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Muzaffarids (Gujarat)

The Muzaffarid dynasty, sometimes referred as Ahmedabad dynasty, were Sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583. The founder of the dynasty was Zafar Khan (later Muzaffar Shah I) who was governor of Gujarat under the suzerainty of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. When the Sultanate was weakened by the sacking of Delhi by Timur in 1398, and Zafar Khan took the opportunity to establish himself as sultan of an independent Gujarat. His son, Ahmed Shah I established the capital at Ahmedabad.[1] The dynasty ruled for almost 200 years, until the conquest of Gujarat by the Mughal Empire in 1572.[2] The sultanate reached its peak of expansion under Mahmud Begada, reaching east into Malwa and west to the Gulf of Kutch.[3]

Origins

Zafar Khan's father Sadharan, has been variously described as a Chaudhary[4] who was an agriculturist by profession, a Rajput[5][6] from Thanesar in modern-day Haryana,[7] a Tānk Khatri[8] from southern Punjab,[9] or even a Jat convert to Islam.[10][11] During the reign of Bahadur Shah, the Gujarat kingdom was described to be of Afghan origin.[12][13][14] Zafar Khan adopted the name Wajih-ul-Mulk. Wajih-ul-Mulk and his brother were influential Chaudharis who were agriculturists by profession but could also muster thousands of fighting men on their call.[15] His Hindu forebears claimed descent from Rāmachandra, who the Hindus worshipped as God. Such genealogies were fabricated to glorify royalty and were generally not accepted.[16] When the Sultanate was weakened by the sacking of Delhi by Timur in 1398, and Zafar Khan took the opportunity to establish himself as sultan of an independent Gujarat. His son, Ahmed Shah I established the capital at Ahmedabad.[17] The dynasty ruled for almost 200 years, until the conquest of Gujarat by the Mughal Empire in 1572.[2] The sultanate reached its peak of expansion under Mahmud Begada, reaching east into Malwa and west to the Gulf of Kutch.[3]

Sultans of Gujarat Sultanate

Title/Name[18] Personal Name Reign
Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah I
شمس الدین مظفر شاہ اول
Zafar Khan 1391 - 1403 (1st Reign)
Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Shah I
نصیر الدین محمد شاہ اول
Tatar Khan 1403 - 1404
Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah I
شمس الدین مظفر شاہ اول
Zafar Khan 1404 - 1412 (2nd Reign)
Nasir-ud-Din Ahmad Shah I
ناصر الدین احمد شاہ اول
Ahmad Khan 1412 - 1442
Muizz-ud-Din Muhammad Shah II
المعز الدین محمد شاہ دوم
Karim Khan 1442 - 1451
Qutb-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II
قطب الدین احمد شاہ دوم
Jalal Khan 1451 - 1458
Daud Shah
داود شاہ
Daud Khan 1458
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah I (Mahmud Begada)
ناصر الدین محمود شاہ اول محمود بگڑا
Fateh Khan 1458 - 1511
Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah II
شمس الدین مظفر شاہ دوم
Khalil Khan 1511 - 1526
Sikandar Shah
سکندر شاہ
Sikandar Khan 1526
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah II
ناصر الدین محمود شاہ دوم
Nasir Khan 1526
Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah
قطب الدین بہادرشاہ
Bahadur Khan 1526 - 1535 (1st Reign)
Interregnum Mughal Empire under Humayun: 1535 - 1536
Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah
قطب الدین بہادرشاہ
Bahadur Khan 1536 - 1537 (2nd Reign)
Miran Muhammad Shah I
میران محمد شاہ تریہم
Miran Muhammad Faruqi of Khandesh 6 weeks; 1537
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah III
ناصر الدین محمود شاہ تریہم
Mahmud Khan 1537 - 1554
Ghiyas-ud-Din Ahmad Shah III
غیاث الدین احمد شاہ تریہم
Ahmad Khan 1554 - 1561
Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah III
شمس الدین مظفر شاہ تریہم
Hubboo[19] or Nannu or Nathu[20](a pretender according to Mughal historians) 1561 - 1573
Interregnum Mughal Empire under Akbar: 1573 - 1583
Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah III
شمس الدین مظفر شاہ تریہم
Hubboo or Nannu or Nathu (a pretender according to Mughal historians) 1583 (Restored)
Mughal Empire under Akbar

Family tree

Muzaffar Shah I
?-1411
Governor of Gujarat
R.1391-1403,
1404-1407
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1407-1411
Muhammad Shah I
?-1404
Governor of Gujarat
R.1403-1404
Ahmad Shah I
1389-1442
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1411-1442
Muhammad Shah II
?-1451
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1442-1451
Daud Shah
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1458
Ahmad Shah II
1429-1458
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1451-1458
Mahmud Shah I
1445-1511
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1458-1511
Muzaffar Shah II
?-1526
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1511-1526
Sikandar Shah
?-1526
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1526
Mahmud Shah II
?-1526
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1526
Bahadur Shah
?-1537
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1526-1535,
1536-1537
Latif Khan
Ahmad Shah III
?-1561
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1554-1561
Muzaffar Shah III
?-1592
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1561-1573,
1583
Mahmud Shah III
1526-1554
Sultan of Gujarat
R.1537-1554

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Ahmedabad. Government Central Press. 1879. p. 249.
  2. ^ a b Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  3. ^ a b Sudipta Mitra (2005). Gir Forest and the Saga of the Asiatic Lion. Indus Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-7387-183-2.
  4. ^ "The Rise of Muslim Power in Gujarat. A history of Gujarat from 1298 to 1442. [With a map.] | WorldCat.org". www.worldcat.org. p. 138. Retrieved 2023-02-24. The two brothers were chaudharis of a rather numerous agrarian community, tilling the soil, not high in the caste hierarchy but not without strength in the neighborhood
  5. ^
  6. ^ Kapadia, Aparna (2018). Gujarat: The Long Fifteenth Century and the Making of a Region. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 9781107153318.
  7. ^ Kapadia, Aparna (2018). In Praise of Kings Rajputs, Sultans and Poets in Fifteenth-century Gujarat. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 9781107153318. These men, a certain Saharan and his brother Sadhu, were, mostly likely peasants or pastoralists, non-Muslim Tank Rajputs from Thanesar in northwestern India (modern-day Haryana).
  8. ^ * Wink, André (2003). Indo-Islamic society: 14th - 15th centuries. BRILL. p. 143. ISBN 978-90-04-13561-1. Similarly, Zaffar Khan Muzaffar, the first independent ruler of Gujarat was not a foreign muslim but a Khatri convert, of low subdivision called Tank.
  9. ^ Wink, André (2003). Indo-Islamic society: 14th - 15th centuries. BRILL. p. 143. ISBN 978-90-04-13561-1. Similarly, Zaffar Khan Muzaffar, the first independent ruler of Gujarat was not a foreign muslim but a Khatri convert, of a low subdivision called the Tank, originally from Southern Punjab
  10. ^ Agnihotri, V.K (1988). Indian History. pp. B-131. ISBN 9788184245684.
  11. ^ Rizvi, S.A.A (1987). The Wonder That Was India. p. 69. ISBN 9788184245684. The independent kingdom of Gujarat was founded by Zafar Khan, son of Sadharan, a Jat convert to Islam.
  12. ^ Collier, Dirk (2016-03-01). The Great Mughals and their India. Hay House, Inc. ISBN 978-93-84544-98-0. His next opponent was Sultan Bahadur Shah, the ambitious Afghan king of Gujarat. A relatively small but wealthy and increasingly powerful kingdom, which had by now become a place for many disgruntled Afghan warlords from all over Hindustan.
  13. ^ Ali, Kausar (1977). A New History of Indo-Pakistan, Since 1526. Aziz Publishers. Bahadur Shah was another Afghan chief who had made himself an independent ruler of Malwa and Gujrat. He had given shelter to Alam Khan, the uncle of Ibrahim Lodi and was preparing to fight for the throne in his name.
  14. ^ Eraly, Abraham (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-14-100143-2. The Afghans, defeated but not crushed, remained in power in Bihar and Bengal ... Further south was the prosperous Afghan kingdom of Gujarat, a rallying ground for ambitious Afghans.
  15. ^ "The Rise of Muslim Power in Gujarat. A history of Gujarat from 1298 to 1442. [With a map.] | WorldCat.org". www.worldcat.org. p. 138. Retrieved 2023-02-24. The two brothers were chaudharis of a rather numerous agrarian community, tilling the soil, not high in the caste hierarchy but not without strength in the neighborhood
  16. ^ Chandra., MISRA, Satish (1963). The Rise of Muslim Power in Gujarat. A history of Gujarat from 1298 to 1442. [With a map.]. London; Bombay printed. p. 137. OCLC 752803447.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Ahmedabad. Government Central Press. 1879. p. 249.
  18. ^ The new Islamic dynasties: a chronological and genealogical manual New Edinburgh Islamic Surveys Series; Author:Clifford Edmund Bosworth ISBN 0-7486-2137-7, ISBN 978-0-7486-2137-8
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-07-14. Retrieved 2011-08-21.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2011-08-21.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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Muzaffarids (Gujarat)
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