected in the 27 May 1990 general elections, met to discuss the drastically changed political situation in Burma and to re-organize the NCGUB into a more effective force to support Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's political initiatives in Rangoon. The Convention supported Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's call for a genuine political dialogue and called on the Secretary-General of the United Nations to implement the UN General Assembly resolution which called for him to assist in the national reconciliation process in Burma. A tripartite dialogue between the Burmese military led by SLORC; the democracy movement led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi; and Burma's ethnic leaders; was endorsed by the elected representatives. The Convention welcomed the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and thanked all who worked for her release. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's return to politics and her determination to continue working for democracy in Burma was applauded and welcomed. The leading role played by SLORC Chairman Senior General Than Shwe in Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's release was also recognized. To give the leadership more flexibility to deal with the rapidly changing situation, the government formed by elected representatives in Manerplaw on 18 December 1990 was officially dissolved by the Convention of Elected Representatives on 21 July 1995 in Bommersvik. The Convention unanimously re-elected Dr. Sein Win by secret ballot to head the new government. The new government re-affirmed its commitment to the establishment of a multiparty parliamentary democracy within the framework of a genuine federal union. The broad-based support of the new coalition government is reflected in the make up of the cabinet. The elected representatives were joined in their deliberations by representatives from the National Council of the Union of Burma, leaders of the National League for Democracy (Liberated Area), the United Nationalities League for Democracy, the All Burma Students Democratic Front, the Federation of Trade Unions of Burma, and NCGUB representatives. The Convention was hosted by the Stockholm-based Olof Palme International Centre and the Norwegian Burma Council in Bommersvik, the training centre of the Social Democratic Youth of Sweden.

— The Democratic Government of Burma

On September 14, 2012, NCGUB was officially dissolved to aid the reform process in Burma.[4][5]

Government structure

Cabinet

Office held Cabinet member name Party
Prime Minister Dr. Sein Win Party for National Democracy
Foreign Affairs Dr. Sein Win Party for National Democracy
Finance U Bo Hla Tint NLD
Prime Minister's Office Teddy Buri NLD
Information U Maung Maung Aye NLD
Federal Affairs Khun Marko Ban Democratic Organization for Kayan National Unity
Justice U Thein Oo NLD
Health & Education Dr. Sann Aung Independent
Prime Minister's Office Dr. Tint Swe NLD
Social Welfare & Development Dr. Zahleithang CNLD
Labor Minister U Thar Noe ALD

Chairmen

N Portrait Name Term of office
Took office Left office
1 Sein Win 4 July 1990 7 October 2000
2 Tint Swe 2000 12 August 2001
3 Teddy Buri[6] 12 August 2001 18 September 2001
(1) Sein Win[7] 18 September 2001 18 September 2012

State representation

Electoral constituencies

Elected representative State Elected
Teddy Buri Karenni State
Khun Marko Ban Shan State
Dr. Zahleithang Chin State
Tha Noe Arakan State

Politics and actions

The Bommersvik Declarations

Subsequent to the 1995 convention the Elected Representatives of the Union of Burma returned to Bommersvik in 2002. The following two landmark declarations were the product of their deliberations.[8][9][10]

Bommersvik Declaration I

In 1995, during the first convention that lasted from 16 to 23 July, the Representatives issued the Bommersvik Declaration I with the following preamble:[3]

We, the representatives of the people of Burma, elected in the 27 May 1990 general elections, meeting at the First Convention of Elected Representatives from the liberated areas of Burma, hereby - Warmly welcome the unconditional release of 1991 Nobel Peace laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi on 10 July 1995; Thank all who have worked tirelessly and consistently for the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the cause of democracy in Burma; Applaud Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's determination, in spite of having spent 6 years under house arrest, to continue to work to bring true democracy to Burma; Welcome Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's return to politics to take up the mantle of her father, General Aung San, in Burma's second struggle for independence;...

— The Elected Representatives of the Union of Burma

Bommersvik Declaration II

In 2002, during the second convention that lasted from 25 February to 1 March, the Representatives issued the Bommersvik Declaration II with the following introductory passage:[11][12]

We, the representatives of the people of Burma, elected in the 27 May 1990 general elections presently serving as members of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma and/or the Members of Parliament Union, meeting at the Convention of Elected Representatives held in Bommersvik for the second time, hereby reaffirm - Our Mandate, Position, and Strategic Objectives - that we will never ignore the will of the Burmese people expressed through the May 1990 general elections; - that the military’s refusal to honor the election results does not in any way diminish the validity of these results.....

— The Elected Representatives of the Union of Burma

Proposed constitution

The NCGUB Proposed First Draft Constitution was published by the National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB) in December 1997 with the following preamble:[13][14]

We, the people of the Union of Burma have clear aspirations on the establishment of basic human rights, the guaranteeing of democratic rights and the rights of all the ethnic nationalities, lasting peace, and in the formation of a union of multiple States that will generate prosperity and unity . We aspire to establish a representative government in accordance with a constitution which defends, protects and upholds the rights of all people, based on freedom, equality before the law, fairness, peace, and the rule of law. Based on these aspirations, we steadfastly resolve to live together in peace and harmony in this free and fully sovereign Federal Union of Burma, and we accept and adopt this Constitution as the highest law of the Federal Union.

— NCGUB

References

  1. ^ Kyaw Aung Lwin (25 October 2010). "The new flag of Burma and the flag of the Burmese government-in-exile are the same" (in Burmese). VOA Burmese.
  2. ^ Seekins, Donald M. (2017). "Chonology". Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. xxx. ISBN 978-1-5381-0183-4.
  3. ^ a b "Bommersvik Declaration I in pdf from the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma website" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 22 February 2007.
  4. ^ Mann, Zarni (14 September 2012). "Burmese Exile Govt Dissolves After 22 years". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  5. ^ Myo, Nay (17 September 2012). "Burma's exiled government dissolved". Mizzima. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  6. ^ Daily Report: East Asia. The Service. 1996.
  7. ^ "Sein Win Re-elected PM of Government-in-Exile". The Irrawaddy. 26 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Elected Representatives Form New De".
  9. ^ "blc-burma.org". Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2007.
  10. ^ Bommersvik Declaration from NCGUB website
  11. ^ "Bommersvik Declaration II in pdf from the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma website" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 22 February 2007.
  12. ^ Bommersvik Declaration ΙΙ from NCGUB website
  13. ^ "blc-burma.org" (PDF).
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National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma
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