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Movimiento Español Sindicalista

Spanish Syndicalist Movement
Movimiento Español Sindicalista
AbbreviationMES
LeaderJosé Antonio Primo de Rivera
FounderJosé Antonio Primo de Rivera
Rafael Sánchez Mazas
Julio Ruiz de Alda
Founded20 April 1933
Dissolved29 October 1933
Succeeded byFalange Española
IdeologyNational syndicalism
Political positionFar-right
ReligionCatholicism

The Movimiento Español Sindicalista (MES) (English: Spanish Syndicalist Movement) was a Spanish far-right political movement and predecessor of the Falange Española.[1][2]

History

The movement, which emerged in early 1933,[3][4] was founded primarily by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, writer Rafael Sánchez Mazas, and aviator Julio Ruiz de Alda.[5] Other notable members of the MES were Dionisio Ridruejo,[6] Alfonso García Valdecasas, Manuel Sarrión, and Andrés de la Cuerda.[3] Members of the MES openly embraced fascism and for a time the movement was known as the Movimiento Español Sindicalista-Fascismo Español (MES-FE, or Spanish Syndicalist-Fascist Movement).[7][8] It soon became apparent that the MES was to have little political success on its own.[3][9]

In August 1933, José Antonio Primo de Rivera signed the "Pacto de El Escorial" ("El Escorial Pact"), wherein a pact of solidarity was formed between Spanish monarchists and the MES-FE.[1] On 29 October 1933, in the midst of an electoral campaign, the MES held a rally at the Teatro de la Comedia in Madrid and re-founded itself as the Falange Española.[10] The Falange Española would be succeeded by the Falange Española de las JONS, which was itself merged in April 1937 into the FET y de las JONS, which backed Francisco Franco as leader of Spain.

References

  1. ^ a b Saz, Ismael (2004). Fascismo y franquismo. Valencia: Publicacions de la Universitat de València. p. 67. ISBN 84-370-5910-0.
  2. ^ Gallego, Ferran; Morente Valero, Francisco (2005). Fascismo en España: ensayos sobre los orígenes sociales y culturales del franquismo. Editorial El Viejo Topo. p. 154. ISBN 9788496356320.
  3. ^ a b c Ellwood, Sheelagh M. (2001). Historia de la Falange Española. Barcelona: Crítica. p. 38. ISBN 84-8432-202-5.
  4. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1999). Fascism in Spain, 1923–1977. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 85.
  5. ^ Casanova, Julián (2010). The Spanish Republic and Civil War. Cambridge University Press. pp. 80.
  6. ^ González Calleja, Eduardo (2011). Contrarrevolucionarios. Radicalización violenta de las derechas durante la Segunda República, 1931-1936. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. p. 166. ISBN 978-84-206-6455-2.
  7. ^ Fernández Jiménez, María Antonia (2008). Pilar Primo de Rivera: el falangismo femenino. Editorial Síntesis. p. 99.
  8. ^ Preston, Paul (1998). Las tres Españas del 36. Barcelona: Plaza & Janes. ISBN 84-01-53026-1.
  9. ^ Quirosa-Cheyrouze, Rafael (1998). Católicos, monárquicos y fascistas en Almería durante la Segunda República. Almería: Instituto de Estudios Almerienses. p. 62.
  10. ^ Gil Pecharromán, Julio (1997). La Segunda República. Esperanzas y frustraciones. Madrid: Historia 16. p. 64. ISBN 84-7679-319-7.
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Movimiento Español Sindicalista
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